On Understanding Grammar
In his foreword to the original edition of this classic of functionalism, typology and diachrony, Dwight Bolinger wrote: "I foresee it as one of the truly prizes statements of our current knowledge…a book about understanding done with deep understanding – of language and its place in Nature and in the nature of humankind… The book is rich in insights, even for those who have been with linguistics for a long time. And beginners could be thankful for having it as a starting point, from which so many past mistakes have been shed". Thoroughly revised, corrected and updated, On Understanding Grammar remains, as its author intended it in 1979, a book about trying to make sense of human language and of doing linguistics. Language is considered here from multiple perspectives, intersecting with cognition and communication, typology and universals, grammaticalization, development and evolution. Within such a broad cross-disciplinary context, grammar is viewed as an automated, structured language-processing device, assembled through evolution, diachrony and use. Cross-language diversity is not arbitrary, but rather is tightly constrained and adaptively motivated, with the balance between universality and diversity mediated through development, be it evolutionary or diachronic. The book's take on language harkens back to the works of illustrious antecedents such as F. Bopp, W. von Humbold, H. Paul, A. Meillet, O. Jespersen and G. Zipf, offering a coherent alternative to the methodological and theoretical strictures of Saussure, Bloomfield and Chomsky.
[Not in series, 213] 2018. xxi, 299 pp.
Publishing status: Available
© T. Givón
Table of Contents
Foreword to the 1979 edition
Preface to the 1979 edition
Preface to the revised edition
Chapter 1. Fact, method and explanation: On the recalcitrant legacy of structuralism
Chapter 2. Toward a discourse definition of syntax: The communicative correlates of grammar
Chapter 3. Negation in language: Between semantics and pragmatics
Chapter 4. The grammar of case: Semantic role, pragmatic function, morphology and syntactic control
Chapter 5. From discourse to syntax: Grammar as a processing strategy
Chapter 6. Where does crazy syntax come from?
Chapter 7. The SOV mystery and language evolution
Chapter 8. Language and ontology
Ackrill, J. L.
(ed. 1963) Aristotle Categories and de Interpretatione, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Álvarez-González, A. and C. Juárez
(2015) “The origin of the antipassive/causative syncretism in Mocovi”, Hermosillo: Universidad de Sonora (ms.).
(1971) The Grammar of Case, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(1977) “How some languages become ergative”, in C. Li (ed. 1977).
, The Categories, in J. L. Ackrill (ed. 1963).
, De Generationem Animalium, in J. Barnes (ed. 1984).
, De Interpretatione, in J. L. Ackrill (ed. 1963).
, De Partibus Animalium, in J. Barnes (ed. 1984).
, De Sophisticis Elenchis (Sophistical Refutations), in J. Barnes (ed. 1984).
, Historiae Animalium, in J. Barnes (ed. 1984).
, Nicomachean Ethics, in J. Barnes (ed. 1984).
, Posterior Analytic, in J. Barnes (ed. 1984).
Atkinson, R. C. and R. M. Shiffrin
(1959) Applications of Information Theory to Psychology: A Summary of Basic Concepts, Methods, and Results, Oxford: Henry Holt.
Bach, E. and R. Harms
(eds 1968) Universals of Linguistic Theory, New York: Holt, Reinehart and Winston.
Baddeley, A. D.
(1986) Working Memory, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(1992) “Working memory: The interface between memory and cognition”, J. of Cognitive Neuroscience, 4.3.
Baldwin, J. M.
(1896) “A new factor in evolution”, American Naturalist, 60.
(ed. 1984) The Complete Works of Aristotle, Bolingen Series, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Bartles, A. and S. Zeki
(2000) “The architecture of color in the human visual brain: New results and review”, European J. of Neuroscience, 12.1.
(1974) Language in Context: Studies in the Acquisition of Pragmatics, PhD dissertation, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago (ms.).
(1976) Language and Context: The Acquisition of Pragmatics, New York: Academic Press.
(1978) “The emergence of symbols: Ontogeny and phylogeny”, Boulder, CO: University of Colorado (ms.).
Bates, E., L. Camioni and V. Voltera
(1975) “The acquisition of performatives prior to speech”, Merril-Palmer Quarterly, 21.3.
(1983) “Topic continuity and discontinuity in discourse: A study in spoken Latin-American Spanish”, in T. Givón (ed. 1983).
(1975) “Creolization, linguistic universals, natural semantax and the brain”, Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii at Manoa (ms.).
(1981) The Roots of Language, Ann Arbor, MI: Karoma.
(1990) Language and Species, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Bickerton, D. and T. Givón
(1976) “Pidginization and syntactic change: From SOV and VSO to SVO”, CLS 12, Parasession on Diachronic Syntax, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago, Chicago Linguistics Society.
Bickerton, D. and C. Odo
(1976a) Change and Variation in Hawaian English, Vol I: The Pidgin, NSF Project Report, Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii (ms.).
(1976b) Change and Variation in Hawaiian English, Vol. II: The Creole, NSF Report, Social Science and Linguistics Institute, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, (ms.).
