Words of Crisis as Words of Power

The jeremiad in American presidential speeches

| Humboldt University of Berlin
ISBN 9789027200501 | EUR 105.00 | USD 158.00
ISBN 9789027264268 | EUR 105.00 | USD 158.00
The volume explores crisis rhetoric in contemporary U.S. American presidential speechmaking. Rhetorical leadership constitutes an inherent feature of the modern presidency. Particularly during times of critical events, the president is expected to react and address the nation. However, the power of the office also allows him or her to direct attention to particular topics and thus rhetorically create or exploit the notion of crisis. This monograph examines the verbal responses of George W. Bush and Barack Obama to pressing issues during their terms in office. Assuming an interdisciplinary approach, it illuminates the characteristics of modern crisis rhetoric. The aim of the book is to show that elements of Puritan rhetoric, and specifically the tradition of the jeremiad, although taken out of their original context and modified to suit a modern multiethnic society, can still be detected in contemporary political communication. It will be of interest to students and scholars of presidential rhetoric, political communication, sociolinguistics, and cultural studies.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. The rhetorical presidency, presidential crisis rhetoric, and the American jeremiad
Chapter 3. Crisis rhetoric and the tradition of the jeremiad in 21st century U.S. American Presidential speechmaking: Analysis of President George W. Bush’s and President Barack Obama’s speeches
Chapter 4. Comparisons, conclusions, and implications
“In times of crisis, American presidents, Republican or Democrat, return to the rhetorical form of the jeremiad. But how they use it, what they transport with it, and how successful they are in their crisis management differs. In this magnificent book, Marta Neüff has greatly added to our understanding how the rhetorical presidency in America works.”
“Read through the lenses of communication studies, discourse analysis, and pragmatics, Marta Neüff offers a vigorous and incisive interpretation of 21st century presidential crisis rhetoric that both refines and challenges our understanding of the shifting strategies and increasing power of presidential communication at a time of profound transformations in the tools and spaces of political conversation. Well written and researched, this book provides important insights into the mechanism of the growing presence of presidential self-staging in the United States and beyond.”
“This interdisciplinary contribution provides a wealth of literature and methodology and opens new dimensions on political discourse study. It will appeal to researchers and students in fields like rhetoric, critical discourse analysis, and politics.”



Ahmed, Leila
1992Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Ahmed, Sara
2004The Cultural Politics of Emotion. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Allswang, John M.
1978New Deal and American Politics: Study in Political Change. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.Google Scholar
Altheide, David
2006Terrorism and the Politics of Fear. Lanham MD: Rowman Altamira.Google Scholar
1968Poetics. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
1975The ‘Art’ of Rhetoric. London: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Artz, Lee, and Yahya R. Kamalipour
(eds.) 2004Bring 'em On: Media and Politics in the Iraq War. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
Austermühl, Frank
2014The Great American Scaffold: Intertextuality and Identity in American Presidential Discourse. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, Benedict
1983Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso.Google Scholar
Aune, James Aunt, and Martin J. Medhurst
2008The Prospect of Presidential Rhetoric. Austen: Texas A&M University Press.Google Scholar
Bacharach, Marc N.
2006War Metaphors: How the Presidents Use the Language of War to Sell Policy. Miami University (Dissertation), Oxford, Ohio. Web. 25 Nov. 2011 https://​etd​.ohiolink​.edu​/ap:0:0:APPLICATION​_PROCESS​=DOWNLOAD​_ETD​_SUB​_DOC​_ACCNUM:::F1501​_ID:miami1154105266,inline.Google Scholar
Bailey, Ronald
1993Eco Scam: The False Prophets of Ecological Apocalypse. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
Beasley, Vanessa B.
2011You, the People: American National Identity in Presidential Rhetoric. Austen: Texas A&M University Press.Google Scholar
Bellah, Robert N.
