Discourse and Identity Formation

Parliamentary debates in Bahrain

| University of Bahrain
| Uppsala University & University of the Free State
HardboundAvailable
ISBN 9789027206640 | EUR 105.00 | USD 158.00
 
e-Book
ISBN 9789027265012 | EUR 105.00 | USD 158.00
 
The book explores eleven debates held at the Bahraini Council of Representatives (or the Parliament) over 2007-2010 to comprehend how parliamentary discourse contributes towards identity formation within Bahraini society. Within the framework of critical discourse studies, the book traces the ideological struggle over power in the linguistic content of legislative discourse through a range of discursive strategies and devices.

The authors contend that the discursive choices across the political spectrum in the legislative debates reflected strong sectarian characteristics which contained in it the seeds of political unrest of 2011, the so-called ‘Arab Spring’ of Bahrain. Parliamentary rhetoric and its resonance in the public sphere, the authors argue, revealed the underlying contradictions in Bahraini society. The book highlights the significance of legislative discourse as a platform of social cohesion, and its instability being symptomatic of contradictions within society.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Acknowledgements
ix
Acknowledgements
xi
List of tables
xvii
List of figures
xix
Transliteration system
xxi–xxii
Chapter 1. Introduction
1–12
Chapter 2. Religion, ideology and politics in Islamic society
13–21
Chapter 3. Language variation across Bahrain
23–37
Chapter 4. Theoretical underpinnings
39–68
Chapter 5. Ideology, identity and discourse: Evidence from parliamentary debates during 2008–2010
69–176
Chapter 6. Discursive approaches and political ideology in Bahrain
177–198
Chapter 7. Bahrain’s ongoing quest for deliberative democracy
199–209
Bibliography
211–219
Appendix A. Collecting and presenting data
221–226
Appendix B. Agenda topics matched to items in Hansard
227–228
Appendix C. The excerpts
229–268
Appendix D. Offences affecting external state security
269–270
Glossary
271–273
Index
275–285
References

Bibliography

Abdul Qadir, Sayed
(2009, 27 Jan.) ʿalā madā akthar min sabʿ sāʿāt wa wasaṭ ijrāʾāt mushaddadah al niyābah yuḥaqqiq maʿa mushaymiʿ wa al sinkis wa al miqdād: tawjīh arbaʿ tuham li al muttahamīn minhā: al taḥrīḍ ʿalā qalb al niẓām. Akhbar Al-Khaleej Newspaper p. 11.Google Scholar
Adams, Ian
(2001) Political Ideology Today. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
AFB
(18 Mar. 2011) UN warns Bahrain after protests crackdown. The Express Tribune WWW document http://​tribune​.com​.pk​/story​/134385​/un​-warns​-bahrain​-after​-protests​-crackdown/, (accessed 12th February 2015).
Akbar, Al-khaleej
(13 Feb. 2008) Al wifaq ta’taridh ‘ala al fulful al mathun li fadhdh al shaghab. WWW document, http://​www​.akhbar​-alkhaleej​.com​/#!223647, (accessed 29 Feb. 2012).
Al nāʾib al mizʿal: naʾmal fī tadakhkhul al ḥukūmah liʿawdah al niqābiyyīn al mafṣūlīn, muḥammad khālid fūjiʾnā birafḍ al wifāq qanūn mukāfaḥat al jarāʾim al iliktirūniyyah
(2008, January 28) Akhbar Al-Khaleej Newspaper p. 6.Google Scholar
Al-Aql, Nāsir
(1989) Al Khawārij: Awwal al Firaq mi al Islām. Saudi Arabia: Dār IshbīlyahGoogle Scholar
Al-Hadhrami, Hamad Mohammed
(2009) Unpublished interview with Lamya Alkooheji, Bahraini Council of Representatives, Manama. 19th February.Google Scholar
Aljarim, Ali and Mustafa Ameen
(1999) Al Balāghah Al wāḍiḥah. Cairo: Dar Al Ma’arif.Google Scholar
Almunajjid, Muḥammad Sālih
(2015) Alāʿīb Al Dimuqrāṭiyyah. WWW document http://​www​.almunajjid​.com​/6972 (accessed 18th Dec. 2015).
Al-Qouz, Muna Y.