(2005) “The origin of language in niche construction”, Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii at Manoa (ms.).
(1968) “Relative clauses in Bambara”, J. of West African Languages, 5.
(1973) One Word at a Time: The Use of One-Word Utterances Before Syntax, The Hague: Mouton.
(1922) “Review of Sapir’s Language”, The Classical Weekly, 18.
(1933) Language, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Boesch, C. and H. Boesch-Achermann
(2000) The Chimpanzees of Tai Forest: Behavioral Ecology and Evolution, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(1954) “Meaningful word-order in Spanish”, Boletín de Filología, 8, Universidad de Chile.
(1977) The Forms of Language, London: Longmans.
(1816) Über des Conjugationssystem der Sanskritsprache in Vergleichung mit Jenem der Griechischen, Lateinischen, Persischen und Germanischen Sprache.
(1994) “Plato on understanding language”, in S. Everson (ed. 1994).
(1973) Early Syntactic Development, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(1994) “Voice and ergativity in Karao”, in T. Givón (ed. 1994).
(1983) “Topic continuity in written English”, in T. Givón (ed. 1983).
Bybee, J., R. Perkins and W. Pagliuca
and (1994) The Evolution of Grammar: Tense, Aspect and Modality in the Languages of the World, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
(1956) Meaning and Necessity, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
(1958) Introduction to Symbolic Logic and its Applications, New York: Dover.
(1959) The Logical Syntax of Language, Patterson, NJ: Littlefield, Adams & Co.
(1963) The Philosophy of Rudolph Carnap, ed. by P. A. Schillp, LaSalle, IL: Open Court.
(1974) Communication in the Sensory-Motor Period, PhD dissertation, Berkeley, CA: University of California (ms.).
Chase, W. and A. Ericsson
Chase, W. and H. Simon
(1973) “Perception in Chess”, Cognition, 4.
(1970) Meaning and the Structure of Language, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
(1997) “Polyphonic topic development”, in T. Givón (ed. 1997b).
Cheney, D. L. and R. M. Seyfarth
(1990) How Monkeys See the World, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
(1957) Syntactic Structures, The Hague: Mouton.
(1965) Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
(1968) Language and Mind, 1972 enlarged edition, New York: Harcourt, Brace and Jovanovich.
(1973) For Reasons of State, New York: Pantheon (ppbk).
(1992) “A minimalist program for linguistic theory”, Cambridge, MA: MIT Occasional Papers in Linguistics.
Chomsky, N. and M. Halle
(1968) The Sound Patterns of English, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
(1939) Sad Cypress, New York: Dell (ppbk).
(1975) “Dative and grammatical relations in Indonesian”, University of California, San Diego, CA (ms.).
(1976) Case Marking and Grammatical Relations in Polynesian, PhD dissertation, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (ms.).
(1971) “What’s in a word?”, in T. Moore (ed.) Cognitive Development and the Acquisition of Language, New York: Academic Press.
(1969) “Linguistic processes in deductive reasoning”, Psychological Review, 76.4.
Clark, H. and E. Clark
(1977) Psychology and Language, New York: Harcourt, Brace and Jovanovich.
(1997) “The construction of collaborative floor in women’s friendly talk”, in T. Givón (ed. 1997b).
Cocchiarella, N. B.
(1965) Tense and Modal Logic: A Study in the Typology of Temporal Reference, PhD dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (ms.).
Cole, P. and J. Morgan
(eds 1975) Speech Acts, Syntax and Semantic 3, New York: Academic Press.
Cole, P. and J. Sadock
(eds 1977) Grammatical Relations, Syntax and Semantics 8, New York: Academic press.
(2004/2008) “English and Russian passives revisited”, Segundo Seminario de Voz, Cambio de Valencia y Formación de Palabras, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo; publ. in Z. Estrada-Fernandez et al. (eds 2008).
(1982) “Topicality, ergativity and transitivity in narrative discourse: Evidence from Chamorro”, Studies in Language, 6.3.
(1975) “Thematization and word-order”, LSA Winter meeting, London, Ont.: University of Western Ontario (ms.).
Crouch, J. E.
(1978) Functional Human Anatomy, 3rd edition, Philadelphia, PA: Lea and Fabiger.
(1859) On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, London: John Murray.
de Waal, F.
(1982) Chimpanzee Politics: Power and Sex among the Apes, London: Unwin/ Counterpoint.
de Waal, F. and F. Lanting
(1997) Bonobo: The Forgotten Ape, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
(1978) Functional Grammar, Amsterdam: North Holland.
Dingwall, W. O.
, Lives of the Eminent Philosophers Tr. by R. D. Hicks (1925), 2 vols; The Loeb Classical Library, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Dixon, R. M. W.
(1979) “Ergativity”, Language, 55.1.
(2002) Possible Worlds, London: Routledge.
(1987) “The discourse base of ergativity”, Language, 63.4.
Dunbar, R. M.
(1992) “Co-evolution of neocortex size, group size and language in humans”, Brain and Behavior Science, 16.4.
