Chapter published in:Advances in Interdisciplinary Language Policy
Edited by François Grin, László Marácz and Nike K. Pokorn
[Studies in World Language Problems 9] 2022
► pp. 67–86
Chapter 4How to upgrade the status of migrant languages in the European Union
In this chapter, we will compare the status of traditional minority and migrant languages in the European context and its practical implications for the trade-off between mobility and inclusion. It has been observed that traditional minority languages in Central and Eastern European (CEE) states have fewer rights compared to official languages and that their status and position is best described by language hierarchies, asymmetries, subordination, and threshold restrictions. This against the background of international treaties, such as article 22 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (CFREU) stating that the European Union (EU) respects cultural, religious, and linguistic diversity and the charters of the Council of Europe (CoE). Although linguistic inequality is an unwanted state of affairs violating international treaties and obligations of member states, these traditional minority language cases might refer to the assignment of linguistic rights to languages of migrants. Both categories belong to the domain of the non-official, majority languages and are expected to be assigned less rights than ‘national languages’, although traditional minority languages have been assigned limited rights in terms of the personality principle next to the territoriality principle applied to the national languages. Note that the language rights of migrants in the EU are also restricted by the mobility-and-inclusion trade-off, which is detrimental to migrant languages in the national context. A solution to this inequality is provided by the fact that the personality principle is a common denominator in the assignment of linguistic rights to minority-language speakers and has already been introduced into transnational European spaces. Hence, the rights of migrant languages can be accounted for by applying the personality principle in these spaces as well. This results in a Union-wide supranational language policy for migrant languages which supports the upgrading of migrant languages in accordance with the personality principle.
- 2.Migrant language status and the MIME project
- 3.Key concepts and tools
- 4.Introducing traditional minority languages and migrant languages
- 4.1Traditional minority languages
- Literature review
- Data and methods
- 4.2Migrant languages
- Literature review
- Data and methods
- Documents and interviews: How do ‘national models’ affect migrants’ appropriation and competence?
- 4.1Traditional minority languages
Legal and political documents, sources and files
Published online: 21 January 2022
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Bertossi, Christophe, Duyvendak, Jan Willem & Scholten, Peter
Bourhis, Richard Y., Moïse, Lána Céline, Perrault, Stéphane & Senécal, Sacha
Brubaker, Rogers, Feischmidt, Margit, Fox, Jon & Grancea, Liana
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Horváth, István, Veress, Ilka, & Vitos, Katalin
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Kymlicka, Will & Patten, Alan
Lempp, Frieder & Marácz, László
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Rojas, Antonio J., Navas, Marisol, Sayans-Jiménez, Pablo & Cuadrado, Isabel
Scholten, Peter & Penninx, Rinus
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Appendix.Legal and political documents, sources and files
Commission of the European Communities
(2003) Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, 2003: Promoting Language Learning and Linguistic Diversity: An Action Plan 2004 – 2006. COM (2003) 449 final. Retrieved from: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=LEGISSUM:c11068.
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Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs, European Parliament. Report on the situation of fundamental rights in the European Union in 2015 (2016/2009(INI))
Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions
Promoting Language Learning and Linguistic Diversity: An Action Plan 2004 – 2006. Retrieved from: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2003:0449:FIN:en:PDF.
An Inventory of Community actions in the field of multilingualism – 2011 update. Retrieved from: http://register.consilium.europa.eu/doc/srv?l=EN&f=ST%2012727%202011%20INIT.
Congress of Local and Regional Authorities
(2017) Regional and minority languages in Europe today, adopted on 19 October 2017, CPR33(2017)02final. Retrieved from: https://rm.coe.int/regional-and-minority-languages-in-europe-today-current-affairs-commit/168075c431.
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Minderhedenbeleid (Minorities policy document), Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal
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Protector of Citizens – Ombudsman
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Provincial Assembly Decision on Detailed Regulation of Some Issues Concerning Official Use of Language and Script of National Minorities in the Territory of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina
Treaty on the European Union
Official Journal C 326, 26/10/2012 P. 0001 – 0390.
(2001) Report on the Preferential Treatment of National Minorities by their Kin-State, adopted by the Venice Commission at its 48th Plenary Meeting, CDL01INF (2001), 19–20 October 2001.