Functional Categories in Three Atlantic Creoles

Saramaccan, Haitian and Papiamentu

| Université du Québec à Montréal
HardboundAvailable
ISBN 9789027252746 | EUR 105.00 | USD 158.00
 
e-Book
ISBN 9789027268259 | EUR 105.00 | USD 158.00
 
This book is about the functional categories of three Caribbean creoles: Saramaccan, Haitian Creole and Papiamentu with two specific goals. The first one is to evaluate the respective contribution of the source languages to the functional categories of these three creoles. The second is to evaluate the degree of similarity/dissimilarity of the functional categories across these creoles. This study is cast within the relabeling-based account of creole genesis. Several lexical items discussed in this book may fulfill more than one grammatical function thus raising the issue of multifuctionality. No such in-depth comparative work of these three creoles with their source languages and of the three creoles among themselves is available elsewhere in the literature. This book is addressed to linguists (including Master and PhD students) interested in syntactic categories and more specifically in functional categories, to creolists and to researchers interested in language contact.
[Creole Language Library, 50]  2015.  xvii, 386 pp.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Preface
xv–xvi
List of abbreviations
xvii
Chapter 1. Introduction
Claire Lefebvre
1–16
Chapter 2. The nominal structures of Saramaccan, Fongbe and English with reference to Haitian Creole
Claire Lefebvre
17–68
Chapter 3. Coordinating constructions in Fongbe with reference to Haitian Creole
Claire Lefebvre
69–108
Chapter 4. The multifunctionality of Saramaccan táa
Claire Lefebvre and Virginie Loranger
109–160
Chapter 5. On the properties of Saramaccan fu
Claire Lefebvre and Virginie Loranger
161–210
Chapter 6. The multiple facets of Papiamentu ku
Claire Lefebvre and Isabelle Therrien
211–243
Chapter 7. On the properties of Papiamentu pa
Claire Lefebvre and Isabelle Therrien
245–282
Chapter 8. A new analysis of the Papiamentu clause structure
Silvia Kouwenberg and Claire Lefebvre
283–315
Chapter 9. The properties of functional categories in the three creoles
Claire Lefebvre
317–343
Chapter 10. Conclusion
Claire Lefebvre
345–361
References
363–380
Index of authors
381–384
Index of subjects
385–386
Cited by

Cited by other publications

Blasi, Damián E., Susanne Maria Michaelis & Martin Haspelmath
2017. Grammars are robustly transmitted even during the emergence of creole languages. Nature Human Behaviour 1:10  pp. 723 ff. Crossref logo
Callou, Dinah
2018.  In The Portuguese Language Continuum in Africa and Brazil [Issues in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics, 20],  pp. 67 ff. Crossref logo
Kouwenberg, Silvia & John Victor Singler
2018. Creolization in Context: Historical and Typological Perspectives. Annual Review of Linguistics 4:1  pp. 213 ff. Crossref logo

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 28 june 2020. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.

References

References

Abney, Steven Paul
1987The English Noun Phrase in its Sentential Aspect. PhD dissertation, MIT.
Aboh, Enoch O.
1998 From the Syntax of Gungbe to the Grammar of Gbe. PhD dissertation, Université de Genève.
2002Morphosyntax of the left periphery in Saramaccan and Gbe. Paper presented at SPCL San Francisco CA.
2004The Morphosyntax of Complement-Head Sequences. Clause Structure and Word Order Patterns in Kwa. Oxford: OUP. Crossref link
2006aThe role of the syntax-semantic interface in language transfer. In 
Lefebvre, White & Jourdan (eds), L2 Acquisition and Creole Genesis: Dialogues, 221–253. Crossref link
2006bComplementation in Saramaccan and Gungbe: The case of C-type modal particles. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 24(1): 1–55. 
 Crossref link
2007La genèse de la périphérie gauche du Saramaka: Un cas d’influence du substrat. In Grammaire créoles et grammaire comparative [Coll. Sciences du Langage], Karl Gadelii & Anne Zribi-Hertz (eds), 73–99. Paris: Presses Universitaires de Vincennes.
2009aReview of Claire Lefebvre & Anne-Marie Brousseau: A Grammar of Fongbe [Mouton Grammar Library 25], Berlin: Mouton DeGruyter, 2002. In JALL 30: 97–104.
2009bClause structure and verb series. Linguistic Inquiry 40(1): 1–33. 
 Crossref link
Aboh, Enoch O. & Nauze, Fabrice
2008Tense, mood and aspect in Gungbe (Kwa). In 
Modality-aspect Interfaces: Implications and Typological Solutions [Typological Studies in Language 79], Abraham Werner & Elisabeth Leiss (eds), 215–239. Amsterdam: John 
Benjamins. Crossref link
Aboikoni, Laurens
1997Di Duumi u Gaama Aboikoni. The Funeral of Granman Aboikoni. Paramaribo: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
Aboikoni, Laurens & Glock, Naomi
1997Di duumi u Gaama Aboikoni (The funeral of Granman Aboikoni / De begrafenis van Granman Aboikoni). Paramaribo: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
Agbidinoukoun, Cosme Christian
1991Analyse contrastive des syntagmes nominaux du fongbe et du français. PhD dissertation, Université Paris III (Sorbonne Nouvelle), Paris.
Akoha, Albert Bienvenu
1980Quelques éléments d’une grammaire du fongbe: Nominal et syntagme nominal. PhD dissertation, Université Paris III (Sorbonne Nouvelle).
1990Syntaxe et lexicologie du fon-gbe (République du Bénin), 2 Vols. Thesis for ‘doctorat d’état-ès-lettres’, Université Paris III (Sorbonne Nouvelle.
Alleyne, Mervyn C.
1971Acculturation and the cultural matrix of creolisation. In Pidginisation and Creolisation of Languages, Dell Hymes (ed.), 169–87. Cambridge: CUP. (Proceedings of a conference held at the University of West Indies, Mona, Jamaica, April 1968).
1980Comparative Afro-American: An Historical-comparative Study of English-­based Afro-American Dialects of the New World. Ann Arbor MI: Karoma.
(ed.) 1987Studies in Saramaccan Language Structure [Caribbean Culture Studies 2]. Amsterdam: Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Amberber, Mengistu
1997Transitivity Alternations, Event Types, and Light Verbs. PhD dissertation, McGill University, Montreal.
Andersen, Roger W.
1980Creolisation as the acquisition of a second language as a first language. In Valdman & Highfield (eds), Theoretical Orientations in Creole Studies, 273–295.
1983A language acquisition interpretation of pidginisation and creolisation. In Pidginisation and Creolisation as Second Language Acquisition, Roger W. Andersen (ed.), 1–59. Rowley MA: Newbury House.
1990Papiamentu tense-aspect, with special attention to discourse. In Pidgin and Creole Tense/Mood/Aspect Systems [Creole Language Library 6], John Victor Singler (ed.), 59–96. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Anonymous
1983Éléments de recherche sur la langue Fon. Cotonou.
Ansaldo, Umberto
2011Sri Lanka Malay and its Lankan adstrates. In Lefebvre (ed.), Creoles, their Substrates and Language Typology, 367–382. 
 Crossref link
Ansaldo, Umberto, Matthews, Stephen & Lim, Lisa
(eds) 2007Deconstructing Creole [Typological Studies in Language 73]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Ansre, Gilbert
1966The verbid – a caveat to ‘serial verbs’. Journal of West African Languages 3(1): 29–32.
Arends, Jacques
1995aDemographic factors in the formation of Sranan. In Arends (ed.), The Early Stages of Creolization, 233–285.
