Elements of Structural Syntax

| Zhejiang University
| Université Paris Ouest Nanterre
ISBN 9789027212122 | EUR 115.00 | USD 173.00
e-Book Open Access
ISBN 9789027269997

This volume appears now finally in English, sixty years after the death of its author, Lucien Tesnière. It has been translated from the French original into German, Spanish, Italian, and Russian, and now at long last into English as well. The volume contains a comprehensive approach to the syntax of natural languages, an approach that is foundational for an entire stream in the modern study of syntax and grammar. This stream is known today as dependency grammar (DG). Drawing examples from dozens of languages, many of which he was proficient in, Tesnière presents insightful analyses of numerous phenomena of syntax. Among the highlights are the concepts of valency and head-initial vs. head-final languages. These concepts are now taken for granted by most modern theories of syntax, even by phrase structure grammars, which represent, in a sense, the opposite sort of approach to syntax from what Tesnière was advocating.

As of February 2018, this e-book is freely available, thanks to the support of libraries working with Knowledge Unlatched.

[Not in series, 185]  2015.  lxxxii, 698 pp.
Publishing status: Available
The e-Book is available under a CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license.
Table of Contents
List of stemmas
Translators’ Introduction
Sylvain Kahane and Timothy Osborne
Preface to the first original edition
Preface to the second original edition
Part 1. The connection
Structure of the simple sentence
Question and negation
Part 2. Junction
Part 3. Transfer
First-degree transfer, simple transfer
First-degree transfer, multiple transfer
Second degree transfer, simple transfer
Second-degree transfer, multiple transfer
Index of terms
Index of languages
Index of linguists
Index of citations
Cited by

Cited by other publications

Abraham, Werner & Elisabeth Leiss
2017.  In Contrastive Studies in Verbal Valency [Linguistik Aktuell/Linguistics Today, 237],  pp. 28 ff. Crossref logo
Böhm, Roger
2018.  In Substance-based Grammar – The (Ongoing) Work of John Anderson [Studies in Language Companion Series, 204],  pp. 261 ff. Crossref logo
Cohen, Shay
2016. Bayesian Analysis in Natural Language Processing. Synthesis Lectures on Human Language Technologies 9:2  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Cohen, Shay
2019. Bayesian Analysis in Natural Language Processing, Second Edition. Synthesis Lectures on Human Language Technologies 12:1  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
de Marneffe, Marie-Catherine & Joakim Nivre
2019. Dependency Grammar. Annual Review of Linguistics 5:1  pp. 197 ff. Crossref logo
Gao, Jun & Haitao Liu
2019. Valency and English learners’ thesauri. International Journal of Lexicography 32:3  pp. 326 ff. Crossref logo
Gobbo, Federico
2017. Are planned languages less complex than natural languages?. Language Sciences 60  pp. 36 ff. Crossref logo
Hudson, Richard
2017. Structural priming supports grammatical networks. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 40 Crossref logo
Jastrząb, Tomasz, Grzegorz Kwiatkowski & Paweł Sadowski
2016.  In Beyond Databases, Architectures and Structures. Advanced Technologies for Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery [Communications in Computer and Information Science, 613],  pp. 357 ff. Crossref logo
Mazziotta, Nicolas
2016. Drawing Syntax before Syntactic Trees. Historiographia Linguistica 43:3  pp. 301 ff. Crossref logo
Osborne, Timothy
2019.  In A Dependency Grammar of English, Crossref logo
2017. Left node blocking. Journal of Linguistics 53:3  pp. 641 ff. Crossref logo
Przepiórkowski, Adam
2017.  In Argumenty i modyfikatory w gramatyce i w słowniku, Crossref logo
Przepiórkowski, Adam
2018. The origin of the valency metaphor in linguistics. Lingvisticae Investigationes 41:1  pp. 152 ff. Crossref logo
Przepiórkowski, Adam & Agnieszka Patejuk
2019. From Lexical Functional Grammar to enhanced Universal Dependencies. Language Resources and Evaluation Crossref logo
Sass, Bálint
2018.  In Text, Speech, and Dialogue [Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 11107],  pp. 231 ff. Crossref logo
Wang, Yalan
2019. Quantitative Analysis of Dependency Structures. Journal of Quantitative Linguistics  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 14 september 2019. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.



