The Middle Voice

Suzanne Kemmer | University of California, San Diego
ISBN 9789027229076 (Eur) | EUR 125.00
ISBN 9781556194108 (USA) | USD 188.00
ISBN 9789027229083 (Eur) | EUR 45.00
ISBN 9781556194115 (USA) | USD 68.00
ISBN 9789027276865 | EUR 125.00/45.00*
| USD 188.00/68.00*
Google Play logo
This book approaches the middle voice from the perspective of typology and language universals research. The principal aim is to provide a typologically valid characterization of the category of middle voice in terms of which it can be incorporated in a cognitively-based theory of human language. The term “middle voice” has had a wide range of applications in the linguistic literature of this century. The main thesis in this volume is that there is a coherent, though complex, semantic category of middle voice in human language, which receives grammatical instantiation in many languages. The author claims there is a semantic property crucial to the nature of the middle, which she terms “relative elaboration of events”, that serves as a parameter along which the reflexive and the middle can be situated as semantic categories intermediate in transitivity between one-participant and two-participant events, and which differentiates reflexive and middle from one another. In this area, most analyses deal with one language and/or are limited to Indo-European languages. This work deals with a subset of middle-marking languages that was chosen so as to observe the highest possible number of different middle systems showing significant independent diachronic development.
[Typological Studies in Language, 23] 1993.  xii, 300 pp.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Cited byCited by 261 other publicationsAfonso, Susana2008. Existentials as impersonalising devices: the case of European Portuguese. Transactions of the Philological Society 106:2 ► pp. 180 ff. Ahn, Mikyung & Foong Ha Yap2017. From middle to passive. Diachronica 34:4 ► pp. 437 ff. 2021. On the relationship between middles and passives. Language and Linguistics. 語言暨語言學 22:2 ► pp. 213 ff. Aijón Oliva, Miguel A.2022. Grammatical Coding and the Discursive Construction of Participants: Spanish Passives in Written Press News Discourse. Transactions of the Philological Society 120:3 ► pp. 351 ff. Alexiadou, Artemis2011. Statives and nominalization1. Recherches linguistiques de Vincennes :40 ► pp. 25 ff. 2020. The Complexity of Greek Verbal Morphology. In Complex Words, ► pp. 192 ff. ALEXIADOU, ARTEMIS & EDIT DORON2012. The syntactic construction of two non-active Voices: Passive and middle. Journal of Linguistics 48:1 ► pp. 1 ff. Andersen, Torben2014. Chapter 9. Number in Dinka. In Number – Constructions and Semantics [Studies in Language Companion Series, 151], ► pp. 221 ff. Arnett, Carlee2000. A Cognitive Approach to the Old Saxon Processual Passive. American Journal of Germanic Linguistics and Literatures 12:1 ► pp. 81 ff. Auderset, Sandra2021. Chapter 12. The antipassive and its relationship to person markers. In Antipassive [Typological Studies in Language, 130], ► pp. 385 ff. Bar-Asher Siegal, Elitzur A.2014. Reciprocal NP-Strategies in Jewish Dialects of Near Eastern Neo-Aramaic in Light of Parallel Semitic Constructions. Journal of Jewish Languages 2:1 ► pp. 49 ff. Barry, Elizabeth2008. One's Own Company:Agency, Identity and the Middle Voice in the Work of Samuel Beckett. Journal of Modern Literature 31:2 ► pp. 115 ff. Beavers, John & I Nyoman Udayana2023. Middle voice as generalized argument suppression. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 41:1 ► pp. 51 ff. Beavers, John & Cala Zubair2013. Anticausatives in Sinhala: involitivity and causer suppression. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 31:1 ► pp. 1 ff. Beck, David1996. Transitivity and Causation in Lushootseed Morphology. Canadian Journal of Linguistics/Revue canadienne de linguistique 41:2 ► pp. 109 ff. Bender, M. Lionel, Vit Bubenik, Grazia Crocco Galèas, Beatriz Dukes, Anthony P. Grant, John Hewson, Laura Hidalgo, Laura Hidalgo, Alan S. Kaye, Alan S. Kaye, Helma Pasch, Gary D. Prideaux, Heidi Quinn, Leonard Rolfe, Sharon Rose, W. Wilfried Schuhmacher, W. Wilfried Schuhmacher, Edward J. Vajda, Jana Vizmuller-Zocco & Johanna Wood1999. Reviews. <i>WORD</i> 50:1 ► pp. 57 ff. Benedetti, Marina2016. Steps in the middle (voice): ancient Greek grammarians, Bopp and beyond. Historical Linguistics 129:1 ► pp. 154 ff. Bernander, Rasmus2018. The neuter in Manda, with a focus on its reinterpretation as passive. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 36:3 ► pp. 175 ff. Boro, Krishna2016. The Za constructions: Middle-like constructions in Boro. Journal of South Asian Languages and Linguistics 3:1 ► pp. 43 ff. Bostoen, Koen, Sebastian Dom & Guillaume Segerer2015. The antipassive in Bantu. Linguistics 53:4 Brahim, Ahmed2001. Passif et moyen dans les langues du pourtour méditerranéen. Linx :45 ► pp. 107 ff. Burukina, Irina2021. Profile of reflexives in Hill Mari. Folia Linguistica 55:1 ► pp. 127 ff. Cacoullos, Rena Torres2002. Le: from pronoun to verbal intensifier. Linguistics 40:2 Candalija Reina, José Antonio2015. Argumental comitative and reciprocity in Spanish. In Verb Classes and Aspect [IVITRA Research in Linguistics and Literature, 9], ► pp. 98 ff. Chavula, Jean2018. The polysemy of the neuter extension -ik in Citumbuka (N21) and Citonga (N15). Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 36:3 ► pp. 197 ff. Chelliah, Shobhana L. & Willem J. de Reuse2010. What to Expect in Morphosyntactic Typology and Terminology. In Handbook of Descriptive Linguistic Fieldwork, ► pp. 279 ff. Chung, Siaw-Fong2022. Emotion terms in Malay. Language and Linguistics. 語言暨語言學 23:2 ► pp. 147 ff. Creissels, Denis2001. Remarques sur la notion de passif et l’origine des constructions passives. Linx :45 ► pp. 71 ff. Croft, William & Keith T. Poole2004. Inferring Universals from Grammatical Variation: Multidimensional Scaling for Typological Analysis. SSRN Electronic Journal Croft, William A.1995. Review of Klaiman (1991): Grammatical voice. Studies in Language 19:2 ► pp. 553 ff. Dahl, Eystein & Chiara Fedriani2012. The Argument Structure of Experience: Experiential Constructions in Early Vedic, Homeric Greek and Early Latin1. Transactions of the Philological Society 110:3 ► pp. 342 ff. Dallmayr, Fred1999. Rethinking Secularism (with Raimon Panikkar). The Review of Politics 61:4 ► pp. 715 ff. 2002. Rethinking Secularism—with Raimon Panikkar. In Dialogue Among Civilizations, ► pp. 185 ff. Dancygier, Barbara & Eve Sweetser2005. Mental Spaces in Grammar, Danler, Paul2006. “Parlare senza dirlo” — or — “Speaking without sayingit”. Journal of Language and Politics 5:3 ► pp. 305 ff. David Crellin, Robert Samuel2015. The Syntax and Semantics of the Perfect Active in Literary Koine Greek. Transactions of the Philological Society 113 ► pp. 1 ff. de Benito Moreno, Carlota2021. Is there really an aspectual se in Spanish?. Folia Linguistica 55:1 ► pp. 195 ff. 2021. Is there really an aspectual se in Spanish?. Folia Linguistica 55:1 ► pp. 195 ff. Devylder, Simon2017. Cutting and Breaking the Embodied Self. CogniTextes :Volume 16 Diessel, Holger2019. The Grammar Network, Dion, Marie-France2005. Du projet à la promesse. Analyse syntaxique et critique de la forme de Genèse 12,1-3 et 12,7. Studies in Religion/Sciences Religieuses 34:1 ► pp. 99 ff. Dobrovie-Sorin, Carmen2017. Reflexive Marking in Romance: Voice and Feature Deficiency. In The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Syntax, Second Edition, ► pp. 1 ff. Dom, Sebastian, Leonid Kulikov & Koen Bostoen2016. The middle as a voice category in Bantu: Setting the stage for further research. Lingua Posnaniensis 58:2 ► pp. 129 ff. 2018. Valency-decreasing derivations and quasi-middles in Bantu: A typological perspective. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 36:3 ► pp. 165 ff. Dom, Sebastian, Guillaume Segerer & Koen Bostoen2015. Antipassive/associative polysemy in Cilubà (Bantu, L31a). Studies in Language 39:2 ► pp. 354 ff. Drettas, Georges1999. Le marquage du bénéficiaire/expérient en grec et en albanais : peut-on  généraliser la notion de relation dative dans la comparaison typologique ?. Linx :11 ► pp. 235 ff. 2001. Morphosyntaxe de la diathèse moyenne (médio-passive) en grec contemporain. Linx :45 ► pp. 95 ff. Drożdż, Grzegorz2016. Introduction. In Studies in Lexicogrammar [Human Cognitive Processing, 54], ► pp. 1 ff. Döhler, Christian2022. Expressions of directed caused accompanied motion in Komnzo. In Caused Accompanied Motion [Typological Studies in Language, 134], ► pp. 273 ff. 2023. Fluidity in argument indexing in Komnzo. Open Linguistics 9:1 Enfield, N. J.2022. Enchrony. WIREs Cognitive Science 13:4 Enger, Hans-Olav2019. Baerman, Matthew (ed): The Oxford Handbook of Inflection. Morphology 29:1 ► pp. 133 ff. Enger, Hans-Olav & Tore Nesset1999. The Value of Cognitive Grammar in Typological Studies: the Case of Norwegian and Russian Passive, Middle and Reflexive. Nordic Journal of Linguistics 22:1 ► pp. 27 ff. Eroms, Hans-Werner & Bernadett Modrián-Horváth2019. Das Zustandspassiv im Deutschen und im Ungarischen, ► pp. 48 ff. Estrada Fernández, Zarina2005. The Pronominal Form ‐a as a Middle Marker in Pima Bajo. International Journal of American Linguistics 71:3 ► pp. 277 ff. Fabrizio, Claudia2019. Chapter 7. Where do Italian -ata nouns come from?. In Historical Linguistics 2015 [Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, 348], ► pp. 134 ff. Fernández, Beatriz & Ane Berro2022. Basque impersonals in comparison. Linguistics 60:4 ► pp. 1039 ff. Fernández Garay, Ana2007. Sistemas sintácticos en Tehuelche. International Journal of American Linguistics 73:1 ► pp. 114 ff. Fried, Mirjam2021. Discourse-referential patterns as a network of grammatical constructions. Constructions and Frames 13:1 ► pp. 21 ff. Garcia de la Maza, Casilda2016. The argument-structure configuration of English middle and related structures. In Atypical predicate-argument relations [Lingvisticæ Investigationes Supplementa, 33], ► pp. 115 ff. Garr, W. Randall2021. Reflexivity: The Cases of the Niphal and Hithpael. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 80:2 ► pp. 341 ff. Georgakopoulos, Thanasis & Stéphane Polis2018. The semantic map model: State of the art and future avenues for linguistic research. Language and Linguistics Compass 12:2 ► pp. e12270 ff. 2021. Lexical diachronic semantic maps. Journal of Historical Linguistics 11:3 ► pp. 367 ff. George, Coulter H.2005. Expressions of Agency in Ancient Greek, Giacalone Ramat, Anna2017. Passives and Constructions that resemble passives. Folia Linguistica 51:s38-s1 ► pp. 149 ff. Gildea, Spike & Joana Jansen2018. Chapter 4. The development of referential hierarchy effects in Sahaptian. In Typological Hierarchies in Synchrony and Diachrony [Typological Studies in Language, 121], ► pp. 129 ff. Givón, T.2015. The Diachrony of Grammar, Gonzalez, Becky2022. Syntactic licensing in heritage Spanish: Psych verbs and the middle voice. International Journal of Bilingualism ► pp. 136700692211217 ff. González, Raúl Eduardo2016. Codificación de las categorías de “grupo” y “grupo restringido” en toba del este de Formosa (Argentina). LIAMES: Línguas Indígenas Americanas 16:2 ► pp. 221 ff. 2016. Indexación de argumentos no-sujeto promovidos por aplicativos en toba del este de Formosa (Argentina). Forma y Función 29:2 ► pp. 39 ff. Gonzálvez-García, Francisco2017. Chapter 5. Exploring inter-constructional relations in the constructicon. In Constructing Families of Constructions [Human Cognitive Processing, 58], ► pp. 135 ff. Guerrero Medina, Pilar2014. A lexico-paradigmatic approach to Englishsetting-constructions. In The Functional Perspective on Language and Discourse [Pragmatics & Beyond New Series, 247], ► pp. 133 ff. Guérois, Rozenn & Koen Bostoen2018. On the origins of passive allomorphy in Cuwabo (Bantu P34). Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 36:3 ► pp. 211 ff. Góralczyk, Iwona & Joanna Łozinska-Bastek2016. The conceptual structure of reflexivity in The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Manuscript E. In Studies in Lexicogrammar [Human Cognitive Processing, 54], ► pp. 161 ff. Haas, Florian2017. Motivating an English-German contrast in word-formation. Languages in Contrast 17:2 ► pp. 183 ff. Halm, Tamás2020. Grammaticalization without Feature Economy. Diachronica 37:1 ► pp. 1 ff. Han-Pile, Béatrice2020. ‘The doing is everything’: a middle-voiced reading of agency in Nietzsche. Inquiry 63:1 ► pp. 42 ff. Donald E. Hardy2003. Face and the middle voice in Flannery OConnors fiction. jlse 32:2 ► pp. 133 ff. Hartmann, M.2007. KAUFMANN, I.: Medium und Reflexiv. Eine Studie zur Verbsemantik. Kratylos 52:1 ► pp. 171 ff. Heaton, Raina2018. Intransitivizing morphology. Language and Linguistics Compass 12:12 ► pp. e12305 ff. 2020. Antipassives in Crosslinguistic Perspective. Annual Review of Linguistics 6:1 ► pp. 131 ff. 2021. Chapter 17. Antipassive and antipassive-like constructions in Mayan languages. In Antipassive [Typological Studies in Language, 130], ► pp. 549 ff. Heine, Bernd2005. On reflexive forms in creoles. Lingua 115:3 ► pp. 201 ff. Hendriks, Petra, John C. J. Hoeks & Jennifer Spenader2014. Reflexive choice in Dutch and German. The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics 17:3 ► pp. 229 ff. Hernández-Green, Néstor2018. Tres fuentes de las construcciones impersonales en otomí. LIAMES: Línguas Indígenas Americanas 18:1 ► pp. 137 ff. Holvoet, Axel2019. On the heterogeneity of deaccusative reflexives . STUF - Language Typology and Universals 72:3 ► pp. 401 ff. Holvoet, Axel, Marta Grzybowska & Agnieszka Rembiałkowska2015. Middle voice reflexives and argument structure in Baltic. In Voice and Argument Structure in Baltic [Valency, Argument Realization and Grammatical Relations in Baltic, 2], ► pp. 181 ff. Hopper, Paul J. & Elizabeth Closs Traugott2003. Grammaticalization, Hornkohl, Aaron2022. Niphalisation in Ancient Hebrew: A Perspective from the Samaritan Tradition. Journal for Semitics 30:2 Inglese, Guglielmo2017. A synchronic and diachronic typology of Hittite reciprocal constructions. Studies in Language 41:4 ► pp. 956 ff. 2022. Towards a typology of middle voice systems. Linguistic Typology 26:3 ► pp. 489 ff. 2022. How do middle voice markers and valency reducing constructions interact? Typological tendencies and diachronic considerations. Folia Linguistica 56:2 ► pp. 239 ff. 2023. The rise of middle voice systems. Diachronica Inglese, Guglielmo & Chiara Zanchi2020. Reciprocal constructions in Homeric Greek: A typological and corpus-based approach. Folia Linguistica 54:s41-s1 ► pp. 117 ff. Jacques, Guillaume2015. The spontaneous-autobenefactive prefix in Japhug Rgyalrong. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 38:2 ► pp. 271 ff. Jacques, Guillaume, Aimée Lahaussois & Dhan Bahadur Rai2016. Reflexive paradigms in Khaling. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 39:1 ► pp. 33 ff. Janic, Katarzyna2016. Synchronic and diachronic aspects of valency-reducing devices in Oceanic languages. Lingua Posnaniensis 58:2 ► pp. 151 ff. 2021. Chapter 8. Variation in the verbal marking of antipassive constructions. In Antipassive [Typological Studies in Language, 130], ► pp. 249 ff. Jansegers, Marlies, Clara Vanderschueren & Renata Enghels2015. The polysemy of the Spanish verb sentir: A behavioral profile analysis. Cognitive Linguistics 26:3 ► pp. 381 ff. Jerro, Kyle2018. Change-of-state paradigms and the middle in Kinyarwanda. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 36:3 ► pp. 235 ff. Jisa, Harriet2005. Developing Alternatives for Indicating Discourse Stance. In Perspectives on Language and Language Development, ► pp. 357 ff. Kazenin, Konstantin I.1994. On the Lexical Distribution of Agent-preserving and Object-preserving Transitivity Alternations. Nordic Journal of Linguistics 17:2 ► pp. 141 ff. Kettnerová, Václava, Markéta Lopatková & Anna Vernerová2021. Reflexives in the VALLEX Lexicon:Syntactic Reflexivity and Reciprocity. Prague Bulletin of Mathematical Linguistics 117:1 ► pp. 27 ff. 2022. Reflexives as Part of Verb Lexemes in the VALLEX Lexicon. Prague Bulletin of Mathematical Linguistics 119:1 ► pp. 37 ff. Khanina, Olesya & Andrey Shluinsky2019. Intransitive verbs in Enets: A contribution to the typology of split intransitivity. Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft 38:1 ► pp. 1 ff. Kittilä, Seppo2015. Chapter 16. Valence change. In Valence Changes in Zapotec [Typological Studies in Language, 110], ► pp. 345 ff. Kleyner, Svetlana2019. Changed In Translation: Greek Actives Become Gothic Passives. Transactions of the Philological Society 117:1 ► pp. 112 ff. Kocharov, Petr2022. Anticausatives in Classical Armenian. Journal of Historical Linguistics Kokorniak, Iwona2021. An aspectual contour of phrasal verb constructions with English think . Poznan Studies in Contemporary Linguistics 57:1 ► pp. 165 ff. 2022. Chapter 5. Contrast and analogy in aspectual distinctions of English and Polish. In Analogy and Contrast in Language [Human Cognitive Processing, 73], ► pp. 115 ff. Koontz-Garboden, Andrew2009. Anticausativization. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 27:1 ► pp. 77 ff. Koontz-Garboden, Andrew & Itamar Francez2010. Possessed properties in Ulwa. Natural Language Semantics 18:2 ► pp. 197 ff. Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria2006. The Circle That Won’t Come Full: Two Potential Isoglosses in the Circum-Baltic Area. In Linguistic Areas, ► pp. 182 ff. Kouwenberg, N. J. C.2005. Reflections on the Gt-Stem in Akkadian. Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und Vorderasiatische Archäologie 95:1-2 Kulikov, Leonid & Nikolaos Lavidas2015. Reconstructing passive and voice in Proto-Indo-European. In Proto-Indo-European Syntax and its Development [Benjamins Current Topics, 75], ► pp. 101 ff. 2017. Between Passive and Middle. In Contrastive Studies in Verbal Valency [Linguistik Aktuell/Linguistics Today, 237], ► pp. 298 ff. Kurras, Paola Cotticelli & Alfredo Rizza2015. Reconstructing Proto-Indo-European categories. In Proto-Indo-European Syntax and its Development [Benjamins Current Topics, 75], ► pp. 7 ff. Kuteva, Tania, Bernd Heine, Bo Hong, Haiping Long, Heiko Narrog & Seongha Rhee2019. World Lexicon of Grammaticalization, Lívia Körtvélyessy & Pavol Štekauer2020. Complex Words, Lahaussois, Aimée2016. Reflexive derivations in Thulung. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 39:1 ► pp. 49 ff. Laks, Lior2013. Why and how do Hebrew verbs change their form? A morpho-thematic account. Morphology 23:3 ► pp. 351 ff. Lander, Yury & Alexander Letuchiy2017. Valency-decreasing operations in a valency-increasing language?. In Verb Valency Changes [Typological Studies in Language, 120], ► pp. 286 ff. Laughren, Mary & Maïa Ponsonnet2020. Ear and belly in Warlpiri descriptions of cognitive and emotional experience. Pragmatics & Cognition 27:1 ► pp. 240 ff. Levin, Beth2015. Semantics and Pragmatics of Argument Alternations. Annual Review of Linguistics 1:1 ► pp. 63 ff. Lewandowski, Wojciech2021. Constructions are not predictable but are motivated: evidence from the Spanish completive reflexive. Linguistics 59:1 ► pp. 35 ff. Lopez-Ozieblo, Renia2020. A multimodal cognitive approach to aid the conceptualization of Spanish utterances with ‘se’. Cognitive Linguistics 31:4 ► pp. 677 ff. Luchina, Elena2022. Yiddish Causal-Noncausal Alternation in Areal Perspective. Journal of Jewish Languages 10:1 ► pp. 87 ff. Luraghi, Silvia2023. Beyond affectedness – partitive objects and degrees of agenthood in Ancient Greek. Linguistic Variation 23:1 ► pp. 95 ff. Luraghi, Silvia, Guglielmo