(ed.) 1965Religion and Progress in Modern Asia. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
1975The Broken Covenant: American Civil Religion in Time of Trial. New York: Seabury Press.Google Scholar
Bender, John B., and David E. Wellbery
(eds.) 1990The Ends of Rhetoric: History, Theory, Practice. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Benjamin, D. & S. Simon
2005The Next Attack: The Failure of the War on Terror and a Strategy for Getting it Right. New York: Times Books.Google Scholar
Bennett, W. Lance, Regina G. Lawrence, and Steven Livingston
2007When the Press Fails: Political Power and the News Media from Iraq to Katrina. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bentham, Jeremy
(ed.) 1995The Panopticon Writings. London: Bozovic, Miran, Verso.Google Scholar
Bercovitch, Sacvan
1978/2012The American Jeremiad. Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
1975The Puritan Origins of the American Self. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Bercovitch, Sacvan, and Myra Jehlen
1986Ideology and Classic American Literature. Massachusetts: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Black, Amy E., Douglas L. Koopman, and David K. Ryden
2004Of Little Faith: The Politics of George W. Bush’s Faith-Based Initiatives. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
Bloom, Allan
1988The Closing of the American Mind. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
Boin, Arjen, Paul‘t Hart, Eric Stern, and Bengt Sundelius
2005The Politics of Crisis Management: Public Leadership Under Pressure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bormann, E.
2001The Force of Fantasy. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.Google Scholar
Bostdorff, Denise M.
1994The Presidency and the Rhetoric of Foreign Crisis. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.Google Scholar
Bottici, Chiara
2007A Philosophy of Political Myth. Massachusetts: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bovens, Mark, and Paul‘t Hart
1996Understanding Policy Fiascoes. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
Bremer, Francis J.
1995The Puritan Experiment: New England Society From Bradford to Edwards. New Hampshire: University Press of New England.Google Scholar
Brunsma, David L., David Overfelt, and J. Steven Picou
(eds.) 2007The Sociology of Katrina: Perspectives on a Modern Catastrophe. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
Buell, Frederick
2004From Apocalypse to Way of Life: Environmental Crisis in the American Century. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Buell, John, and Tom de Luca
2005Liars! Cheaters! Evildoers!: Demonization and the End of Civil Debate in American Politics. New York: NYU Press.Google Scholar
Buell, Lawrence
1995The Environmental Imagination: Thoreau, Nature Writing, and the Formation of American Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Buhite, Russell D., and David W. Levy
(eds.) 1992FDR’s Fireside Chats. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
Burke, Kenneth
1969A Grammar of Motives. Berkley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
1966Language As Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method. Berkley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
1990Rhetoric of Motives. Berkley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
1970The Rhetoric of Religion: Studies in Logology. Berkley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Burns, Arthur F., and Wesley C. Mitchell
1946Measuring Business Cycles. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
Bush, George W.
2010Decision Points. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
Campbell, Ballard C.
2008Disasters, Accidents, and Crises in American History: A Reference Guide to Nation’s Most Catastrophic Events. Facts on File Library of American History.Google Scholar
Campbell, David
1998Writing Security: United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of Identity. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
Cap, Piotr
2006Legitimization in political discourse: A cross-disciplinary perspective on the modern US war rhetoric. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Press.Google Scholar
2017The Language of Fear: Communication Threat in Public Discourse. London: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2008bLegitimization in Political Discourse: A Cross-Disciplinary Perspective on the Modern U.S. War Rhetoric (2nd ed.), New Castle, UK: Cambridge Scholars Press.Google Scholar
2013Proximization: The Pragmatics of Symbolic Distance Crossing. John Benjamins, Amsterdam. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Carlson, John D., and Jonathan H. Ebel
(eds.) 2012From Jeremiad to Jihad: Religion, Violence, and America. Berkeley: University of California Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Carver, Terrell, and Jernej Pikalo
2008Political Language and Metaphor: Interpreting and Changing the World. New York/London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Chapp, Christopher B.
2012Religious Rhetoric and American Politics: The Endurance of Civil Religion in Electoral Campaigns. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Charteris-Black, Jonathan
2005Politicians and Rhetoric: The Persuasive Power of Metaphor. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Chomsky, Noam
1997Media Control: The Spectacular Achievements of Propaganda. New York: Seven Stories Press.Google Scholar
2002Pirates And Emperors, Old And New: International Terrorism In The Real World. Cambridge, Massachusetts: South End Press.Google Scholar
Chilton, Paul
2004Analysing Political Discourse: Theory and Practice. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Cicero, Marcus T.