(2009) Dialect Contact, Acquisition and Change among Manama Youth, Bahrain. PhD Thesis, University of Essex, Colchester.Google Scholar
Al Wadi, Nada and Malik Abdulla
(13 Feb. 2008) Al wifāq tuhājim al ifrāt fī “musīlāt al dumūʿ” wa tushakkik fī al fulful al mathūn: “al dākhiliyyah” tulawwih bi “asliḥah fattākah” li mukāfakah al shaghab. Al Wasat Newspaper, p. 14.Google Scholar
Al Wefaq Islamic Society
(13 Feb. 2008), Ṣultān: ṭarīqat taʿ āmul “al dākhiliyyah” barbariyyah wa taʿ kis al ʿ aqliyyah al qamʿ iyyah. WWW document, http://​alwefaq​.net​/index​.php​?show​=news​&action​=article​&id​=5520, (accessed 29th Feb. 2012).
Anderson, Benedict
(1983) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso.Google Scholar
Widdicombe, Sue
(1998) “‘But you don’t class yourself’: the interactional management of category membership and non-membership in Antaki and Widdicombe (eds.), Identities in Talk. London: Sage, pp. 52-70.Google Scholar
Argaman, Einav
(2009) Arguing within an institutional hierarchy: how argumentative talk and interlocutors’ embodied practices preserve a superior–subordinate relationship. Discourse Studies, Vol. 11: 5, pp. 515–541. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bahrain. Parliament. Council of Representatives
29th January 2008, Debates, 2nd Leg., 2nd Term/ 14th Sess., pp. 91–92.Google Scholar
Bahrain. Parliament. Council of Representatives
12th February 2008, Debates, 2nd Leg., 2nd Term/ 16th Sess., pp. 62–73.Google Scholar
Bahrain. Parliament. Council of Representatives
22nd April 2008, Debates, 2nd Leg., 2nd Term/ 25th Sess., pp. 19–20.Google Scholar
Bahrain. Parliament. Council of Representatives
22nd April 2008, Debates, 2nd Leg., 2nd Term/ 25th Sess., pp. 43–44.Google Scholar
Bahrain. Parliament. Council of Representatives
30th December 2008, Debates, 2nd Leg., 3rd Term/ 10th Sess., pp. 95–99.Google Scholar
Bahrain. Parliament. Council of Representatives
27th January 2009, Debates, 2nd Leg., 3rd Term/ 13th Sess., pp. 4–6.Google Scholar
Bahrain. Parliament. Council of Representatives
7th April 2009, Debates, 2nd Leg., 3rd Term/ 23rd Sess., pp. 103–104.Google Scholar
Bahrain. Parliament. Council of Representatives
7th April 2009, Attachment to Hansard: Attachment 15, 2nd Leg. 3rd Term/ 23rd Sess., pp. 466–497.Google Scholar
Bahrain. Parliament. Council of Representatves
14th May 2009, Attachment 5 to Hansard, 2nd Leg., 3rd Term/ 7th Exceptional Sess., pp. 481–584.Google Scholar
Bahrain. Parliament. Council of Representatives
20th October 2009, Debates, 2nd Leg., 4th Term/ 3rd Sess., p. 15.Google Scholar
Bahrain. Parliament. Council of Representatives
22nd December 2009, Debates, 2nd Leg., 4th Term/ 10th Sess., pp. 6–7.Google Scholar
Bahrain. Parliament. Council of Representatives
29th December 2009, Debates, 2nd Leg., 4th Term/ 11th Sess., p. 6.Google Scholar
Bahrain. Parliament. Council of Representatives
30th March 2010, Debates, 2nd Leg., 4th Term / 24th Sess., pp. 78–79.Google Scholar
Bahrain. Parliament. Council of Representatives
20th April 2010, Debates, 2nd Leg., 4th Term / 27th Sess., p. 8.Google Scholar
Bahrain. Parliament. Council of Representatives
27th April 2010, Debates, 2nd Leg., 4th Term / 27th Sess., pp. 43.Google Scholar
Barrett, Lisa Feldman
(2006) “Solving the emotion paradox: Categorization and the experience of emotion.” Personality and Social Psychology Review, Vol. 10: 1, pp. 20–46. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Barrett, Lisa Feldman, Batja Mesquita and Maria Gendron
(2011) “Emotion perception in context.” Current Directions in Psychological Science, Vol. 20: 5, pp. 286–290. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Barrett, Lisa Feldman, Kisten A. Lindquist and Maria Gendron
(2007) “Language as context for the perception of emotion.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences. vo. 11: 8, pp. 327–332. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Barry, Randall K.