(ed.) 1995bThe Early Stages of Creolization [Creole Language Library 13]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
1997The development of complementation in Saramaccan. In Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of Linguistics [CD-Rom, paper N° 0389], Bernard Caron (ed.). Oxford: Pergamon.
Arends, Jacques & Perl, Matthias
(eds) 1995Early Suriname Creole Texts: A Collection of 18th-century Sranan and Saramaccan Documents. Frankfurt: Iberoamericana.
Avolonto, Aimé
1992De l’étude sémantico-syntaxique des marqueurs préverbaux à la structure de la phrase en fɔngbè. MA thesis, Université du Québec à Montréal.
Awobuluyi, Oladele
1975Nominalization or relativization? Paper read at the Linguistics Seminar, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Baker, Mark C.
1996The Polysynthesis Parameter. Oxford: OUP.
Baker, Philip
1993Assessing the African contribution to French-based creoles. In Africanisms in Afro-American Language Varieties, Salikoko S. Mufwene (ed.), 123–155. Athens GA: The University of Georgia Press.
Baker, Philip & Corne, Chris
1982Isle de France Creole. Ann Arbor MI: Karoma.
Baker, Philip & Syea, Anand
(eds) 1996Changing Meanings, Changing Functions [Westminster Creolistics Series 2]. London: Westminster University Press.
Bakker, Peter
1987Reduplications in Saramaccan. In Alleyne (ed.), Studies in Saramaccan Language Structure, 17–40.
2003Reduplication in Saramaccan. In Twice as Meaningful: Reduplication in Pidgins, Creoles and Other Contact Languages, Silvia Kouwenberg (ed.), 73–82. London: Battlebridge.
Bakker, Peter, Post, Marike & van der Voort, Hein
1995TMA particles and auxiliaries. In Arends, Muysken & Smith (eds), , 247–258.
Bakker, Peter, Smith, Norval & Veenstra, Tonjes
1995Saramaccan. In Arends, Muysken & Smith (eds), , 165–178.
Bally, Anne-Sophie
2004L’histoire du Surinam et de la Guyane française – Les catégories fonctionnelles. Rapport de recherche sur le Saramaccan produit dans le cadre du projet de recherche sur la genèse des langues créoles, Université du Québec à Montréal.
2005Corpus Saramaka Guyane française. Research report, UQAM.
2007aLes catégories fonctionnelles du Saramaccan. Research report, UQAM.
2007bQuelques caractéristiques de la structure nominale en Saramaccan et leur origine. Research report, UQAM.
2011Structure nominale et expression du temps, du mode et de l’aspect en saramaka: Analyse synchronique et diachronique. PhD dissertation, Université du Québec à Montréal.
Bamgbose, Ayo
1975Relative clauses and nominalized sentences in Yoruba. Ohio State University Working Papers in Linguistics 20: 202–209.
1986Reported speech in Yoruba. In Direct and Indirect Speech, Florian 
Coulmas (ed.), 77–97. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref link
Baptista, Marlyse
2003Inflectional plural marking in creoles and pidgins: A comparative study. In The Phonology and Morphology of Creole Languages, Ingo Plag (ed.), 315–332. Tübingen: Niemeyer. Crossref link
Belletti, Adriana
2001Inversion as focalization. In Subject Inversion in Romance and the Theory of Universal Grammar, Aafke Hulk & Jean-Yves Pollock (eds), 60–90. Oxford: OUP.
Bentley, W. Holman
1887Dictionary and Grammar of the Kongo Language. London: The Baptist Missionary Society.
Benveniste, Émile
1966Problèmes de linguistique générale. Paris: Gallimard.
Bickerton, Derek
1977Pidginisation and creolisation: Language acquisition and language universals. In Pidgin and Creole Linguistics, Albert Valdman (ed.), 49–69. Bloomington IN: Indiana University Press.
1980Decreolisation and the creole continuum. In Valdman & Highfield (eds), Theoretical Orientations in Creole Studies, 109–127.
1981Roots of Language. Ann Arbor MI: Karoma.
1984The Language Bioprogram Hypothesis. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7(2): 173–221. Crossref link
Birmingham, John Calhoun
1970The Papiamentu Language of Curaçao. PhD dissertation, University of Michigan.
Bobyleva, Ekaterina. 2013. The development of the nominal domain in creole languages. Ph.D. Thesis. LOT. Utrecht. The Netherlands.
Bole-Richard, Remy
1983Systématique phonologique et grammaticale d’un parler Ewé: Le Gen-Mina du Sud-Togo et Sud-Benin. Paris: L’Harmattan.
Boncompain, Mariette Grelier
1989Portugais, l’essentiel de la grammaire. Paris: Casteilla.
Boretzky, Norbert
1983Kreolsprachen, substrate und sprachwandel. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
Bouchard, Denis
1995The Semantics of Syntax. Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press.
2002Adjectives, Number and Interfaces: Why Languages Vary [North-­Holland Linguistics Series]. Oxford: Elsevier.
Bresnan, Joan
1979Theory of Complementation in English Syntax. New York NY: Garland.
Brousseau, Anne-Marie
1998Réalisations argumentales et classes de verbes en fɔngbè [Langues et Cultures Africaines 22]. Leuven: Peeters.
2011One substrate, two creoles. The development of segmental inventories in St. Lucian and Haitian. In Lefebvre (ed.), Creoles, their Substrates and Language Typology, 105–106. Crossref link
Brousseau, Anne-Marie & Lumsden, John S.
1992Nominal structure in Fongbe. Topics on the Syntax and Semantics of Fongbe. Special issue of Journal of West African Languages 22(1): 5–26.
Brousseau, Anne-Marie & Nikiema, Emmanuel
2006From GBE to Haitian: The multi-stage evolution of syllable structure. In Lefebvre, White & Jourdan (eds), L2 Acquisition and Creole Genesis: Dialogues, 295–330. 
 Crossref link
Bruyn, Adrienne
1995Grammaticalization in Creoles: The Development of Determiners and Relative Clauses in Sranan [Studies in Language and Language Use 21]. Amsterdam: IFOTT.
1996On identifying instances of grammaticalization in Creole languages. In Baker & Syea (eds), Changing Meanings, Changing Functions, 29–46.
Byrne, Francis
1987Grammatical Relations in a Radical Creole. Verb Complementation in Saramaccan [Creole Language Library 3]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Cantel, Raymond
1999Précis de grammaire portugaise. Paris: Vuibert.
Capo, Hounkpati B.C.
1984Elements of Ewe-Gen-Aja-Fon dialectology. In Peuples du Golfe du Bénin (Aja-Ewé) , François de Medeiros (ed.), 167–178. Paris: Éditions Karthala.
1991A Comparative Phonology of Gbe. Dordrecht: Foris. 
 Crossref link
Chaudenson, Robert
1973Pour une étude comparée des créoles et parlers français d’outre-mer: Survivance et innovation. Revue de Linguistique Romane 147–148: 342–371.
Chierchia, Gennaro
1998Reference to kinds across languages. Natural Language Semantics 6: 339–405. Crossref link
Chomsky, Noam
1981Lectures on Government and Binding. Dordrecht: Foris. 
 Crossref link
1989Some notes on the economy of derivation and representation. In Functional Heads and Clause Structure [MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 10], Miren Itziar Laka Mugarza & Anoop Mahajan (eds.), 43–74. Cambridge MA: Department of Linguistics and Philosophy, MIT.
1995The Minimalist Program. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.
Christaller, Johann G.
1881Dictionary of the Asante and Fante Language Called Tshi. Basel: Evangelical Missionary Society.
Clements, George N.
1975The logophoric pronoun in Ewe: Its role in discourse. Journal of West African Languages 10(2): 141–177.
Collins, Chris
1994The factive construction in Kwa. Travaux de Recherche sur le Créole Haïtien 23: 31–65.