Ajdukiewicz, K.
1935Die syntaktische Konnexität. Studia Philosophica 1, 1–27.
Arnavielle, T.
1995Lucien Tesnière à Montpellier. In Madray-Lesigne and Richard-Zappella (1995), Lucien Tesnière aujourd’ hui, 83–86.
Arrivé, M.
1969Les éléments de syntaxe structurale de Lucien Tesnière. Langue française 1, 36–40. Crossref logo
Bar-Hillel, Y.
1953A quasi-arithmetical notation for syntactic description. Language 29, 1, 47–58. Crossref logo
Bloomfield, L.
1933Language. New York.
Böhmová, A., J. Hajič, E. Hajičová, and B. Hladká
2003The Prague Dependency Treebank. In A. Abeillé (ed.) Treebanks: Building and Using Parsed Corpora, pp. 103–127. Netherlands: Springer. Crossref logo
Bohnet, B.
2010Very high accuracy and fast dependency parsing is not a contradiction. In ­Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computational Linguistics (Coling) , pp. 89–97.
Brassai, S.
1860–1863[2011] A magyar mondat. [The Hungarian sentence.] Edited by Elekfi L. and Kiefer F., Budapest: Tinta.
Bresnan, J.
2001Lexical-Functional Syntax. Blackwell.
Bröker, N.
1998The formation of comparative clauses in French and English. University of Stuttgart. arXiv:cmp.I/9807009.
Chomsky, N.
1957Syntactic Structure. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Coseriu, E.
1980Un précurseur méconnu de la syntaxe structurale: H. Titkin, Recherches de linguistique: Hommages à Maurice Leroy , Editions de l’Université de Bruxelles, 48–62.
Croft, W.
1996What’s a head?. In J. Rooryck and L. Zaring (eds.), Phrase Structure and the Lexicon, 35–75. Dordrecht: Kluwer. Crossref logo
Daumas, F.
1957Lucien Tesnière (1893–1954). Jalons biographiques, Orbis – Bulletin International de Documentation Linguistique 6, 1, Louvain, 253–258.
De Marneffe, M.C., B. MacCartney, and C. Manning
2006Generating typed dependency parses from phrase structure parses. In Proceedings of LREC , 449–454.
De Marneffe, M.C. and C. Manning
Engel, U.
1994Syntax der deutschen Gegenwartssprache, 3rd revised edition. Berlin : Erich Schmidt Verlag.
Eroms, H.-W.
2000Syntax der deutschen Sprache. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. Crossref logo
Fourquet, J.
1996Ce que je dois à Lucien Tesnière. In Gréciano and Schumacher (1996), Lucien Tesnière – Syntaxe structurale et opérations mentales, 1–6.
Gaifman, H.
1965Dependency systems and phrase-structure systems, Information and Control 18, 304–337. Rand Corporation (1961), RM-2315. Crossref logo
Garde, P.
1977Ordre linéaire et dépendance syntaxique: Contribution à une typologie. Bulletin de la Société Linguistique de Paris 72, 1, 1–26.
Gerdes, K., E. Hajičová, and L. Wanner
(eds.) 2011Proceedings of the first international conference on Dependency Linguistics (DepLing) , Barcelona.
Gerdes, K.E. Hajičová E., and L. Wanner
(eds.) 2013Proceedings of the second international conference on Dependency Linguistics (DepLing) , Prague.
Gerdes, K. and S. Kahane
2013Defining dependency (and constituency). In K. Gerdes, E. Hajičová, and L. Wanner (eds.), Computational Dependency Linguistics, IOS Press.
Gosselin, L.
1995Connexion structurale et incidence sémantique : le cas des circonstant. In Madray-Lesigne and Richard-Zappella (1995), Lucien Tesnière aujourd’ hui, 137–142.
Gréciano, G. and H. Schumacher
(eds.) 1996Lucien Tesnière – Syntaxe structurale et opérations mentales (Proceedings of the German-French colloquium for the 100th anniversary of his birthday, Strasbourg, 1993). Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag. Crossref logo
Hajič, J.
1998Building a syntactically annotated corpus: The Prague Dependency Treebank. In E. Hajičová (ed.), Issues of Valency and Meaning. Studies in Honour of Jarmila Panevová, Karolinum, Charles University Press, Prague, Czech Republic,106–132.
Hays, D.
