Chapter published in:Similative and Equative Constructions: A cross-linguistic perspective
Edited by Yvonne Treis and Martine Vanhove
[Typological Studies in Language 117] 2017
► pp. 359–385
The morpheme ‑(ä)ŋä in Xamtanga
Functions and grammaticalisation targets
This chapter examines the distribution and main grammaticalisation targets of the element -(ä)ŋä in Xamtanga, a Central Cushitic (Agaw) language of the northern Ethiopian highlands. Within the noun phrase, ‑(ä)ŋä functions as a standard marker of similative as well as equative constructions. It is also used as a derivational morpheme involved in the formation of glottonyms. At a clausal level, first, ‑(ä)ŋä takes part in the expression of several kinds of subordinate clauses associated with the expression of both real and hypothetical similarity (i.e. similative, equative, simulative, imaginative, and counterfactual clauses). Second, ‑(ä)ŋä has grammaticalised into a marker of complement, accord, immediate anteriority, and avertive clauses.
Keywords: Xamtanga, Agaw, similarity, subordinate clauses, grammaticalisation
Published online: 31 May 2017
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