Collins Cobuild English Dictionary [The Cobuild Series] 1995 London: Harper Collins.
Comrie, Bernard
1985Tense. Cambridge: CUP. Crossref link
Cowper, Elizabeth
1989Thematic underspecification: The case of have . The Canadian Linguistics Association Annual Meeting, Université Laval, Quebec City.
1995English participle construction. The Canadian Journal of Linguistics 40(1): 1–38.
Culicover, Peter W. & Jackendoff, Ray
1997Semantic subordination despite syntactic corrdination. Linguistic Inquiry 28: 195–217.
da Cruz, Maxime
1994Les constructions sérielles du fongbè: Approche sémantique et syntaxique. Travaux de Recherche sur le Créole Haïtien 20–21: 1–154.
Damonte, Federico
2002The complementizer layer in Saramaccan. In Current Issues in Generative Grammar, 10th Colloquium on Generative Grammar Selected Papers, Manuel 
Leonetti, Olga F. Soriano & Victoria E. Vidal (eds). Madrid: Universidad de Alcalá de Henares.
Davidson, Donald
1997On saying that. In Readings in the Philosophy of Language, Peter 
Ludlow (ed.), 817–831. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.
De Groot, Adrianus H.P.
1977Woordregister Nederlands-Saramakkaans. Paramaribo: VACO.
de Jongh, Edward A.
1970E dia mas históriko [: 30 di mei 1969], 3rd edn. Curaçao.
den Besten, Hans
2007Relexification and pidgin development. The case of Cape Dutch 
Pidgin. In Ansaldo, Matthews & Lim (eds), Deconstructing Creole, 141–164. Crossref link
Déprez, Viviane
2005Morphological number, semantic number and bare nouns. Lingua 115: 857–883. Crossref link
2006On the conceptual role of number. In New Perspectives on Romance Linguistics, Vol. 1: Morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. Selected papers from the 35th Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages (LSRL), Austin, Texas, February 2005 [Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 275], Chiyo Nishida & Jean-Pierre Y. Montreuil (eds), 67–83. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
2007Probing the structuring role of grammaticalization: Nominal constituents in French lexifier creoles. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 22(2): 263–307. 
 Crossref link
Dijkhoff, Marta
1983The process of pluralization in Papiamentu. In Studies in Caribbean Language, Lawrence Carrington (ed.), 217–228. St. Augustine, Trinidad: Society for Caribbean Linguistics.
1993Papiamentu Word Formation. PhD dissertation, University of Amsterdam.
Domingue, Nicole
1980Syntactic innovations in Mauritian Bhojpuri. Ms.
1981Internal change in a transplanted language. Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 4: 151–159.
Donohue, Mark & San Rogue, Lila
2004I’saka: A Sketch Grammar of a Language of North-­Central New Guinea. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Dumais, Danielle
2007La détermination et l’expression du nombre en Fongbe. Ms, Université du Québec à Montréal.
Dunn, Joseph
1928A Grammar of the Portuguese Language. Washington DC: National Capital Press.
Edwards, Jay
1974African influences on the English of San Andrés Island. In Pidgins and Creoles: Current Trends and Prospects, David DeCamp & Ian F. Hancock (eds), 1–26. 
Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.
Emmanuel, Izaak S. & Emmanuel, Susanne A.
1970History of the Jews of the Netherlands Antilles. Cincinnati OH: American Jewish Archives.
Emonds, Joseph E.
1985A Unified Theory of Syntactic Categories. Dordrecht: Foris. Crossref link
Fabb, Nigel
1992aThe licensing of Fon verbs. In Topics on the syntax and semantics of Fongbe. Special issue of Journal of West African Languages 22(1): 27–34.
1992bReduplication and object movement in Ewe and Fon. Journal of African Languages and Linguistics 13(1): 1–41. Crossref link
Farkas, Donka F.
1992On the semantics of subjunctive complements. In Romance Languages and Modern Linguistic Theory. Papers from the 2nd Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages (LSRLXX), Ottawa [Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 91], Paul Hirschbühler & Konrad Koerner (eds), 127–151. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Fehderau, Harold W.
1969Dictionnaire kikongo (ya leta)-anglais-français = Kikongo-­English-French Dictionary. Kinshasa: Editions Leco.
Ferrol, Orlando
1982La cuestión del origen y de la formación del papiamento. The Hague: Smits.
Fischer, Olga, van Kemenade, Ans, Koopman, Willem and van der Wurff, Wim
2000The Syntax of Early English. Cambridge: CUP. Crossref link
Fouse, Gary C.
2002The Story of Papiamentu: A Study in Slavery and Language. Lanham MD: University Press of America.
Frajzyngier, Zygmunt
1984On the origin of say and se as complementiser in Black English and English-based creoles. American Speech 59: 207–210. Crossref link
Furetière, Antoine
1984Le dictionnaire universel d’Antoine Furetière, 3 Vols. Paris: Le Robert.
Ghomeshi, Jila & Massam, Diane
1994Lexical/syntactic relations without projection. Linguistic Analysis 24(3–4): 175–217.
Gilles, Rolande
1988Réalisation du Cas en créole haïtien dans trois environnements: Les prépositions, les marqueurs de Cas et les noms. MA thesis, Université du Québec à Montréal.
Goilo, Enrique
1953Grammática Papiamentu. Curaçao: Hollandsche Boekhandel.
1972Papiamentu Textbook, 4th edn. Aruba: De Wit Stores.
Goodman, Morris
1987The Portuguese element in the American Creoles. In Pidgin and Creole Languages, Glen G. Gilbert (ed.), 361–405. Honolulu HI: University of Hawaii Press.
Grimes, Joseph E. & Glock, Naomi
1970A Saramaccan narrative pattern. Language 46(2): 408–425. Crossref link
Grimshaw, Jane
1997Projections, heads, and optimality. Linguistic Inquiry 28: 373–422.
Güldemann, Tom
2001Quotative Constructions in African Languages: A Synchronic and Diachronic Survey. PhD dissertation, Leipzig University.
2002When ‘say’ is not say, the functional versatility of the Bantu quotative marker ti with special reference to Shona. In Reported Discourse. A Meeting Ground for Different Linguistic Domains [Typological Studies in Language 52], Tom Güldemann & Manfred von Roncador (eds), 253–287. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 
 Crossref link
Guthrie, Malcolm
1967–71Comparative Bantu, 4 Vols. Farnborough: Greg Press.
Haegeman, Liliane
1998Introduction to Government and Binding theory. Oxford: Blackwell.
Hall, Robert Anderson
1953Haitian Creole: Grammar, texts and vocabulary [American Anthropologist Association 74]. Menasha, WI: Georges Banta.
Hanitriniaina, Saholy and Lisa Travis
1998Underparsing and f-nominals in Malagasy, paper presented at AFLAV , University of Hawaii.
Haspelmath, Martin
1995The converb as a cross-linguistically valid category. In Converbs in Cross-linguistic Perspective, Martin Haspelmath & Ekkehard König (eds), 1–55. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
2004Coordinating constructions: An overview. In Haspelmath (ed.), Coordinating Constructions, 123–164. Crossref link
(ed.) 2004Coordinating Constructions [Typological Studies in Language 58]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
2007Coordination. In Language Typology and Syntactic Description, Vol. II: Complex Constructions, Timothy Shopen (ed.), 1–51. Cambridge: CUP. Crossref link
Hazoumê, Marc Laurent
1990Essai de classification synchronique [Étude comparative des parlers Gbe du Sud-Bénin]. Cotonou, Bénin: Centre national de linguistique appliquée.
Heine, Bernd, Claudi, Ulrike & Hünnemeyer, Friederike
1991Grammaticalization: A Conceptual Framework. Chicago IL: The University of Chicago.
