Article published in:
Language Issues in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Edited by Paula Prescod
[Varieties of English Around the World G51] 2015
► pp. 165180
The bibliography

The bibliography

Abrahams, Roger D.
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A study on the sociolinguistics of gossip (or commess), uses data from Richland Park, St Vincent
Abrahams, Roger D.
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This paper explores the language learned and used in one Afro-American peasant community on St Vincent
Abrahams, Roger D.
1982Storytelling events: Wake amusements and the structure of nonsense on St Vincent. Journal of American Folklore 95(378): 389–414. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
The article investigates the 'Wake' by looking closely at the content features of riddles and stories told in Richland Park, St Vincent
Abrahams, Roger D.
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The discussion includes 62 riddles told one night during a wake, in Richland Park, St Vincent
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An analysis of speech behavior among the Afro-American peasants of St Vincent, British West Indies, is provided, focusing on the tea meeting, one of the most popular performance events on the island
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Discusses specific need for more description of undocumented English-derived Creoles of the Americas, including St Vincent and the Grenadines
Aceto, Michael
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Occasional use of examples from St Vincent
Aceto, Michael
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Specific data for St Vincent & the Grenadines included (pp. 307-8) in the general discussion and analysis
Aceto, Michael
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No special section on St Vincent & the Grenadines, yet data from the language included in discussion and analysis
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Surveys English-derived Creoles of the Caribbean, including the island of St Vincent. Provides a general description of phonology, morphology, and syntax
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The author adds 6 new ways of expansion (building on Ian Hancock's 12: coining, incoining/blending, calquing, semantic extension, semantic shift, convergence, divergence, back formation, tautology, tonalizing, reduplication, adoption): misascription, functional shift, folk etymology, code overlap, attraction, and free-compounding. Examples from St Vincent are used (pp. 91, 101, 105)
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Comprehensive dictionary covering all varieties of English in the Caribbean, including St Vincent & the Grenadines (lists the numerous specific informants/advisors, p. xv)
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St Vincent Creole is one of the nine Atlantic English Creoles (AEC) used in the analysis. Also reviews earlier work on affinities among the AEC's
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A typological study of 33 Caribbean English Creole, including St Vincent
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Focuses on discourse-language as social practice in communities in the Caribbean (including St Vincent) and among Fiji Indians
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Breton lived among the Dominican Caribs from 1635-1640 and compiled this dictionary; includes language/words from St Vincent
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One of the earliest published works that includes coverage of linguistic phenomena in St Vincent
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Students from St Vincent are included in the sample used in this study on language use
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Paper presented. No abstract or paper found online or in print as of 3/14/2013
Daleszynska, Agata
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Focuses on dialect leveling, by analyzing the alternation between bare verbs and inflected verbs among younger speakers of Bequian Creole
Daleszynska, Agata
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Word final /t,d/ use by adolescents in Bequia is examined
Daleszynska, Agata
2011aAnd them people bin live so happy: On the function of preverbal bin in Bequia and its role in language change. In Society for Pidgin and Creole Linguistics Winter Conference . 7-8 January 2011. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Abstract on p. 169 of Conference Handbook.https://​files​.nyu​.edu​/jpw287​/public​/LSA%202011%20Handbook​.pdf
The preverbal marker bin and its place in the past tense of Bequian Creole is explored
Daleszynska, Agata
2011bAre in-betweens useful for variationist research? A perspective from Bequia Creole. In New Ways of Analyzing Variation 38. 22-25 October 2009. Ottawa, Canada. 37-38.http://​www​.lel​.ed​.ac​.uk​.libproxy​.unm​.edu​/research​/glic​/Daleszynska1FebGoogle Scholar
This paper focuses on a group of young speakers of Bequian Creole who are outside the sociolinguistic community norms
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This paper provides a classification of English-based Creoles using 33 languages, including St Vincent, by looking at a selection of lexical and typological features encoded as binary pairs
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Uses data from a study on St Vincent, including discussion of language use
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Includes discussion of the use of non-standard English and the perceived importance of changing to the use of Standard English
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This volume has 17 poems, as well as an extensive vocabulary section of nearly 900 entries
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1998Women, Language, and Respect in Rural St Vincent and the Grenadines. PhD dissertation, University of Washington.