Inglese & Daniel Kölligan2021. The passive voice in ancient Indo-European languages: inflection, derivation, periphrastic verb forms. Folia Linguistica 55:s42-s2 ► pp. 339 ff. Martin Maiden, John Charles Smith & Adam Ledgeway2010. The Cambridge History of the Romance Languages, Malchukov, Andrej L.2017. Markedness effects in applicative formation. In Verb Valency Changes [Typological Studies in Language, 120], ► pp. 4 ff. Ricardo Maldonado2002. Objective and subjective datives. cogl 13:1 ► pp. 1 ff. NILI MANDELBLIT2001. The grammatical marking of conceptual integration: From syntax to morphology. cogl 11:3-4 ► pp. 197 ff. Marie Laurence, Knittel, F. Neveu, B. Harmegnies, L. Hriba & S. Prévost2018. Retour vers le Médiopassif. SHS Web of Conferences 46 ► pp. 12009 ff. Mayr, Paul2022. Verbalperiphrasen als „diskursstrategische Waffen“: Zum Gebrauch der italienischen Verbalperiphrase andare + participio passato in politischen Diskursen und Möglichkeiten ihrer Übersetzung ins Französische und Spanische. Lebende Sprachen 67:2 ► pp. 365 ff. McGregor, William B.2007. Ergative Marking of Intransitive Subjects in Warrwa. Australian Journal of Linguistics 27:2 ► pp. 201 ff. 2014. The ‘say, do’ verb in Nyulnyul, Warrwa, and other Nyulnyulan languages is monosemic. In Events, Arguments, and Aspects [Studies in Language Companion Series, 152], ► pp. 301 ff. Melis, Chantal & Marcela Flores2018. Chapter 6. The dative experiencer of Spanish gustar. In Studies in Historical Ibero-Romance Morpho-Syntax [Issues in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics, 16], ► pp. 123 ff. Messineo, Cristina2012. La Marcación Verbal Activa / Inactiva en Toba (Guaycurú) y sus Motivaciones. LIAMES: Línguas Indígenas Americanas 2:1 ► pp. 49 ff. Messineo, Cristina & Ana Gerzenstein2012. La posesión en dos lenguas indígenas del Gran Chaco. LIAMES: Línguas Indígenas Americanas 7:1 ► pp. 61 ff. Meulleman, Machteld2017. Michel Achard. 2015. Impersonals and other Agent Defocusing Constructions in French . Constructions and Frames 9:2 ► pp. 321 ff. Mithun, Marianne2021. Chapter 2. Antipassive propensities and alignment. In Antipassive [Typological Studies in Language, 130], ► pp. 43 ff. Mitkovska, Liljana2021. The network of reflexive dative constructions in South Slavic. Poznan Studies in Contemporary Linguistics 57:1 ► pp. 59 ff. Mitkovska, Liljana & Eleni Bužarovska2012. An Alternative Analysis of the English Get-Past Participle Constructions. Journal of English Linguistics 40:2 ► pp. 196 ff. 2021. Quasi-passive reflexive constructions: Bridging autonomous and passive situations. Linguistic Typology 25:2 ► pp. 303 ff. Miura, Ayumi2022. Review of Castro-Chao, Noelia. 2021. Argument Structure in Flux: The Development of Impersonal Constructions in Middle and Early Modern English, with Special Reference to Verbs of Desire. ISBN: 978-3-034-34189-9. DOI: Research in Corpus Linguistics 10:1 ► pp. 213 ff. Modicom, Pierre-Yves, F. Neveu, S. Prévost, A. Steuckardt, G. Bergounioux & B. Hamma2022. Ils ont dû se faire censurer ! Facteurs argumentaux et aspectuels dans l’interprétation des constructions passives régies par des verbes modaux, du danois au français. SHS Web of Conferences 138 ► pp. 11004 ff. Mohammadirad, Masoud & Mohammad Rasekh-Mahand2017. Instrumental semantic map in Western Iranian languages. STUF - Language Typology and Universals 70:4 ► pp. 579 ff. 2018. Functions of the dative: An Iranian perspective . STUF - Language Typology and Universals 71:4 ► pp. 539 ff. Moreton, Emma2009. Book Review: The Body in Flannery O’Connor’s Fiction by Donald E. Hardy, 2007. Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press, pp. ix + 188 ISBN 978 1 57003 698 9 (hbk). Language and Literature: International Journal of Stylistics 18:4 ► pp. 396 ff. Moyse-Faurie, Claire2017. Reflexives Markers in Oceanic Languages. Studia Linguistica 71:1-2 ► pp. 107 ff. 2021. Chapter 5. Antipassive constructions in Oceanic languages. In Antipassive [Typological Studies in Language, 130], ► pp. 149 ff. Naess, Åshild2011. The Grammar of Eating and Drinking Verbs. Language and Linguistics Compass 5:6 ► pp. 413 ff. 2010. Review of Butler & Arista (2008): Deconstructing Constructions. Studies in Language 34:4 ► pp. 934 ff. 2020. Fernando Zúñiga & Seppo Kittilä, Grammatical voice. Folia Linguistica 54:1 ► pp. 253 ff. Narrog, Heiko2016. Exaptation in Japanese and beyond. In Exaptation and Language Change [Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, 336], ► pp. 93 ff. Nau, Nicole & Axel Holvoet2015. Voice in Baltic. In Voice and Argument Structure in Baltic [Valency, Argument Realization and Grammatical Relations in Baltic, 2], ► pp. 1 ff. Nau, Nicole & Jurgis Pakerys2016. Transitivity pairs in Baltic: between Finnic and Slavic. Lingua Posnaniensis 58:2 ► pp. 83 ff. Nesset, Tore2022. Language Change and Cognitive Linguistics, Nichols, Johanna2016. Morphology in Typology. In The Cambridge Handbook of Morphology, ► pp. 710 ff. Niclot, Domenico2014. From semantic roles to evaluative markers. The dative and affected possessors. In Perspectives on Semantic Roles [Typological Studies in Language, 106], ► pp. 271 ff. Nogueira, Antonia Fernanda de Souza2013. Descrição e análise do prefixo {e-} intr da língua Wayoro (Ayuru, tronco Tupí). Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas 8:2 ► pp. 325 ff. Nordlinger, Rachel2023. The Typology of Reciprocal Constructions. Annual Review of Linguistics 9:1 ► pp. 71 ff. Nordrum, Lene2015. Exploring spontaneous-event marking though parallel corpora. Languages in Contrast 15:2 ► pp. 230 ff. Olthof, Marieke2017. Transparency in Norwegian and Icelandic: Language contact vs. language isolation. Nordic Journal of Linguistics 40:1 ► pp. 73 ff. Olthof, Marieke, Eva van Lier, Tjeu Claessen, Swintha Danielsen, Katharina Haude, Nico Lehmann, Maarten Mous, Elisabeth Verhoeven, Eline Visser, Marine Vuillermet & Arok Wolvengrey2021. Verb-based restrictions on noun incorporation across languages. Linguistic Typology 25:2 ► pp. 211 ff. Oya, Toshiaki2002. Reflexives and resultatives: some differences between English and German. Linguistics 40:5 2017. Let middles in Dutch and German: False friends?. The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics 20:3 ► pp. 229 ff. Pacchiarotti, Sara & Leonid Kulikov2022. Bribri media tantum verbs and the rise of labile syntax. Linguistics 60:2 ► pp. 617 ff. Palancar, Enrique L.2004. Middle Voice in Otomi. International Journal of American Linguistics 70:1 ► pp. 52 ff. Palma Gutiérrez, Macarena2019. Semantic Prosody in Middle Construction Predicates: Exploring Adverb + Verb Collocation in Middles. In Computational and Corpus-Based Phraseology [Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 11755], ► pp. 345 ff. Payne, Doris L.2021. Chapter 14. The profile and development of the Maa (Eastern Nilotic) antipassive. In Antipassive [Typological Studies in Language, 130], ► pp. 447 ff. Peregrina Llanes, Manuel, Albert Álvarez González & Zarina Estrada-Fernández2017. Transitivity and valency-changing operations in Huasteca Nahuatl. In Verb Valency Changes [Typological Studies in Language, 120], ► pp. 82 ff. Petter, Margarida Maria Taddoni, Esmeralda Vailati Negrão & Evani Viotti2018. Chapter 9. The Africa-Brazil continuum. In The Portuguese Language Continuum in Africa and Brazil [Issues in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics, 20], ► pp. 211 ff. Pitteroff, Marcel2015. Non-canonical middles: a study of personal let-middles in German. The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics 18:1 ► pp. 1 ff. Post, Mark W. & Yankee Modi2022. Subject autonomy marking in Macro-Tani and the typology of middle voice. Linguistics 60:1 ► pp. 215 ff. Pountain, Christopher J.2000. Pragmatic Factors in the Evolution of the Romance Reflexive (with special reference to Spanish). Hispanic Research Journal 1:1 ► pp. 5 ff. Pratas, Fernanda2014. Capeverdean reflexives: the importance of a silent Voice. Estudos de Lingüística Galega 6 Puddu, Nicoletta2021. Verbal vs. nominal reflexive constructions. In Linguistic Categories, Language Description and Linguistic Typology [Typological Studies in Language, 132], ► pp. 367 ff. Puerma Bonilla, Javier2020. Caracterización formal y semántica del sujeto y del objeto directo léxicos en construcciones transitivas en la historia del español. Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie 136:1 ► pp. 47 ff. Rasekh-Mahand, Mohammad & Mehdi Parizadeh2023. Different functions of ‘rā’ in New Persian. Journal of Historical Linguistics Ratkus, Artūras2020. The (Non‐)Existence of the Middle Voice in Gothic: In Search of a Mirage. Transactions of the Philological Society 118:2 ► pp. 263 ff. Regúnaga, María Alejandra2019. La voz pasiva en yagán. Forma y Función 32:2 ► pp. 255 ff. Robert, Stéphane2020. On the grammatical uses of the ‘head’ in Wolof. In Body Part Terms in Conceptualization and Language Usage [Cognitive Linguistic Studies in Cultural Contexts, 12], ► pp. 134 ff. Rodríguez-Piedrabuena, Sandra & José M. Jiménez Delgado2021. On the etymology of πορφύρα ‘purple’. Glotta 97:1 ► pp. 246 ff. Romagno, Domenica2019. Chapter 13. State representation and dynamic processes in Homeric Greek. In Historical Linguistics 2015 [Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, 348], ► pp. 272 ff. Rovai, Francesco2019. Chapter 10. Impersonal passives and the suffix -r in the Indo-European languages. In Historical Linguistics 2015 [Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, 348], ► pp. 188 ff. Safir, Ken2015. Evidence Based on a dynamic source: Database support for a theory of transitive reciprocals. Linguistics Vanguard 1:1 ► pp. 79 ff. SAKAMOTO, MAKI2001. THE MIDDLE AND RELATED CONSTRUCTIONS IN ENGLISH. ENGLISH LINGUISTICS 18:1 ► pp. 86 ff. Salaberri, Iker2020. Grammaticalization of reflexivity in Basque. Journal of Historical