Article published in:Technology-mediated TBLT: Researching Technology and Tasks
Edited by Marta González-Lloret and Lourdes Ortega
[Task-Based Language Teaching 6] 2014
► pp. 115–148
Chapter 5. Promoting foreign language collaborative writing through the use of Web 2.0 tools and tasks
This chapter reports on the benefits of embedding chats and wikis, two Web 2.0 social tools, within a module designed to teach the process model of writing with argumentative and expository essays. Sixteen learners enrolled in an advanced Spanish writing course at a mid-sized, east-coast university in the United States completed two three-week essay writing modules working collaboratively in pairs: the first writing piece was in the argumentative genre and the second concerned expository writing. In each module, the same sequence of pedagogic tasks scaffolded the learners through the writing stages of planning, drafting, getting feedback, revising, and publishing. Students were asked to use chats and wikis at specific points during the completion of the modules. Content analysis of the chat and wiki data showed that the synchronous nature of the chats encouraged learners to focus on the content and structure of their writing, while the wikis allowed learners to focus more on localized aspects of text production, such as grammar, fine-tuning of chosen vocabulary, and editing. Comparison of data across the two genres further indicated that while working on the argumentative essay learners focused on syntactic complexity, whereas for the expository essay (completed later in the same semester) learners focused more on accuracy. We conclude that the task-based collaborative approach to teaching process writing, with the mediation of the social tools, allowed learners to construct and reconstruct their content knowledge, to engage with various writing conventions, and to adopt an appropriate, genre-specific language register.
Published online: 24 July 2014
Apple, G., & Lantolf, J.. (
Arnold, N., Ducate, L., & Kost, C.. (
2009) Collaborative writing in wikis: Insights from culture projects in German classes. In L. Lomicka & G. Lord (Eds.), CALICO Monograph Series: Vol. 5. The next generation: Social 4. Networking and online collaboration in foreign language learning (pp. 115–144). San Marcos, TX: Texas State University.
Beck, S. W., & Jeffery, J. V.. (
Berman, R. A., & Nir-Sagiv, B.. (
Blin, F., & Appel, C.. (
2011) Computer supported collaborative writing in practice: An activity theoretical study. CALICO Journal , 28, 473–497.
Bosley, D. S.. (
1989) A national study of the uses of collaborative writing in business communication courses among members of the ABC (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Illinois State University, Normal, IL.
Breen, M. P.. (
1987) Learner contributions to task design. In C. N. Candlin & D. Murphy (Eds.), Language learning tasks. Lancaster practical papers in English language education, Volume 7 (pp. 23–46). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Brooks, F., & Donato, R.. (
Brandt, D.. (
Ciekanski, M., & Chanier, T.. (
Cohen, D. J., White, S., & Cohen, S. B.. (
Coffin, C.. (
Coffin, C., Hewings, A., & North, S.. (
Donato, R.. (
1994) Collective scaffolding on second language learning. In J. Lantolf & G. Apple (Eds.), Vygotskian approaches to second language research (pp. 33–56). Westport, CT: Ablex.
deHaan, J., Johnson, N. H., Yosimura, N., & Kondo, Y.. (
de Oliveira, L. C.. (
2011) Knowing and writing school history: The language of students' expository writing and teachers' expectations . Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
Ellis, R.. (
2003) Task-based language learning and teaching . Oxford, UK: OUP.
Elola, I., & Oskoz, A.. (
2010a) Collaborative writing: Fostering foreign language and writing conventions development. Language Learning & Technology , 14(3), 30–49.
2010b) A social learning approach to writing in the FL classroom: Adopting new pedagogical approaches through the use of online components. In G. Levine & A. Phipps (Eds.), Critical and intercultural theory and language pedagogy (pp. 185–201). Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
Flower, L., & Hayes, J. R.. (
Hampel, R.. (
Hampel, R., & Hauck, M.. (
2006) Computer-mediated language learning: Making meaning in multimodal virtual learning spaces. The JALT CALL Journal , 2(2), 3–18.
Hamp-Lyons, L., & Mathias, S. P.. (
Hillocks, G. Jr
(2011) Teaching argument writing: Supporting claims with relevant evidence and clear reasoning . Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Hirvela, A.. (
1999) Collaborative writing: Instruction and communities of readers and writers. TESOL Journal , 8, 7–12.
Housen, A., & Kuiken, F.. (
Hunt, W.. (
1965) Grammatical structures written at three grade levels. Champaign, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Karlsson, A.-M.. (
Kessler, G.. (
2009) Student-initiated attention to form in wiki-based collaborative writing. Language Learning & Technology , 13(1), 79–95.
Kessler, G., & Bikowski, D.. (
Kinneavy, J. L.. (
1971) A theory of discourse. Englewood Cliffs , NJ: Prentice Hall.
Kress, G.. (
2000) Multimodality. In B. Cope & M. Kalantzis (Eds.), Multiliteracies: Literacy learning and the design of social futures (pp. 182–202). London, UK: Routledge.