An ethnographic study of the language practices of primarily rural lower-class women on St Vincent. With fieldwork done in 1992-1993, this work explores the personal, social, and cultural significance of women's voices engaged in everyday talk
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In covering various rituals describes some of the languages used
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Mentions St Vincent Creole while discussing and contrasting the language of St Lucia
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Looks at five different cultural systems, including St Vincent, in this comparative analysis of the functions of gossip
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A detailed semiotic analysis of a story related to the author by a Vincentian Carib
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1983New evidence on the origins of the Black Carib, with thoughts on the meaning of tradition. New West Indian Guide/Nieuwe West-indische Gids 57(3-4): 143–172. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Discusses the history of Black Caribs, including their time on St Vincent, including coverage of languages spoken
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1988Sojourners of the Caribbean: Ethnogenesis and Ethnohistory of the Garifuna. Urbana IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
While primarily about the Garifuna after exodus to the continent, does discuss history on St Vincent & the Grenadines - including language
Gonzalez, Nancie L.
1991Prospero, Caliban and Black Sambo: Colonial views of the other in the Caribbean. 1992 Lecture Series Working Papers 11. University of Maryland, Department of Spanish and Portuguese.Google Scholar
The linguistic situation is included in the discussion of the relations among different groups on St Vincent during the Carib Wars during 1795-96
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This volume is "oriented toward the analysis of language forms not for their own sake but, instead, as a pragmatic tool toward elucidation of the physical, ethnic, and linguistic origins of their users" (p. xi). Includes coverage of the language of St Vincent
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Brief discussion of the complicated situation contrasting the Carib-identifying people with the Afro-American majority on St Vincent
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Extensive coverage of the history of the Carib people on St Vincent from the earliest known history through the 1970’s. Language in all its aspects is a part of this history
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Extensive discussion and comparison of syntactic data from 33 English-based Creoles contribute to a new classification of these creoles. St Vincent is included
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Among people and languages covered is Eneri/Island Carib, spoken on the Windward Islands
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This study classifies the four English-lexifier Creole languages spoken in Grenada, Guyana, St Vincent, and Tobago. Based on his 2006 PhD dissertation, University of the West Indies, St Augustine, Trinidad
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Provides a brief history of the island and gives language examples
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Section 10.3 covers Eastern Caribbean Creole English, with history and language examples of St Vincent
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Brief mention of words from St Vincent in this overview of creoles in the Caribbean
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Sociolinguistic discussion focusing in on stories and accusations relating to thievery, or 'tiefs'
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Discusses the dialects of 12 areas, including St Vincent
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The language of St Vincent has a significant presence in this work. Chapter 3 analyzes results of a grammar questionnaire given to speakers in Jamaica, St Vincent and Grenada. Within the section on Disputed settlements and their outcomes is a piece on St Vincent: A boundary case
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Covers mass media and languages used in the Commonwealth Caribbean, including St Vincent and the Grenadines
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The classic reference work for languages of the world, includes St Vincent & the Grenadines
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A sociolinguistic exploration of some gender and language characteristics on Bequia
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Reviews data from ongoing work on Bequian English that shows that in spite of a superficial simplicity in shared patterns, Bequian English is different from Standard English
