Article published in:
Fair MT: Towards ethical, sustainable Machine Translation
Edited by Joss Moorkens, Dorothy Kenny and Félix do Carmo
[Translation Spaces 9:1] 2020
► pp. 5877
References

References

Akerlof, George, and Rachel E. Kranton
2010Identity Economics: How Identities Shape Our Work, Wages, and Well-Being. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Algorithmenethik
Allianz
2019 “Allianz Risk Barometer. Top Business Risks for 2019.” Allianz Reports. Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​www​.agcs​.allianz​.com​/content​/dam​/onemarketing​/agcs​/agcs​/reports​/Allianz​-Risk​-Barometer​-2019​.pdf
Arthur, Philip, Graham Neubig, and Satoshi Nakamura
2016 “Incorporating Discrete Translation Lexicons into Neural Machine Translation.” Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 1557–1567. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
BaFin (Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht [German Federal Financial Supervisory Authority])
2018 “Big data meets artificial intelligence. Challenges and implications for the supervision and regulation of financial services.” Bafin – Publications & Data. Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​www​.bafin​.de​/SharedDocs​/Downloads​/EN​/dl​_bdai​_studie​_en​.html
[ p. 72 ]
Balebako, Rebecca, Pedro Leon, Hazim Almuhimedi, Patrick Kelley, Jonathan Mugan, Alessandro Acquisti, Lorrie Cranor, and Norman Sadeh
2011 “Nudging Users Towards Privacy on Mobile Devices.” Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Persuasion, Influence, Nudge & Coercion Through Mobile Devices. Vancouver, Canada, May 8, 2011, 23–26. Accessed 19 February 2020, http://​ceur​-ws​.org​/Vol​-722​/paper6​.pdf
Bowker, Lynne, and Jairo Buitrago Ciro
2019Machine Translation and Global Research: Towards Improved Machine Translation Literacy in the Scholarly Community. Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Canfora, Carmen, and Angelika Ottmann
2018 “Of Ostriches, Pyramids, and Swiss Cheese: Risks in Safety-Critical Translations.” Translation Spaces 7 (2): 167–201. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2019 “Who’s Afraid of Translation Risks?” In Challenging Boundaries: New Approaches to Specialized Communication, edited by Heike Elisabeth Jüngst, Lisa Link, Klaus Schubert, and Christiane Zehrer. 73–92. Berlin: Frank & Timme.Google Scholar
Castilho, Sheila, Joss Moorkens, Federico Gaspari, Iacer Calixto, John Tinsley, and Andy Way
2017 “Is Neural Machine Translation the New State of the Art?The Prague Bulletin of Mathematical Linguistics 108: 109–120. Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​www​.degruyter​.com​/downloadpdf​/j​/pralin​.2017​.108​.issue​-1​/pralin​-2017​-0013​/pralin​-2017​-0013​.pdf
Castilho, Sheila, Joss Moorkens, Federico Gaspari, Rico Sennrich, Vilelmini Sosoni, Panayota Georgakopoulou, Pintu Lohar, Andy Way, Antonio Valerio Miceli Barone, and Maria Gialama
2017 “A Comparative Quality Evaluation of PBSMT and NMT using Professional Translators.” Proceedings of MT Summit XVI, vol. 1: Research Track. Nagoya, September 8–11, 2017, 116–131. Accessed 19 February 2020, http://​doras​.dcu​.ie​/23083/
Cebula, James J., and Lisa R. Young
2010 “A Taxonomy of Operational Cyber Security Risks.” Software Engineering Institute. Technical Note CMU/SEI-2010-TN-028.Google Scholar
Daems, Joke, and Lieve Macken
2019 “Interactive adaptive SMT versus interactive NMT: a user experience evaluation.” Machine Translation 33: 117–134. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Daems, Joke, Sonia Vandepitte, Robert J. Hartsuiker, and Lieve Macken
2017 “Identifying the Machine Translation Errors with the Greatest Impact on Post-editing Effort.” Frontiers in Psychology 8: 282. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dannewitz Linder, Mats
2018 “How (Un)Safe is Machine Translation?”. SDL Trados Studio. The Manual Blog. Accessed 19 February 2020, http://​tradosstudiomanual​.com​/?p​=1448
DeepL Pro.
