Chapter 7. Structure and processing condition in video-based narrative retelling
This chapter reports on a study of video-based narrative retellings, in which the major variables are degree of structure and the nature of the processing conditions under which the retellings were done. The two variables were manipulated in a 4 × 4 design. Four Mr. Bean video clips were used, with different levels of structure, ranging from no structure to a clear, well organised problem-solution structure. In addition to a control group, there were two online processing conditions (opportunity to pause, and provision of a summary before the task), and one offline Watch-then-Tell condition. The results of the study show that two of the online conditions had some mitigating influence, that is, the opportunity to pause the video, and the provision of a summary before the video was seen. More structured narratives and less pressured processing conditions produced more accurate and more complex performances. The same influences lead to less end-of-clause pausing but more reformulations. The results are discussed in terms of the Levelt model of speaking, applied to second language performance.