(1998) “The Social brain hypothesis” Evolutionary Anthropology, 6.5.
(2017) paper presented to the A.A.A.S. Annual Meeting (Julie Zauzmer, The Washington Post, 3–4–17).
(1973) “Conjunction reduction and splitting verbs in Yoruba”, University of California, Los Angeles (ms.).
Ericsson, K. A. and W. Kintsch
(1995) “Long-term working memory”, Psych. Review, 102.2.
(2007) “Insubordination and it’s uses”, in I. Nikolaeva (ed. 2009) Finiteness: Theoretical and Empirical Foundations, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(1970) “Discourse agreement: How children answer questions”, in J. Hays (ed.) Cognition and the Development of Language, New York: Wiley & Son.
Ervin-Tripp, S. and A. Küntay
“The occasioning and structure of conversational stories”, in T. Givón (ed. 1997b).
Estrada-Fernández, Z., S. Wichman, C. Chamoreau and A. Álvarez-González
(eds 2008) Studies in Voice and Transitivity, Munich: Lincom.
(ed. 1994) Language, Companion to Ancient Thought, 3, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fan, J., R. Kolster, J. Ghajar, M. Suh, R. T. Knight, R. Sarkar and B. D. McCandliss
(2006) A Grammar of River Warijío, PhD dissertation, Houston, TX: Rice University (ms.).
Fernald, R. D. and S. A. White
(2000) “Social control of brain: From behavior to genes”, in M. Gazzaniga (ed.) The New Cognitive Neuroscience, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
(1968) “The case for the case”, in E. Bach and R. Harms (eds 1968).
(1966) “On defining the theme in functional sentence perspective”, Traveaux Linguistiques de Prague, 2.
(1976) Comparative Syntax in Austronesian, PhD dissertation, Berkeley, CA: University of California (ms.).
(1996) “West Greenlandic half-transitive affixes in a diachronic perspective”, in B. Jacobsen (ed.) Cultural and Social Research in Greenland 95/96, Essays in Honor of Robert Petersen, Illisimatusarfik/Atuakiorfik, Nuuk.
Fouts, R. S.
(1983) “Topic continuity in Biblical Hebrew”, in T. Givón (ed. 1983).
(1987) “The noun phrase accessibility hierarchy revisited”, Language, 63.4.
(1884) Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik, Breslau: Verlag Willhelm Koebner.
(1892) “Über Sinn und Bedeutung”, Zeitschrif für Philosophie und Philosophische Kritik, 100.
(1893) The Basic Laws of Arithmetic, tr. by M. Furth, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press .
Futuyma, D. J.
(1986) Evolutionary Biology, 2nd edition, Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Assoc.
(1979) “Discourse without syntax”, in T. Givón (ed. 1979).
Gardner, B. T. and R. A. Gardner
(1971) “Two-way communication with an infant chimpanzee”, in A. Schrier and F. Stollnitz (eds) Behavior of Non-human Primates, NY: Academic Press.
Gary, J. and E. L. Keenan
(1975) “On collapsing grammatical relations in universal grammar”, in P. Cole and J. Sadock (eds 1975).
Gell-Mann, M. and M. Ruhlen
Gernsbacher, M. A.
(1998) On Reconstructing Grammar, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(1971) “Historical syntax and synchronic morphology: An archaeologist’s field trip”, CLS #7, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago, Chicago Linguistics Society.
(1972) “Pronoun attraction and subject post-posing in Bantu relativization”, CLS #8, Chicago, IL, University of Chicago, Chicago Linguistic Society.
(1973a) “Opacity and reference in language: An inquiry into the role of modalities”, in J. Kimball (ed.) Syntax ands Semantics, 2, New York: Academic Press.
(1973b) Studies in Chi-Bemba and Bantu Grammar, Studies in African Linguistics, Supplement #3.
(1973c) “Complex NPs, word-order and resumptive pronouns in Hebrew”, CLS #9, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago, Chicago Linguistics Society.
(1975a) “Serial verbs and syntactic change: Niger-Congo”, in C. Li (ed. 1975).
(1975b) “Focus and the scope of assertion: Some Bantu evidence”, Studies in African Linguistics, 6.2.
(1975c) “Prolegomena to any sane Creology”, in E. Polomé, M. Goodman, B. Heine and I. Hancock (eds) Readings in Pidgins and Creoles, Ghent: Story-Scientia.
(1976) “Topic, pronoun and grammatical agreement”, in C. Li (ed. 1976).
(1977) “The drift from VSO to SVO in Biblical Hebrew: The pragmatics of tense-aspect”, in C. Li (ed. 1977).
(1979) On Understanding Grammar, New York: Academic Press.
(ed. 1979) Discourse and Syntax, Syntax and Semantics, 11, New York: Academic Press.
(1981a) “Typology and functional domains”, Studies in Language, 5.2.
(1981b) “On the development of the numeral ‘one’ as an indefinite marker”, Folia Linguistica Historica, 11.
(1981c) “Logic vs. pragmatics, with human language as the referee: Toward and empirically viable epistemology”, J. of Pragmatics, 6.2.