1970On Oratory and Orators. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press.Google Scholar
Collins, John, and Ross Glover
(eds.) 2002Collateral Language: A User’s Guide to America’s New War. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
Connoly, William E.
1995The Ethos of Pluralisation. Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press.Google Scholar
Conroy, Hillary, and Harry Wray
(eds.) 1990Pearl Harbor: Reexamined: Prologue to the Pacific War. Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
Coogan, Michael D.
2009A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Correnti, Laura
2015What a President Says Matters: An Analysis of Presidential Responses in Times of Economic Crisis. A Seniors Honors Thesis Submitted to the Department of Communication of Boston College, Web. 25 June 2015 http://​www​.bc​.edu​/content​/dam​/files​/schools​/cas​_sites​/communication​/pdf​/thesis10​.correnti​.pdf.Google Scholar
Darsey, James F.
1997The Prophetic Tradition and Radical Rhetoric in America. New York: NYU Press.Google Scholar
Daschke, Dereck, and Andrew Kille
(eds.) 2010A Cry Instead of Justice: The Bible and Cultures of Violence in Psychological Perspective. New York: T & T Clark International.Google Scholar
Davis, William T.
(ed.) 1908Bradford’s History of Plymouth Plantation, 1606–1646. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, Electronic Edition, copyright 2003, Web. 24 Nov. 2013 http://​mith​.umd​.edu/​/eada​/html​/display​.php​?docs​=bradford​_history​.xml.Google Scholar
Denton, Robert E., Jr.
(ed.) 2012The George W. Bush Presidency: A Rhetorical Perspective. Lanham: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
DiMaggio, Anthony R.
2008Mass Media, Mass Propaganda: Examining American News in the War on Terror. Lanham: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
Domke, David
2004God Willing? Political Fundamentalism in the White House, the “War on Terror,” and the Echoing Press. Michigan: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
Domke, David, and Kevin Coe
2010The God Strategy: How Religion Became a Political Weapon in America. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Dorsey, Leroy G.
(ed.) 2008The Presidency and Rhetorical Leadership. Texas: Texas A&M University Press.Google Scholar
Duff, David
1999Modern Genre Theory. Edinburgh UK: Pearson Education Limited.Google Scholar
Dunmire, Patricia L.
2011Projecting the Future through Political Discourse. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dunn, Charles
(ed.) 2013American Exceptionalism: The Origins, History, and Future of the Nation’s Greatest Strength. Plymouth, MA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
Dyson, Michael Eric
2006Come Hell or High Water: Hurricane Katrina and the Color of Disaster. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Edwards, Jason, and David Weiss
(eds.) 2011The Rhetoric of American Exceptionalism: Critical Essays. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co.Google Scholar
Elliott, Emory
1975Power And The Pulpit In Puritan New England. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Ellis, Richard J.
1993American Political Cultures. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
(ed.) 1999Speaking of the People: The Rhetorical Presidency in Historical Perspective. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.Google Scholar
Fairclough, Norman, and Clive Holes
1995Critical Discourse Analysis: The Critical Study of Language. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Faludi, Susan
2007The Terror Dream: Fear and Fantasy in Post-9/11 America. New York: Metropolitan Books.Google Scholar
Fiebig-von Hase, Ragnhild, and Ursula Lehmkuhl
(eds.) 1997Enemy Images in American History. Providence, RI: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
Finnegan, Lisa
2007No Questions Asked. News Coverage Since 9/11. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
Fornieri, Joseph R.
2003Abraham Lincoln’s Political Faith. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press.Google Scholar
Foucault, Michel
1995Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
Friedman, Thomas L.
2008Hot, Flat, and Crowded: Why We Need a Green Revolution-and How It Can Renew America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
Gatta, John
2004Making Nature Sacred: Literature, Religion, and Environment in America from the Puritans to the Present. New York: Oxford University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gavins, Joanna
2007Text World Theory: An Introduction: An Introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gilbert, Gustave M.