Heine, Bernd & Kuteva, Tania
2002World Lexicon of Grammaticalization. Cambridge: CUP. 
 Crossref link
2005Language Contact and Grammatical Change. Cambridge: CUP. Crossref link
Heine, Bernd & Reh, Mechthild
1994Patterns of Grammaticalisation in African Languages [AKUP 47]. Cologne: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft, University of Cologne.
Henriquez, May
1954Laiza porko sushi, un fantasía basa riba e komedia ‘Pygmalion’ di G.B. Shaw. Curaçao: Drukkerij Scherpenheuvel.
Henriquez, May. 1981. Yaya ta konta. Kuenta piki aki ku aya. Korsu.
Hinds, John
1973Case markers and complementizers: Korean and Japanese. Stanford University Working Papers on Language Universals 13: 93–96.
Hoback Haff, Marianne
1987Coordonnants et éléments coordonnés. Paris: Didier Érudition.
Holm, John A.
1988Pidgins and Creoles [Cambridge Language Surveys 1]. Cambridge: CUP.
Hopper, Paul J. & Traugott, Elizabeth Closs
1993Grammaticalization. Cambridge: CUP.
Hounkpatin, Basile. B.
1985Le verbal et le syntagme verbal du fon-gbe parlé à Massè. PhD dissertation, Université Paris III (Sorbonne Nouvelle).
Huttar, George L.
2010Relative clauses in Suriname creoles and Gbe languages. Columbus workshop. Columbus. May.
Huttar, George L., Aboh, Enoch O. & Ameka, Felix K.
2013Relative clauses in Suriname creoles and Gbe languages. Lingua 129: 96–123. Crossref link
Hyman, Larry M.
2002Suffix ordering in Bantu: A morphocentric approach. In Yearbook of Morphology 2002, Geert Booij & Jaap van Marle (eds), 245–282. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Jacobs, Bart
2009The Upper Guinea origins of Papiamentu. Linguistic and historical evidence. Diachronica 26(3): 319–379. Crossref link
Johns, Alana
1992Deriving ergativity. Linguistic Inquiry 17: 587–622.
Johnson, Samuel
1755[1976]A dictionary of English language. New York NY: AMS Press.
Joseph, Sauveur Joseph
1995La négation en créole Haïtien: Un cas de relexification. Ms, Université du Québec à Montréal.
Juliana, E. 1970. Echa cuenta. Amsterdam.
Kahrel, Peter
1987 Stative Verb Formation in Saramaccan . In Alleyne (ed.), Studies in Saramaccan Language Structure, 53–70.
Kangni, Atah-Ekoué
1989La syntaxe du gε˜. Étude syntaxique d’un parler gbe (ewe): Le gε˜ du Sud-Togo. Bern: Peter Lang.
Kayne, Richard S.
1981ECP extensions. Linguistic Inquiry 12: 93–133.
1989Notes on English agreement. CIEFL Bulletin 1: 40–67.
Kearns, Lucie
2008Papiamentu data base. Research report 2008, 2009, CRSH. Montreal: Université du Québec à Montréal.
2011L’élément fu dans les DP du saamaka. Ms, UQAM.
Keesing, Roger M.
1988Melanesian Pidgin and the Oceanic Substrate. Stanford CA: Stanford University Press.
Kihm, Alain
1989Lexical conflation as a basis for relexification. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 34(3): 351–376.
1994French-Gbe lexical conflations in the genesis of Haitian. In Lefebvre & Lumsden (eds), The Central Role of Relexification in Creole Genesis: The Case of Haitian Creole. Research report prepared for SSHRCC on the project La genèse du créole haïtien: Un cas particulier d’investigation sur la forme de la grammaire universelle, 24 pages.
Kinyalolo, Kasangati K.W.
1992A note on word order in the progressive and prospective in Fon. Topics on the syntax and semantics of Fongbe. Special issue of Journal of West African Languages 22(1): 35–51.
1993aConditional and factives in Fɔ̀n. In Études syntaxiques. Research report prepared for SSHRCC, FCAR and PAFAC on the project La genèse du créole haïtien: Un cas particulier d’investigation sur la forme de la grammaire universelle, Vol. 4, Claire Lefebvre & John S. Lumsden (eds), 161–173. Montreal: Université du Québec à Montréal.
1993bOn some syntactic properties of ɖɔ̀ in Fon. Lingua 91: 201–233. Crossref link
1993cThe logophoric pronoun émi as a LF operator-anaphor. Proceedings of the North East Linguistic Society 23: 223–237.
Kiparsky, Paul & Kiparsky, Carol
1971Fact. In Semantics: An Interdisciplinary Reader in Philosophy, Linguistics and Psychology, Danny D. Steinberg & Leon A. Jakobovits (eds), 345–369. Cambridge: CUP.
Klamer, Marian
2000How report verbs become quote markers and complementisers. Lingua 110: 69–98. Crossref link
Kleinmoedig-Eustatia, Adriana
1981Mi koto di kuenta 1. Curaçao: Sekshon di Kultura.
. n.d. Mi koto di kuenta 1. Curaçao: Kòrsou.
Koch, Harold
2011The influence of Arandic languages on Central Australian Aboriginal English. In Lefebvre (ed.), Creoles, their Substrates and Language Typology, 437–460. Crossref link
König, Ekkehard
1985Where do concessives come from? On the development of concessive connectives. In Historical Semantics, Historical Word Formation [Trends in Linguistics, Studies and Monographs 29], Jacek Fisiak (ed.), 263–282. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref link
Koopman, Hilda
1986The genesis of Haitian: Implications of a comparison of some features of the syntax of Haitian, French and West African languages. In Muysken & Smith (eds), Substrata Versus Universals in Creole Genesis, 231–258. Crossref link
Koopman, Hilda & Lefebvre, Claire
1981Haitian Creole pu. In Muysken (ed.), Historicity and Variation in Creole Studies, 201–221.
1982PU: Marqueur de mode, préposition et complémenteur. In Syntaxe de l’haïtien, Claire Lefebvre, Helene Magloire-Holly & Nanie Piou (eds), 64–91. Ann Arbor MI: Karoma.
Kouwenberg, Silvia
1987Morphophonemic change in Saramaccan pronominal forms. In 
Alleyne (ed.), Studies in Saramaccan Language Structure, 1–15.
1990Complementizer PA, the finiteness of its complements, and some remarks on empty categories in Papiamento. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 5(1): 39–51. Crossref link
2006Weak and strong subject pronouns in Papiamentu. Paper for presentation at the ACBLPE Annual Conference. Coimbra, Portugal, June 28–30.
Kouwenberg, Silvia & Lefebvre, Claire
2007A new analysis of the Papiamentu clause structure. Probus 19(1): 37–75. Crossref link
Kouwenberg, Silvia & Murray, Eric
1994Papiamentu [Languages of the World/Materials 83]. Munich: Lincom.
Kouwenberg, Silvia & Muysken, Peter C.
1995Papiamento. In Arends, Muysken & Smith (eds), , 205–218.
Kouwenberg, Silvia & Muysken, Pieter C.
2011On the typology of clauses in Papiamentu. In Continuity Divergence and Convergence in Language Cultures of the Caribbean, Nicholas Faraclas, Ronald Severing, Christa Weijer, Elena Echteld & Marsha Hinds-Layne (eds), 13–23. Curaçao: Fundashon pa Planifika Shon di Idioma
Kouwenberg, Silvia & Ramos-Michel, Abigail
2007Papiamentu (Creole Spanish/Portuguese). In Comparative Creole Syntax: Parallel Outlines of 18 Creole Grammars, John A. Holm & Peter L. Patrick (eds), 307–332. London: Battlebridge Press.