(1983b) “Topic continuity in Ute”, in T. Givón (ed. 1983).
(1984) “The Krio numeral ‘one’ and the pragmatics of reference”, African Studies, 83.2.
(1988) “The pragmatics of word-order flexibility: Predictability, importance and attention”, in M. Hammond et al. (eds 1988).
(1989) Mind, Code and Context: Essays in Pragmatics, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
(1990) “Natural language learning and organized language teaching”, in H. Burmeister & P. Rounds (eds) Proceedings of the Second Language Acquisition Forum (SLRF), Eugene, OR: University of Oregon.
(1991a) “Markedness in grammar: Distributional, communicative and cognitive correlates of syntactic structure”, Studies in Language, 15.2.
(1991b) “Serial verbs and the mental reality of ‘event’”, in E. Traugott and B. Heine (eds 1991, Vol. 1).
(1991d) “Isomorphism in the grammatical code: Cognitive and biological considerations”, Studies in Language, 15.1.
(1992) “The grammar of referential coherence as mental processing instructions”, Linguistics , special issue on Topicality, ed. by R. Dirven.
(1994) “The pragmatics of de-transitive voice: Functional and typological aspects of inversion”, in T. Givón (ed. 1994).
(2000) “Internal reconstruction: As method, as theory”, in S. Gildea (ed. 2000).
(2001) Syntax: An Introduction, 2 vols, Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
(2012) “Nominalization and re-finitization”, paper presented at the Symposium on Finiteness and Nominalization, CNRS, Paris (ms.).
(2013) “Beyond structuralism: Should we set apriori limits on our curiosity?”, Studies in Language, 37.2.
(2015b) “Beyond structuralism: Exorcizing Saussure’s ghost”, paper read at the Association of Linguistic Typology , Albuquerque: University of New Mexico (August 2015; ms.).
(2016) “Beyond structuralism: Exorcizing Saussure’s ghost”, Studies in Language, 40.3.
Givón, T. and B. Kawasha
(2001) “Indiscrete grammatical relations: The Lunda passive”, TR-01-05, Institute of Cognitive and Decision Sciences, Eugene, OR: University of Oregon.
Givón, T. and M. Shibatani
(eds 2009) Syntactic Complexity, TSL #85, Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Givón, T. and P. Young
(2001) “Cooperation any inter-personal manipulation in the society of intimates”, in M. Shibatani (ed. 2001).
Goethe, J. W.
(1808) Faust, I, tr. by W. Kaufmann , New York: Doubleday.
(1965) “Chimpanzees of the Gombe Stream reserve”, in E. deVore (ed.) Primate Behavior: Field Studies of Monkeys and Apes, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Gould, S. J.
(1977) Ontogeny and Phylogeny, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
(1969) “Some methods of dynamic comparison in linguistics”, in J. Puhvel (ed.) Substance and Structure of Language, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
(1978) “Diachrony, synchrony and language universals”, in J. Greenberg et al. (eds 1978, vol. 2).
(2000) “The concept of proof in genetic linguistics”, in S. Gildea (ed. 2000).
Greenberg, J., C. Ferguson and E. Moravcsik
(eds 1978) Universals of Human Language, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Greenfield, P. and J. H. Smith
(1976) The Structure of Communication in Early Language Development, New York: Academic Press.
(1926) Nevada, New York: Bantam (ppbk).
Grice, H. P.
(1968/1975) “Logic and conversation”, in P. Cole and J. Morgan (eds 1975).
(1967) “Topicalization in child language”, Foundations of Language, 3.
(1874) “Die Gastraea Theorie die Phylogenetische Klassifikazion der Tierreichen und der Homologie der Keimlaetter”, Jaenische Zetschrift fuer Naturwissenschaft, 9.
(1985) Natural Syntax, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(1965) Subject and Object in English, PhD dissertation, Cambridge, MA: MIT (ms.).
Halliday, M. A. K.
(1967) “Notes on transitivity and theme in English: II”, J. of Linguistics, 3.
(1973) Explorations in the Functions of Language, London: Edward Arnold.
Hamilton, E. and H. Cairns
(eds 1961) Plato: The Collected Dialogues, Bolingen Series, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Hammond, M., E. Moravcsik and J. Wirth
(ed. 1972) The Journal of the Krio Literary Society, 1.1.
Hanson, R. N.
(1958) Patterns of Discovery, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(1956) “Co-occurrence and transformation in linguistic structure”, Language, 33.3.
(1990) “The grammaticalization of passive morphology”, Studies in Language, 14.1.
(2010) “Framework-free grammatical theory”, in B. Heine and H. Narrog (eds 2010).
Hauser, M., N. Chomsky and W. T. Fitch
Hawkinson, A. and L. Hyman
(1974) “Natural topic hierarchies in Shona”, Studies in African Linguistics, 5.2.
(1976) “Antipassivization: A functional typology”, BLS 2, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Heine, B., U. Claudi and F. Hünnemeyer
(1991) Grammaticalization: A Conceptual Framework, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Heine, B. and T. Kuteva
(2007) The Genesis of Grammar, Oxford: OUP.