(ed.) (1997) ALA-LC Romanization Tables: Transliteration Schemes for Non-Roman Scripts. Washington: Cataloging Distribution Service, Library of Congress.Google Scholar
Barth, Frederik
(ed.) (1969) Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: The Social Organisation of Culture Difference. Bergen: Univertsitetsforlaget.Google Scholar
Bassiouni, Mahmoud Cherif, Nigel Rodley, Badria Al-Awadhi, Philippe Kirsch and Mahnoush H. Arsanjani
(2011) “Report of the Bahrain independent commission of inquiry.” [PDF file]. Retrived from http://​classroom​.synonym​.com​/cite​-online​-pdf​-files​-apa​-format​-1480​.html (accessed 10 February 2017).
Bayley, Paul
(ed.) (2004) Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Parliamentary Discourse. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2004) “Introduction: the whys and wherefores of analysing parliamentary discourse” in Bayley (ed.), pp. 1–44. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bayley, Paul and Flix San Vicente
(2004) “Ways of talking about work in parliamentary discourse in Britain and Spain” in Bayley (ed.), pp. 237–269. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bazzanella, Carla
(2004) “Emotion, language, and context” in Weigand (ed.), pp. 55–72. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
BBC Online
(15 Mar. 2011) Doctor speaks of ‘hundreds rm casualties’ in Bahrain. WWW document, http://​www​.bbc​.co​.uk​/news​/world​-middle​-east​-12752675, (accessed 29th Feb. 2012).
Beaugrande, Robert de
(2006) “Critical discourse analysis: history, ideology, methodology.” Studies in Language and Capitalism, Vol. 1, pp. 29–56.Google Scholar
Bernstein, R. L.
(ed.) (1985) Habermas and Modernity, Cambridge: Polity Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Bhaskar, Roy
(1986) Scientific Realism and Human Emancipation. London: Verso.Google Scholar
Breeze, Ruth
(2011) “Critical discourse analysis and its critics.” Pragmatics, Vol. 21: 4, pp. 493–525. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bruter, Michael
(2003) “Winning hearts and minds for Europe: the impact of news and symbols on civic and cultural European identity.” Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 36: 10, pp. 1148–1179. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2005) Citizens of Europe? The Emergence of a Mass European Identity. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bu Eeda, Mohammed
(2008, Feb. 6) majlis al nuwwāb sādah al ṣamt fī awwal mūwajaha bayna raʾīs al wifāq wa ʿatiyyatallāh, alī salmān: khams wa sabʿīn alf mujannas khilāl ʿāmayn. Al Waqt Newspaper p. 6.Google Scholar
Carrasco, Roberto Luis and Folerncia Riegelhaupt
(2006) “Language, culture, science and the sacred: issues and concerns in curriculum development for Indigenous Americans” in Omoniyi and Fishman (eds.), pp. 259–77. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Casey, Conerly and Robert B. Edgerton
(eds.) (2005) A Companion to Psychological Anthropology: Modernity and Psychocultural Change. Malden, MA; Oxford: Blackwell. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Castells, Manuel
(1997) The Power of Identity. Malden, MA; Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Chadwick, Andrew
(2000) “Studying political ideas: a public policy discourse approach.” Political Studies, vol. 48: 2, pp. 283–301. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Chambers, Simone
(1996) Reasonable Democracy: Jurgen Habermas and the Politics of Discourse, Cornell University Press, USA.Google Scholar
Čmejrková, Světla
(2004) “Emotions in language and communication” in Weigand (ed.), pp. 33–53. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cobb-Moore, C., Danby, S. and Farrell, A.