Kramer, Marvin Gould
2002Substrate Transfer in Saramaccan Creole. PhD dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.
2007The Transfer of Alienable/inalienable Possession in Saramaccan as an Example of Gradualism in Creolisation. Amsterdam: SPCL.
Kroon, Willem
1979Giambo bieuw a bolbe naa wea: Novela intima Curazoleña, 3rd edn. Curaçao: Servicio di Enseñansa i Kultura/Gobiernu Insular.
Lafage, Suzanne
1985Français écrit et parlé en pays Ewé (Sud-Congo). Paris: SELAF.
Laman, Karl E.
1936Dictionnaire kikongo-français avec une étude phonétique décrivant les dialectes les plus importants de la langue dite kikongo. Brussels: n.p. (Repr. 1964, Gregg, Ridgewood).
Lambert-Brétière, Renée
2004 Unpublished Fongbe Corpus. Montreal.
Lambert-Brétière, Renée & Lefebvre, Claire
2014The cognitive process of relabeling within the framework of Construction Grammar. In Lefebvre, Relabeling in Language Genesis, 139–163. 
 Crossref link
Langacker, Ronald W.
1977Syntactic reanalysis. In Mechanisms of Syntactic Change, Charles N. Li (ed.), 57–140. Austin TX: University of Texas Press.
Larson, Richard K. & Lefebvre, Claire
1991Predicate clefting in Haitian Creole. In Proceedings of the North East Linguistic Society, Tim Sherer (ed.), 247–262. Amherst MA: GLSA.
Larson, Richard K. & Segal, Gabriel
1995Knowledge of Meaning: An Introduction to Semantic Theory. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Lauffer, Pierre Antoine
1968Ora solo baha. Curaçao: Libreria Salas.
Lawal, Adenike S.
1986A note on the Yoruba subordinator ‘TI’. Journal of West African Languages 16(2): 25–33.
1991Yoruba and Kí: Verbs or complementizers. Studies in African Linguistics 22(1): 73–84.
Lefebvre, Claire
1986Relexification in creole genesis revisited: The case of Haitian Creole. In Muysken & Smith (eds), Substrata Versus Universals in Creole Genesis, 279–301. Crossref link
1989Complex prepositional phrases: Another case of serialisation. In Études syntaxiques, morphologiques et lexicales. Research report prepared for SSHRCC, FCAR and PAFAC on the project Recherche Haiti-Fon, Claire Lefebvre (ed.), 278–293. Montreal: Université du Québec à Montréal.
1992AGR in languages without person and number agreement: The case of the clausal determiner in Haitian and Fon. Functional categories. Special issue of The Canadian Journal of Linguistics 37(2) : 137–156.
1993The role of relexification in creole genesis: The case of functional categories. Travaux de Recherche sur le Créole Haïtien 14: 23–52.
1994aThe role of relexification in creole genesis: The case of functional categories. Arbeitsstelle für Mehrsprachigkeit. Hamburg.
1994bOn spelling out E. Travaux de Recherche sur le Créole Haïtien 23: 1–33.
1996aThe functional category AGR and creole genesis. In Creole Languages and Language Acquisition [Trends in Linguistics], Herman Wekker (ed.), 153–195. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref link
1996bThe tense, mood and aspect system of Haitian Creole and the problem of transmission of grammar in creole genesis. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 11.2: 231–313. Crossref link
1997Relexification in creole genesis: The case of demonstrative terms in Haitian Creole. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 12: 181–203. 
 Crossref link
1998Creole Genesis and the Acquisition of Grammar: The Case of Haitian Creole [Cambridge Studies in Linguistics 88]. Cambridge: CUP. 
 Crossref link
1999Substratum semantics in the verbal lexicon of Haitian Creole. Studies in Language 23: 61–103. Crossref link
2001aMultifunctionality and the concept of lexical entry (column). Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 16(1): 107–145. Crossref link
2001bWhat you see is not always what you get: Apparent simplicity and hidden complexity in creole languages. Linguistic Typology 5(2–3): 186–213.
2004aIssues in the Study of Pidgin and Creole Languages [Studies in Languages Companion Series 70]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
2004bCoordinating constructions in Fongbe with reference to Haitian Creole. In Haspelmath (ed.), Coordinating Constructions, 123–164. Crossref link
2008Relabeling: A major process in language contact. Journal of Language Contact 2. http://​www​.jlc​-journal​.org Crossref link
2009aThe contribution of relexification, grammaticalization, and reanalysis to contact-induced language change. In Language Change in Contact Languages: Grammatical and Prosodic Considerations, Clancy Clements & Shelome Gooden (eds). Special issue of Studies in Language 33(2): 277–312. Crossref link
2009bA note on lexical diffusion in the development of creoles: The case of double-object verbs. In Gradual Creolization. Studies Celebrating Jacques Arends [Creole Language Library 34], Rachel Selbach, Margot van den Berg & Hugo C. Cardoso (eds), 101–113. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
(ed.) 2011Creoles, their Substrates and Language Typology [Typological Studies in Language 95]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
2012A comparison of the nominal structures of Saramaccan, Fongbe and English with reference to Haitian Creole: Implications for a relabeling-based account of creole genesis. Lingua 129: 32–66. Crossref link
2014Relabeling in Language Genesis. Oxford: OUP. 
 Crossref link
Lefebvre, Claire & Brousseau, Anne-Marie
2002A Grammar of Fongbe [Mouton Grammar Library 25]. Berlin : Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref link
Lefebvre, Claire & Kaye, Jonathan
1986Études syntaxiques, morphologiques et phonologiques. Research report prepared for FCAR and PAFAC on the project Fon-Créole Haïtien. Montral: Université du Québec à Montréal.
Lefebvre, Claire
& Kouwenberg, Silvia 2005On the inner structure of the Papiamentu complementiser system. Paper presented at the International Conference on Ibero-Roman Creoles, ACBLPE Annual Conference. Orleans, June 27–29.
Lefebvre, Claire & Lambert-Brétière, Renée
2014aA note on the Haitian double-object construction and the relabelling-based account of creole genesis. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 29(1): 143–156. Crossref link
2014bRelabeling and word order: A construction grammar perspective. In Lefebvre, 139-200.
Lefebvre, Claire & Loranger, Virginie
2006On the properties of Saramaccan fu: Synchronic and diachronic perspectives. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 21(2): 275–335. 
 Crossref link
2008A diachronic and synchronic account of the multifunctionality of Saramaccan táa . Linguistics 46(6): 1167–1229. 
 Crossref link
Lefebvre, Claire & Lumsden, John S.
1994aRelexification in creole genesis. In Lefebvre & Lumsden (eds), The Central Role of Relexification in Creole Genesis: The Case of Haitian Creole. Research report prepared for SSHRCC on the project La genèse du créole haïtien: Un cas particulier d’investigation sur la forme de la grammaire universelle, 28 pages.
(eds) 1994bThe Central Role of Relexification in Creole Genesis: The Case of Haitian Creole. Research report prepared for SSHRCC on the project La genèse du créole haïtien: Un cas particulier d’investigation sur la forme de la grammaire universelle. Montreal: Université du Québec à Montréal.
Lefebvre, Claire & Massam, Diane
1988Haitian Creole syntax: A case for DET as head. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 3(2): 213–243. Crossref link
Lefebvre, Claire & Muysken, Pieter C.
1988Mixed Categories: Nominalisations in Quechua [Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory]. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Lefebvre, Claire & Therrien, Isabelle
2007aOn the properties of Papiamentu pa: Synchronic and diachronic perspectives. In Synchronic and Diachronic Perspective on Contact Languages [Creole Language Library 32], Magnus Huber & Viveka Velupillai (eds), 215–255. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
2007bThe various dimensions of Papiamentu ku. Creolica.