n.d. “Allgemeine Geschäftsbedingungen [Terms of Service]”. Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​www​.deepl​.com​/pro​-license​.html#pro
DeepL Translator
n.d. “Allgemeine Geschäftsbedingungen [Terms of Service]”. Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​www​.deepl​.com​/pro​-license​.html
DePalma, Don
2014 “Free Machine Translation Can Leak Data.” tcworld e-magazine July 2014 Accessed 19 February 2020, http://​www​.tcworld​.info​/e​-magazine​/translation​-and​-localization​/article​/free​-machine​-translation​-can​-leak​-data/
Downie, Jonathan, and Angela Dickson
2019 “Unsound Evaluations of Medical Machine Translation Risk Patient Health and Confidentiality.” JAMA Internal Medicine 179 (7): 1001. Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​jamanetwork​.com​/journals​/jamainternalmedicine​/article​-abstract​/2737506
[ p. 73 ]
Elkington, John
1998Cannibals with Forks: The Triple Bottom Line of 21st Century Businesses. Gabriola Island, B.C., Canada: New Society Publishers.Google Scholar
European Commission
2012 “Studies on Translation and Multilingualism. Language and Translation in International Law and EU Law.” Directorate-General for Translations (European Commission). CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2018 “Commission Staff Working Document: Liability for Emerging Digital Technologies.” Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​eur​-lex​.europa​.eu​/legal​-content​/EN​/TXT​/PDF​/?uri​=CELEX:52018SC0137​&from​=en
2019 “Ethics Guidelines for Trustworthy AI.” High-Level Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence. Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​ec​.europa​.eu​/digital​-single​-market​/en​/news​/ethics​-guidelines​-trustworthy​-ai
European Parliament
2001Directive 2001/95/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 3 December 2001 on General Product Safety.Google Scholar
2006Directive 2006/42/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 17 May 2006 on Machinery, and amending Directive 95/16/EC (recast).Google Scholar
2008Decision 768/2008/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 July 2008 on a Common Framework for the Marketing of Products (New Legislative Framework). Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​ec​.europa​.eu​/growth​/single​-market​/goods​/new​-legislative​-framework​_en
2017 “Report with Recommendations to the Commission on Civil Law Rules on Robotics (2015/2103 [INL]).” Committee on Legal Affairs. Accessed 19 February 2020, http://​www​.europarl​.europa​.eu​/doceo​/document​/A​-8​-2017​-0005​_EN​.pdf
FDA (Food and Drug Administration)
2015 “Warning Letter – Smith & Nephew Inc. MARCS-CMS 457814 – April 30, 2015.” FDA Warning Letters. Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​www​.fda​.gov​/inspections​-compliance​-enforcement​-and​-criminal​-investigations​/warning​-letters​/smith​-nephew​-inc​-457814​-04302015
Galai, Dan, and Orly Sade
2005 “The Ostrich effect and the Relationship between the Liquidity and the Yields of Financial Assets.” The Journal of Business 79 (5): 2741–2759. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gartner
2018 “5 Trends Emerge in the Gartner Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies, 2018”. Gartner Blog. Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​www​.gartner​.com​/smarterwithgartner​/5​-trends​-emerge​-in​-gartner​-hype​-cycle​-for​-emerging​-technologies​-2018/
Gigerenzer, Gerd
2008 “Why Heuristics Work.” Perspectives on Psychological Science 3 (1): 20–29. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Google
2017 “Google Privacy & Terms – Terms of Service”. Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​policies​.google​.com​/terms​?hl​=en​&gl​=ZZ#toc​-content
Grizzo, Sara
2018 “DeepL Pro – Pro Produktivität und Vertraulichkeit [DeepL Pro – Pro Productivity and Confidentiality].” MDÜ 2/2018: 33–35.Google Scholar
Hillson, David