1947Nuremberg Diary. New York: Farrar, Straus and Company.Google Scholar
Gilmour, Michael J.
2004Tangled Up in the Bible: Bob Dylan and Scripture. New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group.Google Scholar
Gore, Albert A.
2007An Inconvenient Truth: The Crisis of Global Warming. New York: Viking.Google Scholar
Greene, Helen Taylor, and Shaun L. Gabbidon
(eds.) 2009Encyclopedia of Race and Crime. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Griffin, Em
2009A First Look at Communication Theory (7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
Gutterman, David S., and Andrew R. Murphy
(eds.) 2006Religion, Politics, and American Identity. Lanham: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
Hart, Christopher
2010Critical discourse analysis and cognitive science: New perspectives on immigration discourse. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2014Discourse, Grammar and Ideology: Functional and Cognitive Perspective. London and New York: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
Hart, Christopher, and Piotr Cap
2014Contemporary Critical Discourse Studies. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
Hart, Roderick P.
2000Political Keywords: Using Language That Uses Us. Oxford University Press: New York.Google Scholar
1977The Political Pulpit. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press.Google Scholar
1987The Sound of Leadership. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
1984Verbal Style and the Presidency: A Computer-Based Analysis. New York: New York Academic Press.Google Scholar
Hartman, Chester W., and Gregory D. Squires
(eds.) 2006There is No Such Thing as a Natural Disaster: Race, Class, and Hurricane Katrina. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Harvey, David
2005The New Imperialism. UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Hendricks, John Allen, and Robert E. Denton Jr.
(eds.) 2010Communicator-in-Chief: How Barack Obama Used New Media Technology to Win the White House. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
Herrmann, Sebastian M.
2014Presidential Unrealities Epistemic Panic, Cultural Work, and the US Presidency. Heidelberg: Winter Verlag.Google Scholar
Hidalgo, Danielle, and Kristen Barber
(eds.) 2007Forthcoming. Narrating the Storm: Sociological Stories of Hurricane Katrina. Oxford: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
Hodges, Adam
2011The “War on Terror” Narrative: Discourse and Intertextuality in the Construction and Contestation of Sociopolitical Reality. New York: Oxford University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hodges, Adam, and Chad Nilep
(eds.) 2007Discourse, War and Terrorism. Philadelphia: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hogan, Michael
2006Woodrow Wilson’s Western Tour: Rhetoric, Public Opinion, And the League of Nations. USA: Library of Congress.Google Scholar
Holloway, Diane
2005Who Killed New Orleans?: Mother Nature vs. Human Nature. Nebraska: iUniverse, Lincoln.Google Scholar
Houck, Davis W.
2001Rhetoric as Currency: Hoover, Roosevelt, and the Great Depression. Austin Texas: Texas A&M University Press.Google Scholar
Howard-Pitney, David
1990The Afro-American Jeremiad: Appeals for Justice in America. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
Hughes, Richard T.
2004Myths America Lives By. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
Huntington, Samuel P.
1997A Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of the World. New Delhi, India: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
Hyde, Michael J.
(ed.) 2004The Ethos of Rhetoric. Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press.Google Scholar
Ignatieff, Michael
(ed.) 2005American Exceptionalism and Human Rights. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Jasinski, James
2001Sourcebook on Rhetoric: Key Concepts in Contemporary Rhetorical Studies. California, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Jendrysik, Mark Stephan
2007Modern Jeremiahs: Contemporary Visions of American Decline. Lanham: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
Jewett, Robert, and John S. Lawrence
2004Captain America and the Crusade Against Evil: The Dilemma of Zealous Nationalism. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing.Google Scholar
Jowett, Garth S., and Victoria O’Donnell
2006Propaganda & Persuasion. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
Kaal, Bertie, Isa Maks, and Annemarie van Elfrinkhof
(eds.) 2014From Text to Political Positions: TextAnalysis Across Disciplines. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kellner, Douglas
1995Media Culture. Cultural Studies, Identity, and Politics Between the Modern and the Postmodern. New York: Routledge. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2003From 9/11 to Terror War: The Dangers of the Bush Legacy. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Lanham.Google Scholar
2005Media Spectacle and the Crisis of Democracy. Colorado: Paradigm Press.Google Scholar
Kepel, Gilles
2004The War For Muslim Minds: Islam And The West. London: Belknap Press.Google Scholar
Kiewe, Amos, and Davis W. Houck
1991A Shining City on a Hill: Ronald Reagan’s Economic Rhetoric, 1951–1989. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
Kiewe, Amos
(ed.) 1994The Modern Presidency and Crisis Rhetoric. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
Killingsworth, M. Jimmie, and Jacqueline S. Palmer
2012Ecospeak: Rhetoric and Environmental Politics in America. Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press.Google Scholar
Kuypers, Jim A.