2007cOn Papiamentu ku . In Language Description, History and Development: Linguistic Indulgence in Memory of Terry Crowley [Creole Language Library 30] Jeff Siegel, John Lynch & Diana Eades (eds), 169–183. Amsterdam: John 
Benjamins. Crossref link
. In preparation. On Papiamentu di . Ms, UQAM.
Lefebvre, Claire, White, Lydia & Jourdan, Christine
(eds) 2006L2 Acquisition and Creole Genesis: Dialogues [Language Acquisition and Language Disorders 42]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Lenz, Rodolfo
1928El Papiamento, la lingua criolla de Curazao (la gramática más sencilla). Santaigo de Chile: Imprenta Balcells.
Lightfoot, David
1979Principles of Diachronic Syntax. Cambridge: CUP.
Lockwood, William Burley
1968Historical German Syntax. Oxford: OUP.
Long, Mark Edwin
1974Semantic Verb Classes and their Role in French Predicate Complementation. PhD dissertation, University of Indiana, Bloomington.
Longacre, Robert E.
1985Sentences as combination of clauses. In Shopen (ed.), Language Typology and Syntactic Description, 235–286.
Loranger, Virginie
2004Multifonctionnalité des items táa et fu en Saramaccan: Un cas de relexification. MA thesis, Université du Québec à Montréal.
Lord, Carol
1973Serial verbs in transition. Studies in African Linguistics 4(3): 269–295.
1976Evidence for syntactic reanalysis: From verb to complementiser in Kwa. In Papers from the Parasession on Diachronic Syntax, Sanford B. Steever, Carol A. Walker & Salikoko S. Mufwene (eds), 179–191. Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press.
1993Historical Change in Serial Verbs Constructions [Typological Studies in Language 26]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Lumsden, John S.
1989On the distribution of determiners in Haitian Creole. Le créole haïtien. Special issue of the Revue Québécoise de Linguistique 18(2): 64–93.
1991On the acquisition of nominal structures in the genesis of Haitian Creole. Travaux de Recherche sur le Créole Haïtien 4: 37–61.
1994Possession: Substratum semantics in Haitian Creole. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 9: 25–51. Crossref link
1999Language acquisition and creolization. In Language Creation and Language Change, Michel DeGraff (ed.), 129–57. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.
Lumsden, John S. & Lefebvre, Claire
1994The genesis of Haitian Creole. In Lefebvre & 
Lumsden (eds), The Central Role of Relexification in Creole Genesis: The Case of Haitian Creole. Research report prepared for SSHRCC on the project La genèse du créole haïtien: Un cas particulier d’investigation sur la forme de la grammaire universelle, 15 pages.
Lumwamu, François
1973Essai de morphosyntaxe systématique des parlers kongo. Paris: Éditions Klincksieck.
Martinus, Frank E.
1996Papiamentu’s West-African Connections. PhD dissertation, University of Amsterdam.
Maurer, Philippe
1986Le papiamento de Curaçao: Un cas de creolisation atypique? Études Creoles 9(1): 97–113.
1988Les modifications temporelles et modales du verbe dans le papiamento de Curaçao (Antilles Néerlandaises) Avec une anthologie et un vocabulaire papiamento-français [Kreolische Bibliothek 9]. Hamburg: Buske.
1993Subjunctive mood in Papiamentu. In Atlantic meets Pacific: A Global View of Pidginization and Creolization [Creole Language Library 11], Francis Byrne & John A. Holm (eds), 243–250. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
2013Papiamentu. In The Survey of Pidgin and Creole Languages, Vol. II: Portuguese-based, Spanish-based, and French-based Languages, Susanne Michaelis, Philip Maurer, Martin Haspelmath & Magnus Huber (eds), 163-181. Oxford: OUP.
McWhorter, John H.
1992Substratal influence in Saramaccan serial verb constructions. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 7: 1–54. Crossref link
1995aSisters under the skin: A case for genetic relationship between the Atlantic English-based creoles. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 10(2): 289–333. 
 Crossref link
1995bThe scarcity of Spanish-based creoles explained. Language in 
Society 24: 213–244. Crossref link
1996A deep breath and a second wind: The substrate hypothesis reassessed. Anthropological Linguistics 38: 461–494.
1997Towards a New Model of Creole Genesis. Bern: Peter Lang.
2004Saramaccan and Haitian as young grammars: The pitfalls of syntactocentrism in creole genesis research. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 19(1): 77–138. Crossref link
Menn, Lise & MacWhinney, Brian
1984The repeated morph constraint: Toward an explanation. Language 60: 519–541. Crossref link
Michaelis, Susanne
(ed.) 2008Roots of Creole Structures: Weighing the Contribution of Substrates and Superstrates [Creole Language Library 33]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 
 Crossref link
Michaelis, Susanne & Rosalie, Marcel
2000Polysémie et cartes sémantiques: Le relateur (av)ek en créole seychellois. Études Créoles 23(2): 79–100
Migge, Bettina
1998Substrate Influence in the Formation of the Surinamese Plantation Creole: A Consideration of Sociohistorical Data and Linguistic Data from Ndyuka and Gbe. PhD dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus.
2003Creole Formation as Language Contact: The Case of the Suriname Creoles [Creole Languages Library 25]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Mithun, Marianne
1988The grammaticization of coordination. In Clause Combining in Grammar and Discourse [Typological Studies in Language 18], John Haiman & Sandra A. Thompson (eds), 331–359. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Mous, Martin
1995Language intertwining. Paper read at the Amsterdam Creole Workshop: Creole Genesis and Language Contact, Amsterdam.
Mufwene, Salikoko S.
1990Transfer and the substrate hypothesis in creolistics. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 12: 1–23. Crossref link
Mufwene, Salikoko S. & Dijkhoff, Marta
1989On the so-called ‘infinitive’ in Atlantic creoles. Lingua 77: 297–330. Crossref link
Mühlhäusler, Peter
1986Pidgin and Creole Linguistics [Language in Society II]. Oxford: Blackwell.
Muller, Enrique
1983Some specific rules in the Papiamentu syntax: From native language to foreign language. In Papiamentu, Problems and Possibilities, Enrique Muller (ed.), 35–54. Zutphen: Walburg Press.
1989Inleiding tot de Sintaxis van het Papiamentu. PhD dissertation, University of Amsterdam. (Cited by Kouwenberg & Ramos-Michel)
Munro, Jennifer M.
2011Roper River Aboriginal language features in Australian Kriol: Considering semantic categories. In Lefebvre (ed.), Creoles, their Substrates and Language Typology, 461–487. Crossref link
Muysken, Pieter C.
1977Movement rules in Papiamentu. Amsterdam Creole Studies 1: 80–102.
1981aHalf-way between Quechua and Spanish: The case for relexification. In Historicity and Variation in Creole Studies, Arnold Highfield & Albert Valdman (eds), 52–79. Ann Arbor MI: Karoma.
1981bCreole tense/mood/aspect systems: The unmarked case? In 
Muysken (ed.), Historicity and Variation in Creole Studies, 181–199.
(ed.) 1981cGenerative Studies on Creole Languages. Dordrecht: Foris. 
 Crossref link
1987Prepositions and postpositions in Saramaccan. In Alleyne (ed.), Studies in Saramaccan Language Structure, 82–102.
1988Lexical restructuring in creole genesis. In Beiträge zum 4. Essener Kolloquium [Bochum-Essener Beiträge zur Sprachwandelforschung], Norbert Boretzky, Werner Enniger & Thomas Stolz (eds), 193–210. Bochum: Brockmeyer.