2006 “Integrated Risk Management as a Framework for Organisational Success.” Paper presented at PMI® Global Congress 2006, Seattle, WA. Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​www​.pmi​.org​/learning​/library​/integrated​-risk​-management​-framework​-organizational​-success​-7980
Iansiti, Marco, and Karim R. Lakhani
2017 “The Truth about Blockchain.” Harvard Business Review January February 2017: 118–127. Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​hbr​.org​/2017​/01​/the​-truth​-about​-blockchain
[ p. 74 ]
IEC (International Electrotechnical Committee)
2019IEC 82079-1:2019 Preparation of Information for Use (Instructions for Use) of Products – Part 1: Principles and General Requirements. Paris: ISO.Google Scholar
IRM (Institute of Risk Management)
2018 “A Risk Practitioners Guide to ISO 31000:2018.” IRM Resource Centre. Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​www​.theirm​.org​/news​/standard​-deviations​-a​-risk​-practitioner​-guide​-to​-iso​-31000/
ISO (International Standardization Organization)
2010ISO 12100:2010 Safety of Machinery – General Principles for Design – Risk Assessment and Risk Reduction. Paris: ISO.Google Scholar
2013ISO/IEC 27001:2013 Information technology – Security techniques – Information security management systems – Requirements. Paris: ISO.Google Scholar
2015ISO 17100:2015 Translation Services – Requirements for Translation Services. Paris: ISO.Google Scholar
2016ISO 13485:2016 Medical Devices – Quality Management Systems – Requirements for Regulatory Purposes. Paris: ISO.Google Scholar
2017ISO 18587:2017 Translation Services – Post-Editing of Machine Translation Output – Requirements. Paris: ISO.Google Scholar
2019ISO 20607 Safety of Machinery – Instruction Handbook – General Drafting Principles. Paris: ISO.Google Scholar
Joyce, William
2006 “Accounting, Purchasing and Supply Chain Management”. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal 11 (3): 202–207. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kahneman, Daniel
2011Thinking, Fast and Slow. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
Kahneman, Daniel, and Amos Tversky
1982 “The Psychology of Preferences.” Scientific American 246 (1): 160–173. Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​www​.jstor​.org​/stable​/24966506​?seq​=1#page​_scan​_tab​_contents
Karlsson, Niklas, George Loewenstein, and Duane Seppi
2009 “The Ostrich Effect: Selective Attention to Information.” Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 38 (2): 95–115. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Khoong, Elaine, Eric Steinbrook, Cortlyn Brown, and Alicia Fernandez
2019 “Assessing the Use of Google Translate for Spanish and Chinese Translations of Emergency Department Discharge Instructions.” JAMA Internal Medicine 179 (4): 580–82. Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​jamanetwork​.com​/journals​/jamainternalmedicine​/article​-abstract​/2725080
Koehn, Phillip, and Rebecca Knowles
2017 “Six Challenges for Neural Machine Translation.” Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Neural Machine Translation, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 28–39. Accessed 19 February 2020, http://​arxiv​.org​/abs​/1706​.03872. Crossref
Krüger, Ralph
2019 “Augmented Translation – eine Bestandsaufnahme des rechnergestützten Fachübersetzungsprozesses [Augmented Translation – A Survey of Computer-aided Technical Translation Processes].” trans-kom 12 (1): 142–81. Accessed 19 February 2020, http://​www​.trans​-kom​.eu​/bd12nr01​/trans​-kom​_12​_01​_10​_Krueger​_Augmented​.20190816​.pdf
Kwon, Ik-Whan G., and Taewon Suh
2004 “Factors Affecting the Level of Trust and Commitment in Supply Chain Relationships.” Journal of Supply Chain Management 40 (1): 4–14. Crossref CrossrefGoogle Scholar
[ p. 75 ]
Leite, Fernando Ochoa, Catarina Cochat, Henrique Salgado, Mariana Pinto da Costa, Marta Queirós, Olga Campos, and Paulo Carvalho