1960Grouping and dependency theories. Technical report RM-2646, Rand Corporation.
1964Dependency theory: A formalism and some observations. Language 40, 4, 511–525. Crossref logo
Harris, Z.S.
1951Methods in Structural Linguistics. Chicago University Press.
Hockett, C.F.
1958A Course in Modern Linguistics. New York: The Macmillan Company.
Hudson, R.
1984Word Grammar. Oxford: Blackwell.
1990An English Word Grammar. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
2007Language Networks: The New Word Grammar. Oxford University Press.
Imrényi, A.
2013Constituency or dependency? Notes on Sámuel Brassai’s syntactic model of Hungarian. In P. Szigetvári (ed.), VLlxx. Papers Presented to László Varga on his 70th Birthday. ELTE: Department of English Linguistics, 167–182.
Jackendoff, R.
1972Gapping and related rules. Linguistic Inquiry 2, 21–35.
Jespersen, O.
1924Philosophy of Grammar. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
1937[1984] Analytic Syntax. University of Chicago Press.
Johnson, C. and C.J. Fillmore
2000The FrameNet tagset for frame-semantic and syntactic coding of predicate-argument structure. Proceedings of the first North American chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics conference . Association for Computational Linguistics, 56–62.
Joshi, A.K.
1987 An introduction to Tree Adjoining Grammars. In A. Manaster-Ramer (ed.), Mathematics of Language, John Benjamins, Amsterdam, 87–115. Crossref logo
Jung, W.-Y.
1994Syntaktische Relationen im Rahmen der Dependenzgrammatik. Hamburg: Buske.
Kabano, A.
2000Le destin de la théorie syntaxique de Lucien Tesnière (1893–1954). Historiographia linguistica 27, 1, 103–126. Crossref logo
Kahane, S.
1997Bubble trees and syntactic representations. Proceedings of the 5th Meeting of the Mathematics of Language (MOL) . Association for Computational Linguistics, 70–76.
Kahane, S. and N. Mazziotta
. (in preparation) Syntactic polygraphs: A common representation for constituency and dependency.
Kaplan, R.M. and J. Bresnan
1982Lexical-functional grammar: A formal system for grammatical representation. Formal Issues in Lexical-Functional Grammar, 29–130.
Kübler S., R. McDonald, and J. Nivre
2009, Dependency parsing, Synthesis Lectures on Human Language Technologies.
Lascarides, A. and N. Asher
1991Discourse relations and defeasible knowledge. Proceedings of the 29th annual meeting on Association for Computational Linguistics , Association for Computational Linguistics, 55–62.
Lazard, G.
1995La définition des actants. In Madray-Lesigne and Richard-Zappella (1995), Lucien Tesnière aujourd’ hui, 151–158.
Lecerf, Y.
1960Programme des conflits, modèle des conflits. Bulletin bimestriel de l’ ATALA 1, 4, 11–18.
1961Une représentation algébrique de la structure des phrases dans diverses langues naturelles, Compte Rendu de l’ Académie des Sciences de Paris 252, 232–234.
Lemaréchal, A.
1989Les parties du discours. Paris: PUF.
Madray-Lesigne, F. and J. Richard-Zappella
1995Lucien Tesnière aujourd’ hui, (Proceedings of the international colloquium, Rouen, 1992), Editions Peeters, Louvain-Paris.
Marcus, M.P., M.A. Marcinkiewicz, and B. Santorini
1993Building a large annotated corpus of English: The Penn Treebank. Computational linguistics 19, 2, 313–330.
Mel’čuk, I.
1988Dependency Syntax: Theory and Practice. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Mel’čuk, I. and N. Pertsov
1987Surface Syntax of English: A formal Model within the Meaning-Text Framework. Benjamins. Crossref logo
Nasr, A.
1995A formalism and a parser for lexicalised dependency grammars. Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Parsing Technologies (IWPT) . State University of NY Press.
Nilsson, J., S. Riedel, and D. Yuret
2007The CoNLL 2007 shared task on dependency parsing. In Proceedings of the CoNLL Shared Task Session of EMNLP-CoNLL , 915–932.