2008Functional Categories [Cambridge Studies in Linguistics 117]. 
Cambridge: CUP. Crossref link
Muysken, Pieter C. & Norval Smith
(eds) 1986Substrata Versus Universals in Creole Genesis [Creole Language Library 1]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Navarro Tomás, Tomás
1953Observaciones sobre el Papiamento. Nueva Revista de Filologia Hispanicá 7 : 183–189.
Neumann-Holzschuh, Ingrid & Schneider, Edgar W.
(eds) 2000Degrees of Restructuring in Creole Languages [Creole Language Library 22]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 
 Crossref link
Nichols, Johanna
1992Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time. Chicago IL: University of 
Chicago Press. Crossref link
Nida, Eugène
1948The identification of morphemes. Language 24: 414–441. 
 Crossref link
Noonan, Michael
1985Complementation. In Shopen (ed.), Language Typology and Syntactic Description, 42–140.
Oyelaran, Olasope
1982On the scope of the serial verb construction in Yoruba. Studies in African Linguistics 13(2): 109–146.
Parkvall, Mikael
2000Out of Africa: African Influences in Atlantic Creoles. London: Battlebridge.
Partee, Barbara
1973The syntax and semantics of quotation. In A Festschrift for Morris Halle, Stephen R. Anderson & Paul Kiparsky (eds), 410–418. NewYork NY: Holt, Rinehead and Winston.
Payne, John R.
1985Complex phrases and complex sentences. In Shopen (ed.), Language Typology and Syntactic Description, 3–41.
Pepicello, William J.
1982On the sources of Indo-European conjunctions of purpose, cause and result. In Papers from the 5th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Galway, April 6–10, 1981 [Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 21], Anders Ahlqvist (ed.), 256–264. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Pinker, Steven
1989Learnability and Cognition: The Acquisition of Argument Structure. 
Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.
Pinto, Nilda. 1983. Cuentanan di Nanzi. W. J. H. Baart. Amsterdam. Rodopi.
Plag, Ingo
1993Sentential Complementation in Sranan: On the Formation of an English-based Creole Language. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer.
1995The emergence of taki as a complementiser in Sranan: On substrate, universals, and gradual creolization. In Arends (ed.), The Early Stages of Creolization, 113–148.
Pollock, Jean-Yves
1989Verb movement, universal grammar, and the structure of IP. Linguistic Inquiry 20(3): 365–424.
Post, Marike
1995Fa d’Ambu. In Arends, Muysken & Smith (eds), , 191–204.
Postma, Johannes
1990The Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1600–1815. Cambridge: CUP. 
 Crossref link
Price, Richard
1983First-time: The Historical Vision of an Afro-American People. Baltimore MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Randall, Janet H.
1987Indirect positive evidence: Overtuning overgeneralisations in language acquisition. Ms, Indiana University Linguistic Club, Bloomington.
Ransom, Evelyn N.
1988The grammaticalization of complementizers. In Proceedings of the fourteenth annual meeting. General session and parasession on grammaticalization, Shelley Axmaker, Annie Jaisser & Helen Singmaster (eds), 364–373. Berkeley CA: Berkeley Linguistics Society.
Rassinoux, Jean
1987Dictionnaire français-fon. Cotonou: Imprimerie Dumas.
2000Dictionnaire français-fon. Cotonou, Benin: Société des Missions Africaines.
Rawley, James A.
1981The Transatlantic Slave Trade. A History. New York NY: W.W. Norton & Company.
Richardson, Linda
1977The phrasal conjunctor and the comitative marker in Papiamentu. Amsterdam Creole Studies 1: 55–68.
Riemer, J.A.
1779Wörterbuch zur Erlernung der Saramakka-Neger-Sprache (Published with an English translation). In Arends & Perl (eds), 251–374.
Ritter, Elisabeth
1992Cross-linguistic evidence for number phrase. Functional categories. Special issue of the Revue Canadienne de Linguistique 37(2): 197–219.
Rizzi, Luigi
1997The fine structure of the left periphery. In Elements of Grammar: Handbook in Generative Syntax, Liliane Haegeman (ed.), 281–337. Dordrecht: Kluwer. Crossref link
Rizzi, Luigi & Roberts, Ian
1989Complex inversion in French. Probus 1: 1–30. 
 Crossref link
Roberts, Sarah J. & Bresnan, Joan
2008Retained inflectional morphology in pidgins: A typological study. Linguistic Typology 12: 269–302. Crossref link
Rochette, Anne
1988Semantic and Syntactic Aspects of Romance Sentential Complementation. PhD dissertation, MIT.
1989The selection properties of aspectual verbs. In Beyond Principles and Parameters, Kyle Johnson & Ian Roberts (eds.), 145–165. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Rosario, Guillermo E.
1969E raís ku no ke muri. Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij.
Ross, John Robert
1967Constraints on Variables in Syntax. PhD dissertation, MIT (published as ‘Infinite syntax!’, Ablex, Norwood (1986)).
Rountree, S. Catherine
1981Saramaccan personal narrative. In Discourse Studies in Djuka and Sarramaccan, Stephen H. Levinsohn (ed.). Paramaribo: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
1992Saramaccan Grammar Sketch. Paramaribo: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
Rountree, S. Catherine, Asodanoe, Jajo & Glock, Naomi
2000Saramaccan-English Word List (with idioms). Paramaribo: Institut voor Taalwetenschap.
Rountree, S. Catherine & Glock, Naomi
1982Saramaccan for Beginners: A Pedagogical Grammar. Paramaribo: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
Ruhl, Charles
1989On Monosemy: A Study in Linguistic Semantics. Albany NY: State University of New York Press.
Sachnine, Michka
1997Dictionnaire yorùbá-français. Paris: Éditions Karthala/Ibadan: Ifra-­Ibadan.
Sankoff, Gillian
1991Using the future to explain the past. In Development and Structures of Creole Languages [Creole Language Library 10], Francis Byrne & Thom Huebner (eds), 61–74. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Sankoff, Gillian & Laberge, Suzanne
1973On the acquisition of native speakers by a language. Kivung 6: 32–47.
Sankoff, Gillian, Thibault, Pierrette, Nagy, Naomi, Blondeau, Hélène, Fonollosa, Marie-Odile & Gagnon, Lucie
1997Variation in the use of discourse markers in a language contact situation. Language Variation and Change 9(2): 165–190. Crossref link
Schumann, Christian L.
1778Saramaccanisch Deutsches Wörter-Buch. (1914). In Die Sprache der Saramakkaneger in Surinam, Hugo Schuchardt, 44–120. Amsterdam: Johannes Müller.
Schumann, John
1978The Pidginisation Process: A Model for Second Language Acquisition. Rowley MA: Newbury House.
Schuchardt, Hugo
1914Die sprache der Saramakkaneger in Surinam. Amsterdam: Johannes Müller.
Segurola, Basilio
1963Dictionnaire fon-français. Cotonou: Procure de l’Archidiocèse.
Segurola, Basilio & Rassinoux, Jean
2000Dictionnaire fon-français. Cotonou: Société des missions africaines.
Seidel, August & Struyf, Ivo
1970La langue congolaise: Grammaire, vocabulaire systématique, phrases graduées et lectures. Paris: Groos.
Shopen, Timothy
(ed.) 1985Language Typology and Syntactic Description. Cambridge: CUP. 
 Crossref link
Siegel, Jeff
1995Koine formation and creole genesis. Paper read at the Amsterdam Creole Workshop .
1997Mixing, levelling and pidgin/creole development. In The Structure and Status of Pidgins and Creoles, Arthur K. Spears & Donald Winford (eds), 111–149. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
2008The Emergence of Pidgin and Creole Languages. Oxford: OUP.