Heine, B. and H. Narrog
(eds 2010) The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Analysis, Oxford: OUP.
(1971) “Setting Russell Free”, paper presented to the Philosophy Colloquium, University of Western Ontario, London, Ont. (ms.).
(1994) “The pragmatics of de-transitive voice in Spanish: From passive to inverse?”, in T. Givón (ed. 1994).
(1983) “Topic Continuity in Japanese”, in T. Givón (ed. 1983).
(1979) “Aspect and foregrounding in discourse”, in T. Givón (ed. 1979).
Hopper, P. and B. Fox
(eds 1994) Voice: Form and Function, TSL #27, Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Hopper, P. and E. C. Traugott
(1993) Grammaticalization, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hrdy, S. B.
(1999) Mother Nature, New York: Ballantine Books.
(2009) Mothers and Others, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
(1985) “The pragmatics of the numeral ‘one’ as an referential-indefinite marker in Mandarin Chinese”, University of Oregon, Eugene (ms.).
Humboldt, W. von
(1836) Linguistic Variation & Intellectual Development, tr. by G. C. Buck and F. A. Raven, Miami: University of Miami Press .
(1973) “How do natural rules become unnatural?” LSA Winter, San Diego, CA (ms.).
(1975) “The change from SOV to SVO: Evidence from Niger-Congo”, in C. Li (ed. 1975).
(1983) Causality in Linguistic Theory, London: Croom-Helm.
(2010) “Philosophy of Linguistics”, Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy of Science, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(1976) “The language of note-taking as a simplified register”, Stanford, CA: Stanford University (ms.).
(2015) “The antipassive in accusative languages”, plenary talk, Association of Linguistic Typology, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico (August 2015).
(1917) Negation in English and Other Languages, Copenhagen: A.F. Host.
(1921) Language: Its Nature, Development and Origin, New York: Modern Library .
(1924) The Philosophy of Grammar, New York: Norton.
(1974) Relational Constraints on Grammar, Yorktown Heights, NY: IBM Watson Research Center.
Juárez, C. and A. Álverez-González
(2015) “The antipassive marking in Mocovi and its relationship with causativization, aspect and genitive nominal meaning”, Hermosillo: Universidad de Sonora (ms.).
(1973) The Old Hittite Relative Construction, PhD dissertation, Austin, TX: University of Texas (ms).
(1976) “Relativization and topicalization in Hittite”, in C. Li (ed. 1976).
(1974) “Presupposition and linguistic context”, Theoretical Linguistics, 1.2.
Katz, J. J. and P. Postal
(1964) An Integrated Theory of Linguistic Description, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
(1999) Some Aspects of Lunda Grammar, MA thesis, University of Oregon, Eugene (ms.).
Keenan, E. L.
(1969) A Logical Base for a Transformational Grammar of English, PhD dissertation, Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania (ms.).
(1971) “Two kinds of presupposition in natural language”, in C. Fillmore and T. Langendoen (eds) Studies in Linguistic Semantics, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
(1975) “Some universals of passive in relational grammar”, CLS 11, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago, Chicago Linguistics Society.
(1976a) “Toward a universal definition of subject”, in C. Li (ed. 1976).
(1976b) “Remarkable subjects in Malagasy”, in C. Li (ed. 1976).
Keenan, E. L. and B. Comrie
(1972) “Noun phrase accessibility and universal grammar”, LSA Summer Institute (ms.).
(1977) “Noun phrase accessibility and universal grammar”, Linguistic Inquiry, 7.
(1968) The Philosophy of Kant, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(1976) A Relational Grammar of KinyaRuanda, PhD dissertation, University of california, Los Angeles (ms.).
(1976) “On the subjectless pseudo-passive in standard Dutch and the problem of background agent”, in C. Li (ed. 1976).
(1991) Grammatical Voice, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(1989/1999) The Human Career, 2nd edition, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
(1935) Principles of Gestalt Psychology, New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co.
(1963) “Semantic considerations on modal logic”, Acta Philosophica Fennica, 16.
(1972) “Naming and necessity”, in D. Davidson and G. Harman (eds 1972).
(1962) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
(1972) “Functional sentence perspective: A case study in Japanese and English”, Linguistic Inquiry, 3.
(1973) The Structure of the Japanese Language, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
, Tao The Ching tr. with a retroduction by T. Givón, Ignacio, CO: White Cloud Publishing .
(1809) Philosophie Geologique, ou Exposition des Considerations Relative a l’Histoire Naturelle des Animaux, Paris; English translation by H. Elliot, The Zoological Philosophy, London: Macmillan .
(n.d.) The Early Growth of Language and Cognition: A Neuro-Psychological Approach, San Jose, CA: San Jose State University (ms.).
(1962) Shalako, New York: Bantam.
(1965) Under the Sweetwater Rim, New York: Bantam.
(1977) “Syntactic change and SOV structure: The Yuman case”, in C. Li (ed. 1977).