(2008) “ ‘I Told You So’: Justification Use in Disputes in Young Children’s Interactions in an Early Childhood Classroom.” Discourse Studies, Vol. 10: 5, pp. 595–614. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Corder, S. Pit
(1973) Introducing Applied Linguistics. Harmondsworth: Penguin Education.Google Scholar
Cosmides, Leda
(1989) “The logic of social exchange: has natural selection shaped how humans reason? Studies with the Wason Selection task.” Cognition, Vol. 31: 3, pp. 187–276. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cosmides, Leda and John Tooby
(2000) “Evolutionary psychology and the emotions” in Lewis, Michael and Jeannette M. Haviland-Jones (eds.) (2000) Handbook of Emotions. New York: Guilford Press, pp. 91–115.Google Scholar
Council of Representatives
(2007) The Development of the Constitutional System in the Kingdom of Bahrain. General Secretariat of the Council of the Representatives: Bahrain.Google Scholar
Coupland, Nikolas
(2007) Style: Language Variation and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cudsi, Alexander S. and Ali E. Hilal Dessouki
(eds.) (1981) Islam and Power. London: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
Dabashi, Hamid
(2006) Theology of Discontent: The Ideological Foundation of the Islamic Revolution in Iran. New Brusnwick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
(2011) Shi’ism: The Religirn rm Prrtest. Cambridge, MA; London: Belknap Press of the University of Harvard Press.Google Scholar
Damasio, Antonio
(2000) The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. London: Vintage.Google Scholar
Ebrahim, Khalid A.
(2009) Unpublished interview with Lamya Alkooheji, Bahraini Council of Representatives, Manama, 19th February.Google Scholar
Fairclough, Norman
(1985) “Critical and descriptive goals in discourse analysis.” Journal of Pragmatics, Vol. 9: 6, pp. 739–763. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1989) Language and Power. London; New York: Longman.Google Scholar
(2001) “The discourse of New Labour: critical discourse analysis” in Wetherell, Margaret, Stephanie Taylor and Simeon J. Yates (eds.) (2001) Discourse as Data: A Guide for Analysis. London; Thousands Oaks, CA; New Delhi: Sage, pp. 229–266.Google Scholar
Farmanfarmaian, Roxane
(2008) War and Peace in Qajar Persia: Implications Past and Present. London: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
Forchetner, Bernhard
(2010) “Jurgen Habermas’ Language-Philosophy and the Critical study of Language.” Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis Across Disciplines, vol 4(1), pp. 18–37.Google Scholar
Foucault, Michael
(1970) The Order of Things: An Arceology of the Human Sciences. Trans. Alan M. Sheridan Smith. Tavistock: LondonGoogle Scholar
Fowler, R.
(1996) Linguistic Criticism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Gendron, Maria, Kristen A. Lindquist, L. Barsalou, and Lisa Feldman Barrett
(2012) “Emotion words shape emotion percepts.” Emotion. Vol. 12: 2, pp. 314–325. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Geuss, Raymond
(1981) The Idea of a Critical Theory: Habermas and the Frankfurt School. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Greatbatch, David and Robert Dingwall
(1998) “Talk and identity in divorce mediation” in Antaki and Widdicombe (eds.), pp. 121–132.Google Scholar
Gregory, Michael and Susanne Carroll
(1978) Language and Situation. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Habermas, Jurgen
(1973) Theory and Practice, Boston (MA): Beacon Press.Google Scholar
(1987) The Theory of Communicative Action, Boston (MA): Beacon Press.Google Scholar
(1992) Postmetaphysical Thinking: Philosophical Essays, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.Google Scholar
(2001) The Liberating Power of Symbols: Philosophical Essays, tr. Peter Dews, Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
(2010) “Language-Philosophy and the Critical study of Language.” Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis across Disciplines, vol 4: 1, pp. 18–37.Google Scholar
