The present paper deals with the passive function of the middle diathesis in Vedic Sanskrit, one of the most ancient attested Indo-European languages. It gives a general survey of passive formations of the three main tense systems (present, aorist and perfect) and discusses forms which are traditionally considered non-characterized middle formations (‘bare middles’). It will be argued that these forms should be grouped with those formations which have specialized markers of passive. I will further inventory the actually attested present passives with the suffix -yá-, discussing the defective character of the passive paradigm of the present, aorist and perfect tense systems. In conclusion, I briefly discuss possible Proto-Indo-European sources of the Vedic passive paradigm and the historical relationships between the categories of perfect, stative and middle, as well as perspectives of a diachronic typological study of valency-changing categories, such as passive and causative, outlining the main tendencies in the evolution of the Proto-Indo-European middle.
Luraghi, Silvia, Guglielmo Inglese & Daniel Kölligan
2021. The passive voice in ancient Indo-European languages: inflection, derivation, periphrastic verb forms. Folia Linguistica 55:s42-s2 ► pp. 339 ff.
Zúñiga, Fernando & Seppo Kittilä
2019. Grammatical Voice,
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