(2012) “The case for pure linguistics”, Studies in Language, 36.2.
(1972) “General Semantics”, in D. Davidson and G. Harman (eds 1972).
(1986) On the Plurality of Worlds, Oxford: Blackwell.
Li, C. N.
(ed. 1975) Word Order and Word Order Change, Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
(ed. 1976) Subject and Topic, NY: Academic Press.
(ed. 1977) Mechanism of Syntactic Change, Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Li, C. N. and S. Thompson
(1973a) “Serial verb constructions in Mandarin Chinese: Subordination or coordination”, in C. Corum, T. Stark-Smith and A. Weisser (eds) Papers from the Comparative Syntax Festival, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago, Chicago Linguistics Society.
(1973b) “Co-verbs in Mandarin Chines: Verbs or prepositions?”, University of California at Santa Barbara (ms.).
Li, C. N. and S. Thomson
(1976) “Subject and topic: A new typology for language”, in C. Li (ed. 1976).
Li, C. N. and S. Thompson
(1981) Mandarin Chinese: A Functional Reference Grammar, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
(1984) The Biology and Evolution of Language, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Linell, P. and N. Korolija
(1997) “Coherence in multi-party conversation”, in T. Givón (ed. 1997b).
(1980) Eyewitness Testimony, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
MacDonald, J. D.
(1974) The Dreadful Lemon Sky, Greenwich, CN: Fawcet.
(1982) “Basic syntactic processes”, in S. Kuczaj (ed.) Development, Vol. I: Syntax and Semantics, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
(1978) “The drift from VO to OV in Armenian”, Los Angeles, CA: University of California (ms.).
Marler, P., S. Karakashian and M. Gyger
(1991) “Do animals have the option of withholding signals when communication is inappropriate? The audience effect”, in C. A. Ristau (ed. 1991).
(2010) The Hadza Hunter-Gatherers of Tanzania, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
(1960) “The emergence of evolutionary novelties”, in S. Tax(ed.) Evolution after Darwin, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press
(1976) Evolution and the Diversity of Life, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
(1982) The Growth of Biological Thought, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
(1921) Linguistique Historique et Linguistiqie Générale, Paris: Societé Linguistique de Paris, 8.
(1990) “Agrammatism in English”, in L. Menn and L. Obler (eds 1990).
Menn, L. and L. Obler
(eds 1990) Agrammatic Aphasia, 3 vols, Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Miller, J. F.
(2000) The Mating Mind, New York: Doubleday.
(2006) “Structural parameters of clause integration: Elusive complementation”, Seminario de Complexidad Syntáctica, University of Sonora, Hermosillo, November 2006 (ms.).
(2007a) “Threads in the tapestry of syntax: Complementation in Mohawk”, University of California at Santa Barbara (ms.).
(2007b) “Alternative pathways to relativization”, Seminario de Complexidad Syntáctica, University of Sonora, Hermosillo, November 2007 (ms.).
(1974) “Object-verb agreement”, Working Papers in Language Universals, #15, Language Universals Project, Stanford, CA: Stanford University.
Neeley, J. H.
(1990) “Semantic priming effects in visual word recognition: A selective review of current findings and theories”, in D. Besner and G. Humphreys (eds) Basic Processes in Reading: Visual Word Recognition, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Ochs, E. Keenan
(1974a) “Conversational competence in children”, J. of Child Language, 1.
(1974b) “Again and gain: The pragmatics of imitation in child language”, Los Angeles, University of So. California (ms.).
(1975a) “Making it last: The use of repetition in children’s discourse”, Papers from the First Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Linguistics Society.
(1975b) “Evolving discourse: The next step”, Los Angeles, CA: University of So. California (ms.).
Ochs, E. Keenan
(1979) “Planned and unplanned discourse”, in T. Givón (ed. 1979).
Ochs, E. Keenan and T. Bennett
(eds 1977) Discourse Across Time and Space, Los Angeles: SCOPIL, University of So. California.
Ochs, E. Keenan and B. Schieffelin
(1976) “Topic as a discourse notion: A study of ‘topic’ in conversations of children and adults”, in C. Li (ed. 1976).
Ochs, E.-Keenan and B. Schieffelin
(eds 1979) Developmental Pragmatics, NY: Academic Press.
Ochs, E.-Keenan, B. Schieffelin and M. Platt
(1979) “Propositions across utterances and speakers”, in E. Ochs-Keenan and B. Schieffelin (eds 1979).
(1890) Principles of the History of Language tr. by H. A. Strong, London: Swann, Sonnenschein & Co.
(1976) “On meeting a language that defies description by ordinary means”, 13th Conference of the Linguistics Society of Papua-New Guinea, Auckland, NZ: Auckland University (ms.).
Pearson, T. R.
(1985) A Short History of a Small Place, New York: Ballantine Books.
Peirce, C. S.
(1931) Collected Writings, Vol. I, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
(1934) Collected Writings, Vol. V, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
(1940) The Philosophy of Peirce, ed. by J. Buchler, New York: Harcourt, Brace.