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Designed for a wide audience, this book surveys the commonalities and differences in the ways people talk on the island of Bequia. It starts with a sociohistorical chapter and then moves on to chapters dealing with phonology and grammar
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Using a corpus of Bequian English, the question of whether agreement in existential constructions is best viewed as grammatical or lexical is analyzed
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Investigates tense in Bequia
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Describes the rules and formats followed in the transfer of information/mechanisms of social control. Research conducted in Georgetown
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Stories from the Grenadines are on pp. 71-95 with 10 stories from St Vincent on pp. 72-112
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Included in the riddles from St Vincent are 24 in English (pp. 375-377) and 11 in French (pp. 466-467)
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Provides a phonemic inventory, resulting from acoustic analyses of vowels and consonants using both existing data and newly collected data
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Investigates word formation in creoles through the lens of second language acquisition. Includes data from St Vincent
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Data from St Vincent are used briefly (p. 412)
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Vincentian Creole data, collected from radio, poetry and prose, are analyzed
Prescod, Paula
2002Indefinite pronouns in Vincentian Creole and English: A comparative approach. Paper presented at the 14th Biennial Conference of the Society for Caribbean Linguistics . 14-17 August, UWI Trinidad.http://​www​.fcvnet​.net​/~paula​/papers​.html
The three major series of indefinite pronouns in English and Vincentian Creole are compared through an examination of their inventory and distribution. Despite superficial similarity, fundamental differences between the two languages are found
Prescod, Paula
2003Just what do VinC indefinite pronouns entail? Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Pidgin and Creole Linguistics , January 2003. Atlanta GA. http://​www​.fcvnet​.net​/~paula​/papers​.html
The uses and functions of the three major series of indefinite pronouns in Vincentian Creole are investigated by looking closely at their inventory and distribution
Prescod, Paula
2006aStress assignment and functions of pitch in Vincentian Creole. In Stress, Tone, and Intonation in Creole and Contact Languages, Parth Bhatt & Ingo Plag (eds). Special issue of Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung: STUF 59(2): 191–210.Google Scholar
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Prescod, Paula
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Article written for the general public proposing a writing system for Vincentian
Prescod, Paula
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Explores derivational processes in Vincentian Creole and demonstrates that while speakers use these processes much like English, they also use distinctly different combination forms
Prescod, Paula
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This study examines how some English-based Creoles position negative particles, in particular in utterances marked for tense, mood, and aspect
Prescod, Paula
2008cThe syntax of negation and indefinite pronouns in Standard English and Caribbean Creole varieties. Paper presented at the European Society for the Study of English Conference . 22-26 August, University of Aarhus, Denmark. http://​www​.fcvnet​.net​/~paula​/papers​.html
The contrastive behavior of sentential negation and the distribution of indefinite pronouns in Standard English and English-lexified Caribbean varieties are examined. Both systems treat negation differently
Prescod, Paula
2008dWhat does and doesn’t do for creoles: Zeroing in on aspect and negation. Invited paper: NORMS Workshop on Auxiliaries, Mood and Modality , 17-18 September, NTNU Trondheim University, Norway.http://​www​.fcvnet​.net​/~paula​/papers​.html
Lexical and grammatical features of English-based Creoles are examined
Prescod, Paula
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The classification of pidgins and creoles in terms of language complexity is discussed. Vincentian is one of the languages
Prescod, Paula
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A comprehensive, book-length description of the noun phrase in the English-lexified Creole of St Vincent and the Grenadines. This work is the translation of the original French version of the author’s 2004 PhD thesis, which was also published in 2006. (cf. below)
Prescod, Paula
2006Une description grammaticale du syntagme nominal dans le créole anglophone de St-Vincent-et-les-Grenadines. PhD dissertation, Université Paris III. Lille: Presses de l’ANRT.