Nivre, J., J. Hall, J. Nilsson, A. Chanev, G. Eryigit, S. Kübler, S. Marinov, and E. Marsi
2007MaltParser: A language-independent system for data-driven dependency parsing. Natural Language Engineering 13, 2, 95–135.
Osborne, T., M. Putnam, and T. Groß
2011Bare phrase structure, label-less trees, and specifier-less syntax: Is Minimalism becoming a dependency grammar? The Linguistic Review 28, 315–364. Crossref logo
Osborne, T. and T. Groß
2012Constructions are catenae: Construction Grammar meets dependency grammar. Cognitive Linguistics 23, 1, 165–216. Crossref logo
Owczarak, K., J. van Genabith, and A. Way
2007Evaluating machine translation with LFG dependencies. Machine Translation 21, 95–119. Crossref logo
Pinkham, J.
1982The Formation of Comparative Clauses in French and English. Doctoral dissertation, Harvard University.
Pollard, C. and I. Sag
1994Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar. University of Chicago Press.
Postal, P.
1974On Raising: One Rule of English Grammar and Its Theoretical Implications. ­Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Reed, A. and B. Kellogg
1877Higher Lessons in English: A Work on English Grammar and Composition. Clark and Maynard.
Ross, J.
1970Gapping and the order of constituents. In M. Bierwisch and K.E. Heidolph (eds.), Progress in Linguistics: A Collection of Papers. The Hague: Mouton.
Rousseau, A.
1995Le graphe de Tesnière : origines et originalités. In Madray-Lesigne and Richard-Zappella, Lucien Tesnière aujourd’ hui, 75–82.
Schank, R.
1969Conceptual dependency as a framework for linguistic analysis. Linguistics 49, 28–50.
Schubert, K.
1987Metataxis: Contrastive Dependency Syntax for Machine Translation. Dordrecht: Foris,
Sgall, P.
1967Generativní popis jazyka a česká deklinace [Generative description of language and Czech declension]. Prague: Academia.
Sgall, P., E. Hajicová, and J. Panevová
1986The Meaning of the Sentence in its Semantic and Pragmatic Aspects. Springer.
Sleator, D. and D. Temperley
1993Parsing English with a Link Grammar. Third International Workshop on Parsing Technologies , Carnegie Mellon Univ. Comp. Sc. Techn. Report CMU-CS-91-196, 1991.
Sowa, J.
1976Conceptual graphs for a database interface. IBM Journal of Research and Development, vol. 20, 4, 336–357. Crossref logo
Starosta, S.
1988The Case for Lexicase: An Outline of Lexicase Grammatical Theory. New York: Pinter Publishers.
Tesnière, L.
1931Oton Joupantchitch, Poète slovène, l’ homme et l’ œuvre. Paris.
1934Comment construire une syntaxe. Bulletin de la Faculté des Lettres de Strasbourg, 7, 12ème année , 219–229.
1937Curriculum vitae de Monsieur Tesnière, reprinted in Madray-Lesigne and Richard-Zappella (1995), 410–412 .
1939Eléments d’ un rapport sur l’ activité scientifique de Monsieur Tesnière, reprinted in Madray-Lesigne and Richard-Zappella (1995), 405–409 .
1953Esquisse d’ une syntaxe structurale. Paris: Klincksieck.
1959Éléments de syntaxe structurale. Paris: Kincksieck.
1966Éléments de syntaxe structurale, 2nd edition. Paris: Klincksieck
Tesnière, M.-H.
1996Le fonds Lucien Tesnière à la Bibliothèque national de France. In Gréciano and Schumacher (eds) 1996, Lucien Tesnière – Syntaxe structurale et opérations mentales, 7–14.
Žolkovskij A. and I. Mel’čuk
1967O semantičeskom sinteze [On the semantic synthesis (of texts)], Problemy Kybernetiki [Problems of Cybernetics] 19, 177–238. [Fr. transl.: Sur la synthèse sémantique (de textes),1970, T.A. Information 2, 1–85.]
Zwicky, A.
1985Heads. Journal of Linguistics 21, 1, 1–29. Crossref logo
BIC Subject: CFK – Grammar, syntax
BISAC Subject: LAN009060 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / Syntax
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  2014021968