(1955) Philosophical Writings, ed. by J. Buchler, New York: Dover.
Pepperberg, I. M.
(1999) The Alex Studies: Cognitive and Communicative Abilities of Gray Parrots, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Perlmutter, D. and P. Postal
(1974) “Relational Grammar”, LSA Summer Institute, Ann Arbor, MI (ms.).
Perrett, D. I., M. H. Harris, R. Bevan, S. Thomas, P. J. Benson, A. J. Mistlin, A. J. Chitty, J. K. Hietanen and J. E. Ortega
(1989) “Framework for analysis of the neural representation of animate objects and actions”, J. of Experimental Biology, 146.
Petri, H. L. and M. Mishkin
(1994) “Behaviorism, cognitivism and the neuropsychology of memory”, American Scientist, 82.
(ed. 1980) Language and Learning: The Debate between Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky (The Royaumont Debate), Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
, Cratylus, in E. Hamilton and H. Cairns (eds 1961).
The Collected Dialogues of Plato, E. Hamilton & H. Cairns (eds 1961), Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
(1934/1959) The Logic of Scientific Discovery, NY: Harper & Row.
Posner, M. I.
(1975) Cognition: An Introduction, Glenview, IL and Brighton, UK: Scott, Foresman & Co.
(1978) Chronometric Exploration of Mind, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(ed. 2017) The Psychology of Attention, London: Routledge.
Posner, M. I. and S. Keel
Posner, M. I. and C. R. R. Snyder
(1974) “Attention and cognitive control”, in R. L. Solso (ed. 1974) Information Processing and Cognition: The Loyola Symposium, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
(1999) The Egalitarians: Humans and Chimpanzees, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(1977) Intelligence of Ape and Man, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
(2006) “Clause boundaries in Old Hittite relative sentences”, Transaction of the Philological Society, 104.1.
Pu, M. -M.
(1997) “Zero anaphora and grammatical relations in Mandarin”, in T. Givón (ed. 1997a).
Quine, W. van O.
(1953) “Reference and modality”, From a Logical Point of View, ch. 8, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Rabi, I. I.
(1975) Interview in The New Yorker, Oct. 20 1975.
Ristau, C. A.
(ed. 1991) Cognitive Ethology, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Roe, A. W., L. Chelazzi, C. E. Connor, B. R. Conway, R. Bevil, I. Fujita & J. L. Gallant
(2012) “Toward a unified theory of visual area V4”, Neuron, 74.1.
Ross, J. R. and G. Lakoff
(1967) “Is deep structure necessary?”, First La Jolla Conference on the Goals of Linguistic Theory, La Jolla, CA: University of California at San Diego (ms.).
Rumbaugh, D. M. and D. W. Washburn
(1905a) “On defining”, Mind, 14; reprinted in Russell (1956).
(1905b) “On denoting”; in B. Russell (1956).
(1908) “Mathematical logic as based on a theory of types”, in Russell (1956).
(1956) Logic and Knowledge, selected essays 1901–1950, ed. E. C. Marsh, London: Rutledge.
Sankoff, G. and P. Brown
(1976) “The origins of grammar in discourse”, Language, 52.
(1921) Language, New York: Harcourt, Brace & World .
Saussure, F. de
(1915) Course in General Linguistics, ed. by C. Bally and S. Sechehaye, tr. by W. Baskin, New York: Philosophical Library .
Savage-Rumbaugh, S. and R. Lewin
(1993) Kanzi: The Ape on the Brink of the Human Mind, NY: Wiley and Sons.
Savage-Rumbaugh, S., S. J. Murphy, R. A. Sevcik, K. E. Brakke, S. L. Williams and D. L. Rumbaugh
(1993) Language Comprehension in Ape and Child, Monographs of the Society of Research in Child Development, Serial no. 233, vol. 58, 3–4.
Savage-Rumbaugh, S., S. Shanker and J. Taylor
(1998) Apes, Language and the Human Mind, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(1973) “Focus and relativization”, Language, 49.
(1976) “The subject in Philippine languages: Topic, actor, topic-actor or none of the above?”, in C. Li (ed. 1976).
(1977) “Reference-related ands role-related properties of subjects”, in P. Cole and J. Morgan (eds 1977).
Schaller, G. B.
(1961) “The ourang-otan in Sarawak”, Zoologica, 46.
(1963) The Mountain Gorilla: Ecology and Behavior, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
(1965) “The behavior of mountain gorillas”, in E. deVore (ed.) Primate Behavior: Field Studies of Monkeys and Apes, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
(1980) “Past and future issues in motor programming”, Research Quarterly of Exercise Sport, 51.1.
Schneider, W. and R. Shiffrin
(1974) One Child’s Language from One to Two: The Origins of Structure, PhD dissertation, Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii at Manoa.
(1976) Conversations With a One-Year Old Child, Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.
Shannon, C. E. and W. Weaver
(1949) The Mathematical Theory of Communication, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Shapiro, D. C. A.
(1978) The Learning of Generalized Motor Programs, PhD dissertation, Los Angeles, CA: University of California at Los Angeles (ms.).