Singler, John Victor
1996Theories of creole genesis, sociohistorical considerations, and the evaluation of evidence: The case of Haitian Creole and the relexification hypothesis. Journal of Pidgin and Creole languages 11: 185–231. Crossref link
Smith, Norval
1987The Genesis of the Creole Languages of Surinam. PhD dissertation, University of Amsterdam.
1996WE-focus in Saramaccan/substrate feature or grammaticalisation? In Baker & Syea (eds), Changing Meanings, Changing Functions, 113–129.
2001Voodoo Chili: Differential substrate effects in Saramaccan and Haitian. In Creolisation and Contact [Creole Language Library 23], Norval Smith & Tonjes Veenstra (eds), 43–81. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
2002The history of the Surinamese Creoles II: Origin and differentiation. In Atlas of the Languages of Surinam, Eithne B. Carlin & Jacques Arends (eds), 131–153. Leiden: KITLV Press.
Smith, Norval & Cardoso, Hugo
2004A new look at the Portuguese element in Saramaccan. Journal of Portuguese Linguistics 3(2): 115–147. Crossref link
Stassen, Leon
2000AND-languages and WITH-languages. Linguistic Typology 4: 1–54. 
 Crossref link
Steele, Jeffrey & Brousseau, Anne-Marie
2006Parallels in process: Comparing Haitian Creole and French learner phonologies. In Lefebvre, White & Jourdan (eds), L2 Acquisition and Creole Genesis: Dialogues, 331–355. 
 Crossref link
Sterlin, Marie-Denise
1988Les différentes caractéristiques de pou en créole haïtien. Travaux de Recherche sur le Créole Haïtien 3: 1–34.
1989Les caractéristiques de pou: Un modal en position de complémenteur. Revue Québécoise de Linguistique 18(2): 131–147. Crossref link
Swartenbroeckx, Pierre
1973Dictionnaire kikongo et kituba-français. Vocabulaire comparé des langues kongo traditionnelles et véhiculaires [Série III]. Bandundu (République du Zaire): Ceeba publications.
Tardif, Olivier
2000Multifonctionnalité et sous-spécification: Le cas de ɖɔ̀ en fongbe. MA thesis, Université du Québec à Montréal.
Therrien, Isabelle
2004La multifunctionnalité de ku et pa en papiamento. MA thesis, Université du Québec à Montréal.
Thomason, Sally G. & Kaufman, Terrence
1991Language Contact, Creolisation, and Genetic Linguistics. Berkeley CA: University of California Press.
Tossa, Colman Z.
1994Adjonctions et séries verbales dans les langues gbé. PhD dissertation, Université d’Ottawa.
Traugott, Elizabeth Closs
1985Conditional markers. In Iconicity in Syntax: Proceedings of a Symposium on Iconicity in Syntax, Stanford [Typological Studies in Language 6], John Haiman (ed.), 289–307. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Travis, Lisa & Lamontagne, Greg
1992The case filter and licensing of empty K. Functional categories. Special issue of the Revue canadienne de linguistique 37(2): 157–174.
Trudgill, Peter
1986Dialects in Contact [Language in Society 10]. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Valdman, Albert
1978Le créole: Structure, statut et origine. Paris: Librairie C. Klincksieck.
1980Creolisation and second language acquisition. In Valdman & Highfield (eds), Theoretical Orientations in Creole Studies, 297–311.
1993Matrice et diffusion culturelle dans le développement des créoles français, paper read at the Université du Québec à Montréal.
Valdman, Albert & Highfield, Arnold
(eds) 1980Theoretical Orientations in Creole Studies. New York NY: Academic Press.
Valdman, Albert et al.
1981Haitian Creole-English-French Dictionary, 2 Vols. Bloomington IN: Indiana University.
2007Haitian Creole-English Bilingual Dictionary. Bloomington IN: 
Indiana University.
van den Berg, Henk
1987A brief note on predicate cleft in Saramaccan. In Alleyne (ed.), Studies in Saramaccan Language Structure, 103–111.
Van de Vate, Marleen Susanne
2011Tense, Aspect and Modality in a Radical Creole: The Case of Saamaka. PhD dissertation, University of Tromsø.
van Dyk, Pieter
1765 Nieuwe en Nooit Bevoorens Geziene Onderwyzinge in het Bastert Engels, of Neeger engels (New and Unprecedented Instruction in Bastard English, or Negro English). In Arends & Perl (eds) 1995, Early Suriname Creole Texts: A Collection of 18th-century Sranan and Saramaccan Documents, 93–242.
van Putte, Florimon
1985Taking government seriously. In Linguistics in the Netherlands, Hans Bennis & Frits Beukema (eds), 145–155. Dordrecht: Foris.
van Putte, Florimon & García, Erica C.
1990Where there is a message there is a way: KU versus NULL in Papiamentu. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 5(2): 187–222. 
 Crossref link
Van Wijk, Henri L.A.
1958Origines y evolucion del papiamentu. Neophilologus 42: 169–182. 
 Crossref link
Veenstra, Tonjes
1996aSerial Verbs in Saramaccan: Predication and Creole Genesis. Dordrecht: Holland Institute of Generative Linguistics.
1996bGrammaticalized verbs in Saramaccan. In Baker & Syea (eds), Changing Meanings, Changing Functions, 95–112.
Voorhoeve, Jan
1957The verbal system of Sranan. Lingua 6: 374–396. 
 Crossref link
1961Le ton et la grammaire dans le Saramaccan. Word 17: 146–163. Crossref link
1964Creole languages and communication. In Symposium on Multilingualism [Committee for Technical Cooperation in Africa 87], 233–242. London.
1973Historical and linguistic evidence in favour of the relexification theory in the formation of creoles. Language in Society 2: 133–145. Crossref link
Voorhoeve, Jan & Donicie, Antoon
1963Bibliographie du négro-anglais du Surinam. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
Wallace, Efoé
1995L’Éwé: Temps, mode et aspect. In Research report prepared for FCAR on the project L’organisation des lexiques et des entrées lexicales, Vol. 2, Claire Lefebvre (ed.). Montreal: Université du Québec à Montréal.
Washabaugh, William
1975On the development of complementizers in creolization. Working Papers on Language Universals 17: 109–138.
Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the English Language. 1988 NewYork NY: Lexicon Publications.
Welmers, William Everett
1973African Language Structures. Berkeley CA: University of 
California Press.
Westerman, Driedich
1907Grammatik der Ewe-Sprache. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer. Crossref link
van Wietz, I.L.
1805 [ca 1793]Die Apostel Geschichte in die Saramakka Neger Sprache Uebersetzt durch Br. Wietz, Revedirt und Abgeschrieben 1805. MS no EBGS 632, Moravian Archives Utrecht/MS no H III A 13 (16), Moravian Archives Paramaribo. Transcription published in Hugo Schuchardt (1914), 2–35. Amsterdam: Johannes Müller.
Wijnen, Beppy & Alleyne, Mervyn C.
1987A note on fu in Saramaccan. In Alleyne (ed.), Studies in Saramaccan Language Structure, 41–49.
Winford, Donald
1985The syntax of fi complements in Caribbean English Creole. Language 61(3): 588–624. Crossref link
1993Predication in Caribbean English Creoles Mervyn C. [Creole Language Library 10]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Winford, Donald & Migge, Bettina
2007Substrate influence on the emergence of the TMA systems of the Surinamese creoles. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 22(1): 73–100. 
 Crossref link
Würmbrand, Susanne
2001Infinitives: Restructuring and Clause Structure. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref link
Subjects
BIC Subject: CF/2ZP – Linguistics/Pidgins & Creoles
BISAC Subject: LAN009000 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  2015019669