Halliday, M. A. K. and Ruqaiya Hasan
(1976) Cohesion in English. Longman. London.Google Scholar
Hart, Christopher
(2005) “Debate: analysing political discourse. Toward a cognitive approach.” Critical Discourse Studies, Vol. 2: 2, pp. 189–194. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hodge, Robert and Gunther Kress
(1993) Language as Ideology. 2nd ed. London; New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Holes, Clive
(1995) “Community, dialect and urbanisation in the Arabic-speaking Middle East.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 58: 2, pp. 270–287. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Howarth, David, Aletta J. Norval and Yannis Stavrakakis
(eds.) (2000) Discourse Theory and Political Analysis: Identities, Hegemonies and Social Change. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
Howarth, David and Yannis Stavrakakis
(2000) “Introducing discourse theory and political analysis” in Howarth, Norval and Stavrakakis (eds.), pp.1–23.Google Scholar
Ingham, Bruce
(1982) North East Arabian Dialects. London: Kegan Paul International.Google Scholar
Ismael, Tareq Y. and Jacqueline S. Ismael
(1985) Government and Politics in Islam. London: Frances Pinter.Google Scholar
Ismaʿīl, Ḥusein
(2005) Lamaḥāt Barlamāniyah: akhbār albarlamān bayna alzamān wa almakān. Bahrain: Bahraini Book House.Google Scholar
Jaber, Jamal
(2007, December 26) Baʿda wilādah mutaʿaththirah wa rafdh alwifāq wa abul wa taʿādul alaṣwāt, aldhahrānī yaqūd alniyābī ilā iṣdār bayān yudīn aḥdāth alshaghab wa altakhrīb: fashalat ṣafqat alwifaq wa almufājaʾah jaʿalathā tashukk fī ṣiyāghat albayān, alnuwwāb yuṭālibūn bi dhawābiṭ lil khaṣkhaṣah wa alḥukūmah tarudd: alkhaṣkhaṣah laysat bidʿah. Akhbar Al-Khaleej Newpaper, pp. 8–9.Google Scholar
Joseph, John E.
(2004) Language and Identity: National, Ethnic, Religious. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2006a) Language and Politics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2006b) “The shifting role of languages in Lebanese Christian and Muslim identities” in Omoniyi and Fishman (eds.), pp. 165–179.Google Scholar
Kemiläinen, Aira
(1964) Nationalism: Problems Concerning the Word, the Concept and Classification. Jyväskylä: Kustantajat.Google Scholar
Kramarae, Chris, Muriel Schulz and William M. O’Barr
(1984) Language and Power. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
Labov, William
(1972) Sociolinguistic Patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
Lakoff, George
(2002) Moral Politics: How Liberals and Conservatives Think. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lapidus, Ira M.
(2002) A History of Islamic Society, 2nd Ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Lévinas, Emanuel
(2003) Humanism of the Other. Trans. Nidra Poller. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
Lindholm, Charles
(2005) “An anthropology of emotion” in Casey and Edgerton (eds.), pp. 30–47. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lindquist, Kristen A., Lisa Feldman Barrett, Eliza Bliss-Moreau, and James A. Russell
(2006) “Language and the perception of emotion.” Emotion. Vol. 6: 1, pp. 125–138. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lorenzo-Dus, Nuria
(2008) “Real disorder in the court: an investigation of conflict talk in US television courtroom shows.” Media, Culture & Society, Vol. 30: 1, pp. 81–107. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Luke, Allan
(2002) “Beyond science and ideology critique: developments in critical discourse analysis.” Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, Vol. 22, pp. 96–110. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mahmoud, Mustafa
(1992) Al Islām Al Siyāsī Wa Al Maʿrakah Al Qādimah. Cario: Dar Akhbār Al Yawm.Google Scholar
Mandaville, Peter
(2007) Global Political Islam. London; New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Marková, Ivana
(1998) “Presenting social representations: a conversation.” Culture and Psychology, Vol. 4: 3, pp. 371–410. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Marks, Christopher T.