2016 “Using Google Translate in the Hospital: A Case Report.” Technology and Health Care 24 (6): 965–968. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lenssen, Joris-Johann, Nikolay A. Dentchev, and Ludwig Roger
2014 “Sustainability, Risk Management and Governance: Towards an Integrative Approach.” Corporate Governance International Journal of Business in Society 14 (5): 670–84. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Moberly, Tom
2018 “Doctors Choose Google Translate to Communicate with Patients Because of Easy Access.” British Medical Journal 2018 (362): k3974. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Moorkens, Joss
2017 “Under Pressure: Translation in Times of Austerity.” Perspectives Studies in Translation Theory and Practice 25 (3): 464–77. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2019 “Human Factors in Neural Machine Translation.” Paper presented at Université Paris Diderot 15 March 2019 Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​www​.ea​-anglais​.univ​-paris8​.fr​/IMG​/pdf​/paris​-2019​-moorkens​.pdf
Moorkens, Joss, and Dave Lewis
2019 “Research Questions and a Proposal for the Future Governance of Translation Data.” Jostrans – The Journal of Specialised Translation 32: 2–25. Accessed 19 February 2020, http://​www​.jostrans​.org​/issue32​/art​_moorkens​.pdf
2020 “Chapter 28. Copyright and the Reuse of Translation Data.” In The Routledge Handbook of Translation and Technology, edited by Minako O’Hagan. Abingdon: Routledge, 469–481.Google Scholar
Morgan, Robert M., and Shelby D. Hunt
1994 “The Commitment-Trust Theory of Relationship Marketing.” Journal of Marketing 58 (3): 20–38. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Nitzke, Jean, Silvia Hansen-Schirra, and Carmen Canfora
2019 “Risk management and post-editing competence.” Jostrans – The Journal of Specialised Translation 31: 239–59. Accessed 19 February 2020, http://​www​.jostrans​.org​/issue31​/art​_nitzke​.pdf
Nunes Vieira, Lucas, and Elisa Alonso
2019 “Translating Perceptions and Managing Expectations: An Analysis of Management and Production perspectives on Machine Translation.” Perspectives Studies in Translation Theory and Practice. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Nurminen, Mary, and Maarit Koponen
2018 “Governments, NGOs, MT and Accessibility.” Presentation held at Kites/ELRC Workshop 24 October 2018, Helsinki, Finland. Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​solecris​.tuni​.fi​/crisyp​/disp​/_​/en​/cr​_redir​_all​/fet​/fet​/sea​?direction​=5​&id​=45640950
Pairaphrase
2019 “End User License Agreement.” Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​www​.pairaphrase​.com​/terms​-of​-use/
Proz.com
2017 “Fate of crossTank and crossTerm Entries in Remote Client Mode.” Proz.com Translation Industry Discussion Forums. Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​www​.proz​.com​/forum​/across​_support​/311173​-fate​_of​_crosstank​_and​_crossterm​_entries​_in​_remote​_client​_mode​.html
2018 “Is Translation a Field I Can Work in Despite the Rise of MT?Proz.com Translation Industry Discussion Forums. Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​www​.proz​.com​/forum​/machine​_translation​_mt​/323333​-is​_translation​_a​_field​_i​_can​_work​_in​_despite​_the​_rise​_of​_mt​.html
[ p. 76 ]
2019 “Anyone Want to Go on STRIKE?Proz.com Translation Industry Discussion Forums. Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​www​.proz​.com​/forum​/business​_issues​/337346​-anyone​_want​_to​_go​_on​_strike​-page2​.html
Reason, John
1990Human Error. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sakamoto, Akiko
2019 “Unintended Consequences of Translation Technologies: From Project Managers’ Perspectives.” Perspectives Studies in Translation Theory and Practice 27: 58–73. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sakamoto, Akiko, and Masaru Yamada
2019 “Promoting Ethical and Sustainable Use of MT in the Translation Industry: A Case in Japan.” Paper presented at the Fair MT Workshop, MT Summit 2019, Dublin City University. Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​drive​.google​.com​/file​/d​/1iZWVpq1mYxDlqwWiMwLDKaYKUDk​_vRlL​/view