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Prescod, Paula
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Interactive tool that provides a wide range of morphosyntactic phenomena on varieties of English. This chapter is dedicated exclusively to the Vincentian variety
Prescod, Paula
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Provides a wide range of morphosyntactic phenomena on varieties of English including this full-length chapter on the Vincentian variety
Prescod, Paula
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The Atlas provides 130 world maps of structural linguistic features of 76 pidgins and creoles. The printed version contains a full length chapter providing sociohistorical background, the sociolinguistic situation, phonological, morphological and structural features of Vincentian Creole. The online version also contains sound files of each language
Prescod, Paula
2013 Vincentian Creole. In The Survey of Pidgin and Creole Languages, Vol. 1: English-based and Dutch-based Languages, Ch. 7, Susanne Michaelis, Philippe Maurer, Martin Haspelmath & Magnus Huber (eds), 70-80. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
The Atlas provides 130 world maps of structural linguistic features of 76 pidgins and creoles. The printed version contains a full length chapter providing sociohistorical background, the sociolinguistic situation, phonological, morphological and structural features of Vincentian Creole
Prescod, Paula & Fraser, Adrian
2008A demolinguistic profile of St Vincent and the Grenadines or a successful attempt at linguistic disenfranchisement. Anthropos 103(1): 99–112.Google Scholar
The demolinguistic dynamics between the Arawak and Carib Indians and succeeding settlers in St Vincent & the Grenadines are explored
Ralston, Lenore D.
1985A historical account of ‘country talk’ on St Vincent Island: Problems and new directions. In Diversity and Development in English-related Creoles, Ian F. Hancock (ed.). Ann Arbor MI: Karoma.Google Scholar
Summarizes the history of the island and then discusses whether or not St Vincent has an English-based or a French-based creole
Roberts, Peter A.
1988West Indians and their Language. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
A wide-ranging discussion of the numerous varieties of English used in the West Indies, including some examples from St Vincent
Roberts, Peter
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One of the recurring themes in this volume is the many languages used on the islands and their sociolinguistic import
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1987Coping with Poverty: Adaptive Strategies in a Caribbean Village. Boulder CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
An ethnographic account of a "large coastal village" on St Vincent. Occasional use of nonstandard English while discussing various activities. Based upon fieldwork done in 1969-1971, 1980, and 1985
Schneider, Edgar W.
1992Negation patterns and the cline of creoleness in English-oriented varieties of the Caribbean. In Studies in Caribbean Language, II: Papers from the Ninth Biennial Conference of the Society for Caribbean Linguistics, Pauline Christie, et al. (eds), 2014-227. St Augustine, Trinidad: University of West Indies Press.Google Scholar
Compares negation patterns in numerous creoles, including St Vincent, to make the claim that there is a "cline of creoleness", i.e., a language continuum
Shephard, C.
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Occasional mention of language used by island tribes
Sidnell, Jack
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Includes Bequian Creole among languages used for analysis
Sidnell, Jack
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Bequian Creole is among the languages used for this analysis
Sidnell, Jack
2008Alternate and complementary perspectives on language and social life: the organization of repair in two Caribbean communities. Journal of Sociolinguistics 12(4): 477–503. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Discusses the history of relations between conversation analysis and linguistic anthropology, using the organization of other-initiated repair in two Caribbean communities, one of which is Bequia
Sidnell, Jack
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For analysis of "if"-prefaces repeats, using Bequian Creole as part of the data, shows that Caribbean English Creoles have apparently unique possibilities for social action. Using data from Bequian Creole, explores repairs in referencing persons
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Vincentian is among nine Atlantic English-based Creoles compared in a section on cross-creole similarities. Shows that five of the Caribbean Creoles pattern together: St Kitts, Barbados, Antigua, Guyana, and St Vincent
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St Vincent is grouped in with other Windward Islands in the analysis
Stewart, Harold
1993A Case Study of a Methods Program in English as a Second Language in St Vincent, West Indies. PhD dissertation, University of Alberta.
