Article published in:The Evolution of Englishes: The Dynamic Model and beyond
Edited by Sarah Buschfeld, Thomas Hoffmann, Magnus Huber and Alexander Kautzsch
[Varieties of English Around the World G49] 2014
► pp. 86–106
Stylistic and sociolinguistic variation in Schneider’s Nativization Phase
T-affrication and relativization in Ghanaian English
Taking educated Ghanaian English (GhE) as an example, this article considers the place of stylistic and sociolinguistic variation in Schneider’s (2003, 2007) Dynamic Model of the evolution of New Englishes. The study examines variation in one phonological and one morphosyntactic variable, investigating t-affrication with regard to variation across the two genders and two speech styles in spoken GhE, and analysing relativizer choice in written texts of differing formality. The results demonstrate that GhE shows robust and consistent stylistic and gender-related variation, although it has only reached Phase 3 of Schneider’s Dynamic Model. This is noteworthy on a theoretical level since the emergence of local sociolinguistic norms would not have been expected until Phase 5.
Keywords: Ghanaian English, Nativization, relativizer choice, stylistic and sociolinguistic variation, t-affrication
Published online: 12 September 2014
2006 A dictionary of Ghanaian English. Ms. <http://www.rogerblench.info/Language/English/GhanaEnglishdictionary.pdf> (09 November 2013).
Fc. A pilot study of acoustic features of word-final affricated /t/ and /ts/ in educated Ghanaian English. In Language Variation and Change in Postcolonial Contexts, R. Calabrese, J.K. Chambers & G. Leitner (eds) Newcastle upon Tyne Cambridge Scholars
Brato, T. & Huber, M
Ghana Census Office
Ghana Statistical Service
2013 2010 Population & Housing Census. Demographic, Social, Economic & Housing Characteristics. Accra: Ghana Statistical Service. <http://www.statsghana.gov.gh/docfiles/publications/2010_PHC_demographic_social_economic_housing_characteristics.pdf> (23 November 2013).
Government of the Gold Coast
2012b Syntactic and variational complexity in British and Ghanaian English. Relative clause formation in the written parts of the International Corpus of English. In Linguistic Complexity: Second Language Acquisition, Indigenization, Contact, B. Kortmann & B. Szmrecsanyi (eds), 218–242. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
International Corpus of English
<http://ice-corpora.net/ice> (23 November 2013)
Kirby, Fr. J.P
Lewis, M.P., Simons, G.F. & Fennig, C.D.
(eds) 2013 Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 17 edn. Dallas TX: SIL International. Online version: <http://www.ethnologue.com> (23 November 2013).
Loakes, D. & McDougall, K
2007 Frication of Australian English /p t k/: Group tendencies and individual differences. Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences ,1445–1448. <http://www.icphs2007.de> (23 November 2013).
Odamtten, H. & Laryea, E.B
2001 Calculation for the chi-square test: An interactive calculation tool for chi-square tests of goodness of fit and independence [Computer software]. <http://quantpsy.org> (23 November 2013).
Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G. & Svartvik, J
Schneider, E.W., Burridge, K., Kortmann, B., Mesthrie, R. & Upton, C.
US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census
Cited by 6 other publications
Suárez‐Gómez, Cristina, Lucía Loureiro‐Porto & Robert Fuchs
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 26 april 2022. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.