Shapiro, D. C. A. and R. A. Schmidt
(1980) “The schema theory: Recent evidence and developmental implications”, in J. A. S. Kelso and J. E. Clark (eds) The Development of Movement Control and Coordination, New York: Wiley.
(1988) “Voice in Philippine languages”, in M. Shibatani (ed. 1988).
(ed. 2001) Causatives and Inter-Personal Manipulation, TSL #48, Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
(2006) “On the conceptual framework for voice phenomena”, Linguistics, 44.2.
(2007) “Relativization in Sasak and Sumbawa, eastern Indonesia, with some comments on Japanese”, Seminario de Complejidad Sintáctica, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, November 2007 (ms.).
(1972) “Chinook Jargon: Language contact and the problem of multi-level generative systems, II”, Language, 48.
(1962) “The architecture of complexity”, Proc. Amer. Philos. Society, 106.6 (December).
(1977) “Language change in childhood and history”, in J. MacNamara (ed.) Language Learning and Thought, New York: Academic Press.
Smith, E. D. and S. M. Kosslyn
(2005) Cognitive Psychology: Mind and Brain, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Smith, N. K.
(1929) Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason, London: Macmillan [1973 edition].
Spence, K. D. and C. Spence
(eds 1968) The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Vol. 2, New York: Academic Press.
(1999) The Mind withing the Net: Models of Learning, Thinking and Acting, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Squire, L. R.
(1987) Memory and Brain, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(1970) “Serial verbs”, Studies in African Linguistics, 1.1.
Stockwell, R. P.
(1977) “Motivation for exbraceration in Old English”, in C. Li (ed. 1977).
(1950) “On referring”, Mind, 59.
(1973) “Social studies of wild chimpanzees: A review of field studies”, in R. P. Michael and J. H. Crook (eds) Comparative Ecology and Behavior of Primates, NY: Academic Press.
Sun, C.-F. and T. Givón
(1985) “On the so-called SOV word order in Mandarin Chines: A quantitative text study and its implications”, Language, 61.2.
Swinney, D. A.
(1979) “Lexical access during sentence comprehension: (Re)consideration of context effects”, J.V.L.V.B., 18.
(1972) “Focus and relativization in Kihungan”, Studies in African Linguistics, 3.2.
(1978) Interclausal Relations in Chuave, MA Thesis, University of California, Los Angeles (ms.).
(1978) “Hierarchies in the genitive of negation”, Slavic and Eastern European Journal, 19.
(2009) Why we Cooperate, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Tomasello, M. and J. Call
(2005) Primate Cognition, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tomasello, M., M. Carpenter, J. Call, T. Behne and H. Moll
Traugott, E. and B. Heine
(eds 1991) Approaches to Grammaticalization, TSL #19.1–2, Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
van Lawick-Goodall, J.
(1968) “Preliminary report expressive movements and communication in the Gombe Stream chimpanzees”, in P. C. Jay (ed.) Primate Studies in Adaptability and Variability, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
van Lawick-Goodall, J. and H. van Lawick
(1971) Innocent Killers, Boston, MA: Houghton and Mifflin.
(1967) Linguistics and Philosophy, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
(1973) “Topics, subjects and word-order: From SXV to SVX via TVX”, paper read at the First International Congress on Historical Linguistics , Edinburgh, Sept. 1973 (ms.).
Waddington, C. H.
(1998) The Kham Language of West-Central Nepal (Takale Dialect), PhD dissertation, University of Oregon, Eugene (ms.).
(1996) Una Gramatica del Quechua del Huallaga, Seria Linguistica Peruana 40, Lima, Perú: Instituto Linguístico de Verano.
Werner, H. and B. Caplan
(1963) Symbol Formation, New York: Wiley and Sons.
West-Eberhard, M. J.
(2004) Developmental Plasticity and Evolution, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(1994) “Cratylus theory of names and its refutation”, in S. Everson (ed. 1994).
(1965) A Grammar of the Kolokuma Dialect of Ijo, West African Language Monograph, 2, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(1918) Tractatus Logico Philosophicus, tr. by D. F. Pears and B. F. McGuinness, New York: Humanities Press .
(1953) Philosophical Investigations, tr. by G. E. M. Anscombe, New York: Macmillan Co.
Wright, S. and T. Givón
(1987) “The pragmatics of indefinite reference: Quantified text-based studies”, Studies in Language, 11.1.
Yang, L. and T. Givón
(1994) “The rise of the English GET-passive”, in P. Hopper and B. Fox (eds. 1994).
Young, P. and T. Givón
(1990) “The Society of Intimates and the Society of Strangers”, Research Document, Institute of Cognitive and Decision Sciences, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR.
(1935) The Psycho-Biology of Language: An Introduction to Dynamic Philology, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
(2001) “A syntactic rule in forest monkey communication”, Animal Behavior, 63.
(1979) “Discourse function of morphology: The focus system in German”, in Givón (ed. 1979).
Cited by other publications
Raby, Françoise & Jacques Baille
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 28 may 2020. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.