Linguistics 10:1 ► pp. 1 ff. Sansò, Andrea2003. Review of Croft (2001): Radical Construction Grammar. Syntactic Theory in Typological Perspective. Studies in Language 27:3 ► pp. 671 ff. 2018. Explaining the diversity of antipassives: Formal grammar vs. (diachronic) typology. Language and Linguistics Compass 12:6 ► pp. e12277 ff. Sapién, Racquel-María, Natalia Cáceres Arandia, Spike Gildea & Sérgio Meira2021. Chapter 3. Antipassive in the Cariban family. In Antipassive [Typological Studies in Language, 130], ► pp. 65 ff. Say, Sergey2021. Chapter 6. Antipassive and the lexical meaning of verbs. In Antipassive [Typological Studies in Language, 130], ► pp. 177 ff. Schumacher, Stefan2020. Chapter 15. The perfect system of Old Albanian (Geg variety). In Perfects in Indo-European Languages and Beyond [Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, 352], ► pp. 506 ff. Schäfer, Florian2009. The Causative Alternation. Language and Linguistics Compass 3:2 ► pp. 641 ff. 2012. The passive of reflexive verbs and its implications for theories of binding and case. The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics 15:3 ► pp. 213 ff. Schäfer, Florian & Margot Vivanco2015. Reflexively marked anticausatives are not semantically reflexive. In Romance Languages and Linguistic Theory 2013 [Romance Languages and Linguistic Theory, 8], ► pp. 203 ff. 2016. Anticausatives are weak scalar expressions, not reflexive expressions. Glossa: a journal of general linguistics 1:1 Schäfer, Lea2022. Valenzorientierung und Valenzmarkierung in der Sprachgeschichte des Deutschen. Zeitschrift für germanistische Linguistik 50:2 ► pp. 320 ff. Seraku, Tohru & Nana Tohyama2018. The affective construction in Yoron Ryukyuan. Studies in Language 42:2 ► pp. 418 ff. Shibasaki, Reijirou2014. More Thoughts on the Grammaticalization of Personal Pronouns. In Grammaticalization – Theory and Data [Studies in Language Companion Series, 162], ► pp. 129 ff. SIEMUND, PETER2014. The emergence of English reflexive verbs: an analysis based on the Oxford English Dictionary. English Language and Linguistics 18:1 ► pp. 49 ff. 2018. Modeling World Englishes from a cross-linguistic perspective. In Modeling World Englishes [Varieties of English Around the World, G61], ► pp. 133 ff. Signes-Codoñer, Juan2005. The definitions of the Greek Middle Voice between Apollonius Dyscolus and Constantinus Lascaris. Historiographia Linguistica 32:1-2 ► pp. 1 ff. Siloni, Tal2012. Reciprocal verbs and symmetry. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 30:1 ► pp. 261 ff. Smith, Mark2004. Light and heavy reflexives. Linguistics 42:3 Soares da Silva, Augusto, Susana Afonso, Dafne Palú & Karlien Franco2021. Null se constructions in Brazilian and European Portuguese: Morphosyntactic deletion or emergence of new constructions?. Cognitive Linguistics 32:1 ► pp. 159 ff. Spathas, Giorgos, Artemis Alexiadou & Florian Schäfer2015. Middle Voice and reflexive interpretations: afto-prefixation in Greek. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 33:4 ► pp. 1293 ff. Strauss, Susan2003. Completive aspect, emotion, and the dynamic eventive: the case of Korean V-a/e pelita, Japanese V-te shimau, and Spanish se. Linguistics 41:4 TANIGUCHI, KAZUMI1997. ON THE SEMANTICS AND DEVELOPMENT OF COPULATIVE PERCEPTION VERBS IN ENGLISH: A COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE. ENGLISH LINGUISTICS 14:0 ► pp. 270 ff. Taube, Dana2020. Chapter 10. Voice distinctions. In Usage-Based Studies in Modern Hebrew [Studies in Language Companion Series, 210], ► pp. 331 ff. Teng, Stacy Fang-ching2020. The three agent demoting prefixes (ki-, m-u-, kur-) in Katripul Puyuma. Concentric. Studies in Linguistics 46:1 ► pp. 21 ff. Testelets, Ya.G.2019. A language for Guinness World Records: Fifteen (or more?) reflexive pronouns in Khwarshi. Rhema :2, 2019 ► pp. 77 ff. Tomasello, Michael2007. Acquiring Linguistic Constructions. In Handbook of Child Psychology, Toro, Francisca, Verónica Orqueda & Demian Inostroza2022. Reevaluating the etymology of Latin reflexives. Folia Linguistica 56:s43-s1 ► pp. 33 ff. Traugott, Elizabeth Closs & Richard B. Dasher2001. Regularity in Semantic Change, Tucker, Gordon H.2013. Review of Medina (2011): Morphosyntactic alternations in English: Functional and cognitive perspectives. Functions of Language 20:2 ► pp. 307 ff. Turley, Jeffrey S.1998. A prototype analysis of Spanish indeterminate reflexive constructions. Language Sciences 20:2 ► pp. 137 ff. Uchihara, Hiroto & Ambrocio Gutiérrez2021. Teotitlán Zapotec: An ‘activizing’ language. Linguistic Typology 25:2 ► pp. 257 ff. Vallejos, Rosa2019. Llegaron en sus canoa: innovación gramatical en el español de la Amazonía peruana. Letras (Lima) 90:131 ► pp. 77 ff. van der Auwera, Johan, Nina Dobrushina & Valentin Goussev2003. A Semantic Map for Imperative-Hortatives. In Contrastive Analysis in Language, ► pp. 44 ff. Viti, Carlotta2017. Semantic and cognitive factors of argument marking in ancient Indo-European languages. Diachronica 34:3 ► pp. 368 ff. Voitila, Anssi2020. Middle Voice as Depiction of Subject’s Dominion in the Greek Pentateuch. In The Legacy of Soisalon-Soininen, ► pp. 81 ff. Vázquez, Glòria & Ana Fernández-Montraveta2019. Los verbos recíprocos en los diccionarios. Revista de Lexicografía 24 ► pp. 171 ff. WEE, LIONEL2007. Singapore English X-self and ownself. World Englishes 26:3 ► pp. 360 ff. Wegner, Dennis2021. The categorial, argument structural and aspectual indeterminacy of past participles: A holistic approach. Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft 40:2 ► pp. 199 ff. Widmer, Manuel2018. Transitivity markers in West Himalayish. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 41:1 ► pp. 75 ff. Wiemer, Björn & Marta Grzybowska2015. Converse relations with the reflexive marker in Lithuanian and Polish. In Voice and Argument Structure in Baltic [Valency, Argument Realization and Grammatical Relations in Baltic, 2], ► pp. 211 ff. Willim, Ewa2020. Chapter 7. Polish impersonal middles with a dative as syntactically derived experience events. In Beyond Emotions in Language [Linguistik Aktuell/Linguistics Today, 263], ► pp. 245 ff. Wolfsgruber, Anne C.2017.  On, Se and related valency alternations in Medieval French. Lingvisticae Investigationes 40:1 ► pp. 59 ff. 2021. Null-Subjects and se Revisited: What Medieval Romance Varieties Reveal. In Unraveling the complexity of SE [Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 99], ► pp. 57 ff. Mark A. Wrathall2013. The Cambridge Companion to Heidegger's <I>Being and Time</I>, Yates, Anthony D. & John Gluckman2020. Voice Reversals and Syntactic Structure: Evidence from Hittite. Glossa: a journal of general linguistics 5:1 Ye, Zhengdao2019. The Emergence of Expressible Agency and Irony in Today’s China: A Semantic Explanation of the New Bèi-construction. Australian Journal of Linguistics 39:1 ► pp. 57 ff. Zahir, Zalmai2018. Chapter 9. Incipient hierarchical alignment in four Central Salish languages from the Proto-Salish middle. In Typological Hierarchies in Synchrony and Diachrony [Typological Studies in Language, 121], ► pp. 309 ff. Zakaria, Muhammad2021. Functions of the -êy suffix in Hyow. Journal of South Asian Languages and Linguistics 8:1-2 ► pp. 85 ff. Zhang, Ding2021. Development of the Semantic Map Model in China. In The Palgrave Handbook of Chinese Language Studies, ► pp. 1 ff. 2022. Development of the Semantic Map Model in China. In The Palgrave Handbook of Chinese Language Studies, ► pp. 133 ff. Zhang, Ying2017. Semantic map approach to universals of conceptual correlations: a study on multifunctional repetitive grams. Lingua Sinica 3:1 Zhang, Ze Shun2013. Semantic Map Model and Construction of Synset. Advanced Materials Research 756-759 ► pp. 2484 ff. Zingler, Tim2022. Circumfixation: A semasiological approach. Word Structure 15:1 ► pp. 55 ff. Zúñiga, Fernando2016. Selected semitransitive constructions in Algonquian. Lingua Posnaniensis 58:2 ► pp. 207 ff. Zúñiga, Fernando & Seppo Kittilä2019. Grammatical Voice, [no author supplied]2002. Book Reviews. Journal of African Languages and Linguistics 23:1 2008. ABBREVIATIONS. In Linguistic Universals and Language Change, ► pp. xiii ff. 2008. Copyright Page. In Linguistic Universals and Language Change, ► pp. iv ff. 2008. THE CONTRIBUTORS. In Linguistic Universals and Language Change, ► pp. ix ff. 2014. Cognitive Modeling [Human Cognitive Processing, 45], 2014. Profiling Discourse Participants [Pragmatics & Beyond New Series, 246], 2014. The Spatial Language of Time [Human Cognitive Processing, 42], 2015. Impersonals and other Agent Defocusing Constructions in French [Human Cognitive Processing, 50], 2016. Semantic Structure in English [Studies in Functional and Structural Linguistics, 73], 2017. Bibliography. In The Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Linguistics: A Handbook for Language Teaching, ► pp. 744 ff. 2019. Typology of Pluractional Constructions in the Languages of the World [Typological Studies in Language, 125], 2019. References. In A Contrastive Grammar of Brazilian Pomeranian [Linguistik Aktuell/Linguistics Today, 248], ► pp. 273 ff. 2019. Patient-Subject Constructions in Mandarin Chinese [Studies in Chinese Language and Discourse, 12], 2020. The NP-strategy for Expressing Reciprocity [Typological Studies in Language, 127], 2020. The Middle Voice in Baltic [Valency, Argument Realization and Grammatical Relations in Baltic, 5], 2020. Bibliography. In The Legacy of Soisalon-Soininen, ► pp. 301 ff. 2022. The Middle Voice and Connected Constructions in Ibero-Romance [Studies in Language Variation, 29], This list is based on CrossRef data as of 6 march 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.

Main BIC Subject

CF: Linguistics

Main BISAC Subject

LAN009000: LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  93005762 | Marc record