(1976) “Policy and attitudes towards the Tteaching of standard dialect: Great Britain, France, West Germany.” Comparative Education, 12(3), 199–218. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Merad, Ali
(1981) “The ideologisation of Islam in the contemporary Muslim world” in Cudsi and Dessouki (eds.), pp. 37–84.Google Scholar
Mortimer, Edward
(1982) Faith and Power: The Politics of Islam. London: Faber and Faber.Google Scholar
Moscovici, Serge
(1961) La Psychanalyse: Son Image et Son Public. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.Google Scholar
(1963) “Attitudes and opinions.” Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 14, pp. 231–260. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Muhawi, Ibrahim
(1996) “Language, ethnicity and national identity in the Tunisian ethnic jokes” in Suleiman (ed.), pp. 39–60.Google Scholar
Mumby, Dennis K. and Robin P. Clair
(2004) “Organizational discourse” in Teun van Dijk (ed.). Discourse as Social Interaction. London; Thousand Oaks, CA; New Delhi: Sage, pp. 181–205.Google Scholar
Nasr, Lutfi and Jamal Jaber
(2008, 23 Apr.) Majlis alnuwwāb yuqarrir: ziyādat al-jamīʿ al-maʿāshāshat al-taqāʿudiyyah 7%. Akhbar Al-Khaleej Newspaper, pp. 12–13.Google Scholar
(2008, 19 Dec. a) Majlis al nuwwāb. Al saʿīdī: ḥaḍḍart mirāran wa tikrāran min al khalāyā al irhābiyyah al nāʾimah. Akhbar Al-Khaleej Newspaper p. 8.Google Scholar
(2008, 22 Dec.) Wazīr al tijārah wa al ṣināʿah yarudd ʿala al nāʾib būmjaid: ittifāqiyyat al tijārah al hurrah istaqtabat istithmārāt ajnabiyyah biakthar min 9.5 millyārāt rulār. Akhbar Al-Khaleej Newspaper p. 10.Google Scholar
(2008, 31 Dec.) Jalsah bidāyatuha misk wa nihāyatuhā zift, hiyaj min kutlat al wifāq bisabab raghbat nuwwāb iṣdār bayān yudīn al mukhaṭaṭ al irhābi, al sheikh salmān wa al mizʿal: laysa min ḥaqq al majlis iṣdār bayān idānah qabl ṣudūr ḥukm al qadhāʾ. Akhbar Al-Khaleej Newspaper p. 10.Google Scholar
(2009, 28 Jan.) Al wifāq amām majlis al nuwwāb tuṭālib bi al ifrāj al fawrī ʿan mushaymiʿ wa miqdād. Akhbar Al-Khaleej Newspaper p. 10.Google Scholar
(2009, 9 Mar.) Al saʿīdī yastashhid bilfannān ʿādil imām wa yaqūl: anā barīʾ. kamĪn lilwifāq dākhil al tashrīʿiyyah yanjaḥ fi rafʿ al ḥaṣānah ʿan al saʿīdī. Akhbar Al-Khaleej Newspaper p. 8.Google Scholar
(2009, 23 Mar.) Wa badaʾat ḥarb rafʿ al ḥasānah: al nāʾib jāsim husayn yantaqid al niyābah wa yuʾakkid salāmat mawqifih fī nadwat al kungris: al saʿīdī khaṭar ʿalā al mujtamaʿ wa yajib sajnuh bi al muʾabbad. Akhbar Al-Khaleej Newspaper p. 8.Google Scholar
(2009, 25 Mar.) Bi ṣafqah niyābiyyah wa al wifāq tantaẓir radd al jamīl li inqādh jāsim huayn: majlis al nuwwāb yarfuḍ rafʿ al ḥaṣānah ʿan al saʿīdī. Akhbar Al-Khaleej Newspaper p. 13.Google Scholar
(2009, 1 Apr.) “La rafʿ li ḥaṣānat ductūr jāsim husayn: majlis al nuwwāb yarfudh ṭalab al ḥukūmah, baḥth qānūn inshāʾ ghurfat taswiyat munāzaʿ āt.” Akhbar Al-Khaleej Newspaper. WWW document, http://​www​.akhbar​-alkhaleej​.com​/#!309108, (accessed 20 March 2011).
Nasr, Sayyed Vali Reza
(2005) “The rise of ‘Muslim democracy’.” Journal of Democracy, Vol. 16: 2, pp. 13–27. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2007) The Shia Revival: How Conflicts within Islam Will Shape the Future. New York: W. W. NortonGoogle Scholar
.
National Action Charter of Bahrain (2001) Bahrain: Press of the Minister of Information.Google Scholar
Oakes, Leigh
(2001) Language and National Identity: Comparing France and Sweden. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Omoniyi, Tope and Joshua A. Fishman
(eds.) (2006) Explorations in the Sociology of Language and Religion. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Parliament of Lebanon (2011) WWW document, http://​en​.wikipedia​.org​/wiki​/Parliament​_of​_Lebanon (accessed 20 Nov. 2011).