Kost, C.. (
2011) Investigating writing strategies and revision behavior in collaborative wiki projects. CALICO Journal , 28, 606–620.
Kuiken, F., & Vedder, I.. (
Latif, M.. (
Lee, L.. (
2010) Exploring wiki-media collaborative writing: A case study in an elementary Spanish course. CALICO Journal , 27, 260–276. Retrieved from <www.calico.org/>
Manchón, R. M.
. (Ed) (2009) Learning, teaching, and researching writing in foreign language contexts . Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
McLoughlin, C., & Lee, M.. (
2007) Social software and participatory learning: Pedagogical choices with technology affordances in the Web 2.0 era. Proceedings ascilite Singapore 2007 . Retrieved from www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/singapore07/procs/mcloughlin.pdf>
Merriam, S. B.. (
1998) Qualitative research and case applications in education: Revised and expanded from case study research in education (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Newell, G. E., Beach, R., Smith, J., VanDerHeide, J., DeannaKuhn, & Andriessen, J.. (
2011) Teaching and learning argumentative reading and writing: A review of research. Reading Research Quarterly, 46 , 273–304.
Norris, J. M., & Ortega, L.. (
Ortega, L.. (
1997) Processes and outcomes in networked classroom interaction: Defining the research agenda for L2 Computer-assisted Classroom Discussion. Language Learning & Technology, 1, 82–93.
2009) Interaction and attention to form in L2 text-based computer-mediated communication. In A. Mackey & C. Polio (Eds.), Multiple perspectives on interaction in SLA: Research in honor of Susan M. Gass (pp. 226–253). New York, NY: Routledge.
Oskoz, A., & Elola, I.. (
2011) Meeting at the wiki: The new arena for collaborative writing in foreign language courses. In M. J. W. Lee & C. MacLoughlin (Eds.), Web 2.0-based e-learning: Applying social informatics for tertiary teaching (pp. 209–227). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
2012). Understanding the impact of social tools in the FL writing classroom: Activity theory at work. In G. Kessler, A. Oskoz, & Elola, I. (Eds.), Technology across writing contexts and tasks (pp. 131–154). San Marcos, TX: Texas State University.
Pellet, S.. (
Reichelt, M.. (
2009) A critical evaluation of writing teaching programmes in different foreign language settings. In R. M. Manchón (Ed.), Writing in foreign language contexts (pp. 183–208). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Robinson, P.. (
Roca de Larios, J., Manchón, R. M., & Murphy, L.. (
Samuda, V., & Bygate, M.. (
2008) Tasks in second language learning. Houndmills, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Sasaki, M., & Hirose, K.. (
Sauro, S.. (
2011) SCMC for SLA: A research synthesis. CALICO Journal , 28, 369–391.
Sauro, S., & Smith, B.. (
Skehan, P.. (
1998) A cognitive approach to language learning . Oxford, UK: OUP.
Skehan, P., & Foster, P.. (
Spelman Miller, K.. (
Sykes, J.. (
2005) Synchronous CMC and pragmatic development: Effects of oral and written chat. CALICO Journal , 22, 399–432.
Swain, M.. (
2000) The output hypothesis and beyond. In J. Lantolf (Ed.), Sociocultural theory and second language acquisition (pp. 97–114). Oxford, UK: OUP.
Thorne, S. L.. (
2003) Artifacts and cultures-of-use in intercultural communication. Lanxguage Learning and Technology , 7(2), 38–67.
Tobin, L.. (
2001) Process pedagogy. In G. Tate, A. Rupiper & K. Schick (Eds.), A guide to composition pedagogies (pp. 1–18). Oxford, UK: OUP.
van Weijen, D.. (
2009) Writing processes, text quality, and task effects: Empirical studies in first and second language writing . (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from LPT Dissertation Series. (201)
Victori, M.. (
Vygotsky, L.. (
1978) Mind in society . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Wang, Y.. (
2007) Task design in videoconferencing-supported distance language learning. CALICO Journal , 24, 591–630.
Ware, P. D., & O’Dowd, R.. (
2008) Peer feedback on language form in telecollaboration. Language Learning & Technology , 12(1), 43–63. Retrieved from <http://llt.msu.edu/vol12num1/wareodowd>
White, S., Chen, J., & Forsyth, B.. (
Whitley, M. S., & González, L.. (
2000) Gramática para la composición. Washington , DC: Georgetown University Press.
Wood, D., Bruner, J., & Ross, G.. (
Yanguas, I.. (
2010) Oral computer-mediated interaction between L2 learners: It’s about time! Language Learning & Technology , 14(3), 72–93.
Cited by other publications
Aldrich, Rosalie S. & Dianne Moneypenny
Wang, Le, Pengpeng Feng & Jing Chen
Wang, Le, Yi Luo & Pengpeng Feng
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 19 june 2020. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.