Chapter published in:Uralic Essive and the Expression of Impermanent State
Edited by Casper de Groot
[Typological Studies in Language 119] 2017
► pp. 57–90
Chapter 3The essive in Estonian
This chapter presents an empirical study of the distribution of the essive marker in Standard Estonian and Estonian dialects. The use of the essive has changed considerably in Estonian: it almost vanished from North Estonian but was revived in the 19th century. In South Estonian, the essive ending has merged with that of the inessive. The description of the properties of the essive marker follows the questionnaire of the Uralic essive. The domains involved are non-verbal main predication, secondary predication, complementation, and manner, temporal, and circumstantial adverbial phrases. The study specifically investigates the opposition between permanent and impermanent state in non-verbal predications. The use of the marker in the essive sense is contrasted with that of the translative and also to other means of marking non-permanent state.
Keywords: Estonian, Estonian dialects, essive case, case syncretism, impermanent state, non-verbal predication
- 1.3Historical background and distribution in dialects
- 1.4The revival of the essive
- 2.Non-verbal predication
- 3.Secondary predication
- 3.1The essive as a marker of secondary predicates
- 6.Temporality and location
- 7.Comparatives and expressions of similarity
- 8.Essive versus translative
- 9.Word order
Published online: 30 November 2017
BC = balanced corpus (subcorpus of ERC)
CELL = Corpus of Estonian Literary Language http://www.cl.ut.ee/korpused/baaskorpus/> (9 March 2014)
CED = Corpus of Estonian Dialects http://www.murre.ut.ee/murdekorpus/> (9 March 2014)
CSE = Corpus of Spoken Estonian http://www.cl.ut.ee/suuline/Korpus.php?lang=en> (19 November 2014)
ERC = Estonian Reference Corpus http://www.cl.ut.ee/korpused/segakorpus/index.php?lang=en> (9 March 2014)
ETT = etTenTen www.keeleveeb.ee> (29 March 2014)
FICT = fiction texts (subcorpus of CELL)
NEWS = newspaper texts (subcorpus of CELL)
Erelt, Mati & Helle Metslang
ETTd Description of the corpus etTenTen. http://www2.keeleveeb.ee/dict/corpus/ettenten/about.html (29 March 2014).
Himmelmann, Nikolaus P. & Schultze-Berndt, Eva F.
2007 Translatiivi ja essiivi kasutusest eesti ja soome keeles. In Merkityksen ongelmasta vähemmistökielten oikeuksiin. Juhlakirja professori Helena Sulkalan 60-vuotispäivänä [Acta Universitatis Ouluensis, B Humaniora], Harri Mantila, Merja Karjalainen & Jari Sivonen (eds), 143–164. Oulu: Oulun Yliopisto.
PHC 2011 = PHC 2011: 157 native languages spoken in Estonia. Population and Housing Census. http://www.stat.ee/64629?parent_id=39113 (9 March 2014).
Schultze-Berndt, Eva F. & Himmelmann, Nikolaus P.