Plantin, Christian
(2004) “On the inseparability of emotion and reason in argumentation” in Weigand (ed.), pp. 265–276. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Potter, Jonathan and Ian Litton
(1985) “Some problems underlying the theory of social representations.” British Journal of Psychology, Vol. 24: 2, pp. 81–90. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Qaraḍawī, Yūsuf
(2001) Min Fiqh Al Dawlah Fi Al Islām. Cario: Dār Al Shurūq.Google Scholar
Quasthoff, Uta M.
(2002) “Global and local aspects of perspectivity” in Carl Graumann and Werner Kallmeyer (eds.) 2002 Perspective and Perspectivation in Discourse. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Roberson, Debi, Ljubica Damjanovic and Michael Pilling
(2007) “Categorical perception of facial expressions: Evidence for a ‘category adjustment’ model.” Memory & Cognition, Vol. 35: 7, pp. 1814–1829. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Rosowsky, Andrey
(2006) “The role of liturgical literacy in UK Muslim communities” in Omoniyi and Fishman (eds.), pp. 309–24. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sachedina, Abdulaziz Abdulhussein
(1988) The Just Ruler in Shī’ite Islam: The Comprehensive Authority of the Jurist in Imamate Jurisprudence. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Schegloff, Emanuel A.
(1992) “Introduction” in Gail Jefferson (ed.) Harvey Sacks: Lectures on Conversation. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. ix–lxiv.Google Scholar
Scott, Susan
(2002) “Linguistic feature variation within disagreements: An empirical investigation.” Text, Vol. 22: 2, pp. 301–328. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Simon-Vandenbergen, A.
(1996) “Image-building through modality: the case of political interviews.” Discourse & Society, Vol. 7: 3, pp. 389–415. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Slot, B. J.
(1991) The Origins of Kuwait. Leiden: E. J. Brill.Google Scholar
Speier, Hans
(1998) “Wit and politics: an essay on laughter and power.” American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 10: 5, pp. 1352–1401. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Stamenov, Maxim I.
(2004) “Ambivalence as a dialogic frame of emotions in conflict” in Weigand (ed.), pp.179–204. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Stenstrom, Anna-Brita
(1994) An Introduction to Spoken Interaction. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Suleiman, Yasir
(1996) “Language and identity in Egyptian nationalism” in Suleiman (ed.), pp. 25–38.Google Scholar
(2004) War of Words. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(ed.) (1996) Language and Identity in the Middle East and North Africa. Surrey: Curzon Press.Google Scholar
Tanzil Quran Navigator (2007) http://​tanzil​.net/ (Accessed 16 Dec. 2015).
Thomas, Linda, Shân Wareing, Ishtla Singh, Jean Stilwell Peccei, Joanna Thornborrow and Jason Jones
(2004) Language, Society and Power: An Introduction. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Titscher, Stefan, Michael Meyer, Ruth Wodak and Eva Vetter
(2007) Methods of Text and Discourse Analysis. London: Sage.Google Scholar
Tracy, Karen
(1991) “Discourse” in Barbara M. Montgomery and Steve Duck (eds.) Studying Interpersonal Interaction. New York: The Guilford Press, pp. 179–196.Google Scholar
United Nations
United Nations Development Programme: Kingdom of Bahrain
(no date). Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger. WWW document, http://​www​.undp​.org​.bh​/Files​/MDG03​/Goal1​.pdf (accessed 14 Sept 2011).
van Dijk, Teun
(1993a) “Discourse and cognition in society” in David Crowley and David Mitchell (eds.) Communication Theory Today. Oxford: Pergamon Press, pp. 107–126.Google Scholar
van Dijk, Teun A.
(1993b) Elite Discourse and Racism. London: Sage. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
van Dijk, Teun. A.
(1995a) “Discourse analysis as ideology analysis,” in Christina Schaffner and Anita L. Wenden (eds.), Language and peace. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, pp. 17–36.Google Scholar
van Dijk, Teun A.