2009Presidential Crisis Rhetoric and the Press in the Post-Cold War World. Lexington Books.Google Scholar
LaHaye, Tim, and Jerry B. Jenkins
2011Left Behind: A Novel of the Earth’s Last Days, Left Behind Series. Colorado Springs: Tyndale House Publishers.Google Scholar
Lakoff, George
1996Moral Politics: How Liberals and Conservatives Think. Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
2006Whose Freedom? The Battle over America’s Most Important Idea. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
2009aThe Political Mind: A Cognitive Scientist’s Guide to Your Brain and Its Politics. New York: Viking Penguin.Google Scholar
Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson
1980Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Lakoff, George, and Elisabeth Wehling
2012The Little Blue Book: The Essential Guide for Thinking and Talking Democratic. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
Laracey, Melvin C.
2002Presidents and the People: The Partisan Story of Going Public. Texas: Texas A&M University Press.Google Scholar
Levitt, Jeremy I., and Matthew C. Whitaker
(eds.) 2009Hurricane Katrina: America’s Unnatural Disaster. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lincoln, Bruce
2003Holy Terrors: Thinking About Religion After September 11. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Link, Arthur S.
(ed.) 1975The Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Vol. 19, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Lipset, Seymour Martin
1996American Exceptionalism: A Double-Edged Sword. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
Mather, Cotton
1689Memorable Providence, Relating to Witchcraft and Possessions. Web. 17 Jan. 2014. http://​law2​.umkc​.edu​/faculty​/projects​/ftrials​/salem​/ASA​_MATH​.HTM.Google Scholar
Madsen, Deborah L.
1998American Exceptionalism. Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi.Google Scholar
Makau, Josina M., and Debian L. Marty
2001Cooperative Argumentation: A Model for Deliberative Community. Illinois: Waveland Press.Google Scholar
Martin, J. R., and Ruth Wodak
(eds.) 2003Re/reading the Past: Critical and Functional Perspectives on Time and Value. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: John Benjamins Publishing. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mausbach, Wilfried, Dietmar Schloss, and Martin Thunert
2012The American Presidency: Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Heidelberg. Google Scholar
McKenna, George
2007The Puritan Origins of American Patriotism. USA: Library of Congress.Google Scholar
McLuhan, Marshall
2002The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
Medhurst, Martin J.
(ed.) 1996Beyond the Rhetorical Presidency. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.Google Scholar
Mey, Jacob L.
2001Pragmatics: An Introduction (2nd ed.). Oxford, England: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
Milkis, Sidney M., and Michael Nelson
1999The American Presidency: Origins and Development, 1776–1998. Washington, D. C.: CQ Press.Google Scholar
Miller, Perry
1958Errand into the Wilderness. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
1967Nature’s Nation. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard-Belknap Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1982The New England Mind: The Seventeenth Century. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
1953/1981The New England Mind: From Colony to Province. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Moses, Wilson J.
1982Black Messiahs and Uncle Toms: Social and Literary Manipulations of a Religious Myth. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
Morone, James A.
2003Hellfire Nation: The Politics of Sin in American History. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Mueller, John E.
1973War, Presidents, and Public Opinion. New York: Jon Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Murphy, Andrew
2008Prodigal Nation: Moral Decline and Divine Punishment from New England to 9/11. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Nacos, Brigitte L.