The purpose of this case study was to reveal the impact of an English as a second language methods course on the professional lives of a group of teachers from St Vincent, West Indies
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Survey of languages of the West Indies, including brief mention of St Vincent and Island Carib
Taylor, Douglas
1958Names on St Vincent. West Indian Guide (De West-Indische Gids) 38: 106–110.Google Scholar
Discusses the place names of Carib origin. The work is based on maps and other documents and some direct fieldwork
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Discusses many of the languages of the Caribbean, in particular, a community in the Eastern Caribbean island of St Vincent
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Comprehensive coverage of the many languages of the West Indies, mostly an historical account
Trudgill, Peter
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Includes St Vincent & the Grenadines in the discussion of Caribbean Englishes
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Chapter 3 “On Anguilla and the Pickwick Papers” includes examples from St Vincent
Vincentian Creole English: A Language of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Ethnologue report for language code svc. Most similar to Guyana, Tobago. It exists in a continuum with Standard English, with speech in the Capital of Kingstown most similar to Standard English (the acrolect) and that of the Island Carib descendants who live north of the Dry River being the least similar to Standard English
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Zero copula is analyzed on the Eastern Caribbean island of Bequia, where a mesolectal creole variety coexists with a nonstandard English variety
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While exploring the issues involved in the individual vs. the community, the English spoken on the island of Bequia (St Vincent and the Grenadines) is used
Walker, James A. & Meyerhoff, Miriam
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Provides a description of Bequian English
Walker, James A. & Sidnell, Jack
2011Inherent variability and coexistent systems: Negation in Bequia. In Variation in the Caribbean: From Creole Continua to Individual Agency [Creole Language Library 37], Lars Hinrichs & Joseph T. Farquharson (eds), 39-55. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Despite its small size (only 7 sq. miles) there is a surprising linguistic diversity on the island. Examines the variable negation in three communities. The authors conclude that there are multiple coexistent systems rather than a highly variable linguistic system
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Describes original and offshoot settlements, historical to the present, of the Irish, Scots, and English on Barbados, St Vincent, Bequia, and Saba. Includes details and question on the phonology, morphology, and syntax
Williams, Jeffrey Payne
1987Anglo-Caribbean English: A Study of its Sociolinguistic History and the Development of its Aspectual Markers. PhD dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin.
A sociolinguistic history of the dialects of Anglo-Caribbean English, including Bequia and St Vincent, is provided. The convergence and reanalysis of form/function relationships within grammar is shown to be one of the outcomes of dialect contact
Williams, Jeffrey Payne
1988The development of aspectual markers in Anglo-Caribbean English. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 3(2): 245–263. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Investigates aspectual markers in the various English-derived Creoles of the Caribbean, including Bequia
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A description of a continuum of lesser-known varieties of English spoken in small, relatively isolated enclave white communities in the West Indies is provided. Includes the community of Dorsetshire Hill, St Vincent
Wilson, Carlos Guillermo
1998The Caribbean: Marvelous cradle-hammock and painful cornucopia. In Caribbean Creolization: Reflections on the Cultural Dynamics of Language, Literature, and Identity, Kathleen Balutansky & Marie-Agnes Souriean (eds), 36-43. Gainesville FL: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
While primarily concerning the Garifuna after leaving St Vincent, the chapter does include discussion of the broad linguistic situation on the island prior to leaving
Wilson, Samuel M.
1997The legacy of the indigenous people of the Caribbean. In Indigenous People of the Caribbean, Samuel M. Wilson (ed.), 206-213. Gainesville FL: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
Included in the discussion are mention of the linguistic connections, names for food and cooking, and place names
Winford, Donald
1993Predication in Caribbean English Creoles [Creole Language Library 10]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
The bulk of the book discusses Jamaican and Guyanese, but does include an interesting chart of the relationships between all of the Caribbean English Creoles
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Occasional use of data from St Vincent in reviewing evidence of a creole continuum
Young, Virginia Heyer
1993Becoming West Indian: Culture, Self, and Nation in St Vincent. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institute Press.Google Scholar
While language is not the focus, it is not ignored and the study includes the sociolinguistic use of varieties of language and quotes from texts in creole. Based on fieldwork done for six months in 1972, two months in 1984, and two months in 1986