The essive in South Saami
This chapter presents an empirical study of the distribution of a marker referred to as the ‘essive’ in South Saami. The description of the properties of this marker follows the linguistic questionnaire that captures the contexts in which essive and/or translative markers may occur in the Uralic languages. The study specifically investigates the opposition between permanent and impermanent state in non-verbal predications. The linguistic domains involved are non-verbal main predication, secondary predication, complementation, and manner, temporal, and circumstantial adverbial phrases. The use of the marker in the essive sense (associated with state) is contrasted with its use in expressing the translative sense (associated with change). Finally, the syntactic position of elements marked by this form is discussed in relation to the position of focus constituents.
Keywords: South Saami, depictive, essive case, impermanent state, non-verbal predication, individual-level predicate, stage-level predicate, focus