(1995b) “Discourse semantics and ideology,” Discourse and Society. Vol. 6: 2, pp.: 243–289. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1998) Ideology: A Multidisciplinary Approach. London: Sage.Google Scholar
(2005) “Contextual knowledge management in discourse production: A CDA perspective” in Ruth Wodak and Paul Chilton (eds.) A New Agenda in (Critical) Discourse Analysis. Amsterdam: Benjamins, pp. 71–100. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2008) Discourse and Context: A Sociocognitive Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2009a) “Critical discourse studies: s sociocognitive approach” in Wodak and Meyer (eds.), pp. 62–86.Google Scholar
(2009b) Society and Discourse: How Social Contexts Influence Text and Talk. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
van Leeuwen, Theo
(2006) “Critical Discourse Analysis” in Keith Brown (ed.) Encyclopaedia of Language and Linguistics. 2nd edition, Vol. 3. Oxford: Elsevier, pp. 290–294. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wahab, Siraj
(2011) Bahrain opposition eyes meaningful dialogue. WWW document. URL http://​www​.arabnews​.com​/node​/370027. (accessed 14 March 2017).
Walrod, Michael R.
(2004) “The role of emotions in normative discourse and persuasion” in Weigand (ed.), pp. 207–219. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ward, Steven R.
(2009) Immortal: A Military History of Iran and its Armed Forces. Washington D.C.: Geogetown University Press.Google Scholar
Weigand, Edda
(2004) “Emotions: The simple and the complex” in Weigand (ed.), pp. 3–21. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(ed.) (2004) Emotions in Dialogic Interaction. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Weston, Louise C. and Josephine A. Ruggiero
(1978) “Change in attitudes of women toward Nonconformists: a trend study.” Pacific Sociological Review, Vol. 21: 2, pp. 131–140. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
White, Geoffrey M.
(2005) “Emotive institutions” in Casey and Edgerton (eds.), pp. 241–254. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Widdicombe, Sue
(1998) “ ‘But you don’t class yourself’: the interactional management of category membership and non-membership” in Antaki and Widdicombe (eds.), pp. 52–70.Google Scholar
Widdicombe, Sue and Wooffitt, Robin
(1995) The Language of Youth Subculture. Brighton: Harvester.Google Scholar
Wodak, Ruth
(1999) “Critical Discourse Analysis at the end of the 20th century.” Research on Language and Social Interaction, Vol. 23: 1, pp. 185–193. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2007) “What is Critical Discourse Analysis?” Vol. 8: 2, Art. 29 – May, interview (conversation) conducted by Gavin Kindall in Forum: Qualitative Social Research. http://​www​.ling​.lancs​.ac​.uk​/staff​/wodak​/interview​.pdf (accessed 3rd December 2009).
Wodak, Ruth and Michael Meyer
(2002) Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. London; Thousand Oaks, CA; New Delhi: Sage.Google Scholar
(2009) “Critical Discourse Analysis: history, agenda, theory and methodology” in Wodak and Meyer (eds), pp. 1–33.Google Scholar
(eds.) (2009) Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. 2nd ed. London; Thousand Oaks, CA; New Delhi: Sage.Google Scholar
Wolf, Hans-Georg
(2006) “Religion and traditional belief in West African English: a linguistic analysis” in Omoniyi and Fishman (eds.), pp. 42–59. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wrong, Denis H.
(1979) Power, its Forms, Bases and Uses. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
Young, Richard A.
(1989) “A classification of conditional sentences based on Speech Act Theory.” Grace Theological Journal, Vol. 10: 1, pp. 29–49.Google Scholar
Young, Sally
(2010) “The broadcast political interview and strategies used by politicians: how the Australian prime minister promoted the Iraq War.” Media, Culture & Society, Vol. 30: 5, pp. 623–640. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Zubaida, Sami
(1997) “Is Iran an Islamic State?” in Joel Beinin and Joe Stork (ed.) Political Islam: Essays from the Middle East. Berkeley; Los Angeles; California: University of California Press, pp. 103–119.Google Scholar
Zuckermann, Ghil’ad
(2006) “ Etymythlogical othering’ and the power of ‘lexical engineering’ in Judaism, Islam and Christianity: a socio-philo(sopho)logical perspective” in Omoniyi and Fishman (eds.), pp. 165–179.Google Scholar
Fairclough, Norman & Wodak, Ruth
(1997) “Critical Discourse Analysis,” in Tuen van Dijk (ed.) Discourse as Social Interaction, pp. 258-84. London: SAGE.Google Scholar
Subjects
BIC Subject: CFG – Semantics, Pragmatics, Discourse Analysis
BISAC Subject: LAN009030 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / Pragmatics
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  2017034469