Sakamoto, Akiko, Begoña Rodríguez de Céspedes, Sarah Berthaud, and Jonathan Evans
2017 “When Translation meets Technology. Language Service Providers (LSPs) in the Digital Age.” Focus Group Report (October 2017) Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​www​.iti​.org​.uk​/attachments​/article​/1087​/Portsmouth%20Focus%20Group%20Report​.pdf
Skoglösa, Örjan
2019 “Vad tycker vi översättare om maskinöversättning? [What Do We Translators Think about Machine Translation?]” Facköversättaren 1: 16–19. Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​sfoe​.se​/wp​-content​/uploads​/fackoversattaren​_2019​_1​.pdf
Slator
2017 “Translate.com Exposes Highly Sensitive Information in Massive Privacy Breach.” Slator.com Blog. Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​slator​.com​/technology​/translate​-com​-exposes​-highly​-sensitive​-information​-massive​-privacy​-breach/
Sutcliffe, Laura, Anja Maier, James Moultrie, and John Clarkson
2009 “Development of a Framework for Assessing Sustainability in New Product Development.” Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design 58 (7): 24–27 August 2009, Palo Alto, CA, USA. Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​www​.designsociety​.org​/publication​/28789​/Development+of+a+framework+for+assessing+sustainability+in+new+product+development
Systran
2016 “Is Your Team Violating Data Compliance Laws with Online Translation Tools?Systran Blog. Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​blog​.systransoft​.com​/is​-your​-team​-violating​-data​-compliance​-laws​-with​-online​-translation​-tools/
Toft, Yvonne, Prue Howard, and David Jorgensen
2003 “Changing Paradigms for Professional Engineering Practice towards Safe Design – An Australian Perspective.” Safety Science 41 (2–3): 263–276. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Tversky, Amos, and Daniel Kahneman
1973 “Availability: A Heuristic for Judging Frequency and Probability.” Cognitive Psychology 5 (2): 207–232. Crossref”.Google Scholar
1974 “Judgement under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases.” Science 185 (4157): 1124–1131. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Vaezian, Helia, and Mahmoud Akbari
2018 “Common Risks in the Translation Industry. A Sequential Exploratory Study.” The Journal of Internationalization and Localization 5 (2): 95–113. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Van Brussel, Laura, Arda Tezcan, and Lieve Macken
2018 “A Fine-Grained Error Analysis of NMT, PBMT and RBMT Output for English-to-Dutch.” Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, May 2018, Miyazaki, Japan, 3799–3804. Accessed 19 February 2020, https://​biblio​.ugent​.be​/publication​/8561558​/file​/8563576​.pdf
[ p. 77 ]
Vashee, Kirti
2017 “Data Security Risks with Generic and Free Machine Translation.” Empty Pages Blog. Accessed 19 February 2020, http://​kv​-emptypages​.blogspot​.com​/2017​/09​/data​-security​-risks​-with​-generic​-and​.html​?m​=1
Way, Andy
2019 “Chapter 14. Machine Translation: Where Are We at Today?” In The Bloomsbury Companion to Language Industry Studies, edited by Eric Angelone, Maureen Ehrensberger-Dow, and Gary Massey. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
WBCSD (World Business Council for Sustainable Development)
Weinmann, Markus, Christoph Schneider, and Jan vom Brocke
2016 “Digital NudgingBusiness & Information Systems Engineering 58 (6): 433–436. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
World Economic Forum
2017 “Global Risks of Highest Concern for Doing Business.” World Economic Forum Reports. Accessed 19 February 2020, http://​reports​.weforum​.org​/global​-risks​-2017​/global​-risks​-of​-highest​-concern​-for​-doing​-business​-2017/
Zajonc, Robert B.
2001 “Mere Exposure. A Gateway to the Subliminal.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 10 (6): 224–228. CrossrefGoogle Scholar