2007Mass-Mediated Terrorism: The Central Role of the Media in Terrorism and Counterterrorism. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
Neustadt, Richard E.
1990Presidential Power: The Politics of Leadership, with Reflections on Johnson and Nixon. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
Obama, Barack
2008The Audacity of Hope. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
Perelman, Chaïm, and Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca
1969The New Rhetoric: A Treatise on Argumentation. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
Perloff, Richard M.
1998Political Communication: Politics, Press, and Public in America. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.Google Scholar
Pierard, Richard V., and Robert D. Linder
1988Civil Religion and the Presidency. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Academic Books.Google Scholar
Pious, Richard
1979The American Presidency. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Platt, Rutherford
1999Disasters and Democracy: The Politics of Extreme Natural Events. Washington D.C.: Island Press.Google Scholar
Plouffe, David
2009The Audacity to Win. New York: Viking.Google Scholar
Pludowski, Tomasz
(ed.) 2007How the World’s News Media Reacted to 9/11: Essays from Around the Globe. Spokane, Washington: Marquette Books LLC.Google Scholar
Prett Ewing, Katherine
(ed.) 2008Being and Belonging: Muslims in the United States since 9/11. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
Prizel, Ilya
1998National Identity and Foreign Policy: Nationalism and Leadership in Poland, Russia, and Ukraine. Cambridge Massachusetts: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pyszczynski, Tom, Sheldon Solomon, and Jeff Greenberg
2003In the Wake of 9/11: The Psychology of Terror. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Quarantelli, Enrico L.
1998What Is Disaster? Perspectives on the Question. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Rampton, Sheldon, and John Stauber
2003Weapons of Mass Deception: The Uses of Propaganda in Bush’s War on Iraq. New York: Tarcher/Penguin.Google Scholar
Renn, Stephen D.
2008The Expository Dictionary of Bible Words. Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers.Google Scholar
Ricoeur, Paul
1978The Rule of Metaphor. London: Routledge & Kegan.Google Scholar
Ritter, Kurt, and Martin J. Medhurst
(eds.) 2003Presidential Speechwriting: From the New Deal to the Reagan Revolution and Beyond. United States: Library of Congress.Google Scholar
Roberts, Albert R.
(ed.) 2005Crisis Intervention Handbook: Assessment, Treatment, and Research. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Rock, Stephan R.
2001The Views and Influence of U.S. Christians and Christian Organizations. New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques
1968Social Contract. London: Penguin Classics.Google Scholar
Rozario, Kevin
2007The Culture of Calamity: Disaster and the Making of Modern America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Said, Edward
1979Orientalism. London: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
Schifferes, Steve, and Richard Roberts
(eds.) 2014The Media and Financial Crises: Comparative and Historical Perspectives. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr.
2004The Imperial Presidency. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.Google Scholar
Shogan, Colleen J.
2006The Moral Politics of American Presidents. Austen: Texas University Press.Google Scholar
Silberstein, Sandra
2004War of Words: Language, Politics and 9/11. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Singer, Eleanor T., and Phyllis M. Edreny
1993Reporting Risk: How the Mass Media Portray Accidents, Diseases, Disasters, and Other Hazards. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
Skrimshire, Stefan
2008Politics of Fear, Practices of Hope. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.Google Scholar
Smith, Craig Allen, and Kathy B. Smith
1994The White House Speaks: Presidential Leadership as Persuasion. Westport CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
Smith, Gary S.
2006Faith and the Presidency From George Washington to George W. Bush. New York: Oxford University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sorkin, Andrew Ross
2010Too Big to Fail. New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
Stout, Harry S.
1986The New England Soul: Preaching and Religious Culture in Colonial New England. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Stuckey, Mary E.
1991The President as Interpreter-In-Chief. Chatham, New Jersey: Chatham House Publishers.Google Scholar
2011Defining Americans: The Presidency and National Identity. Kansas City: University Press of Kansas.Google Scholar
Tackach, James
2002Lincoln’s Moral Vision. Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi.Google Scholar
Taylor, Philip M.
1992War and the Media: Propaganda and Persuasion in the Gulf War. UK: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
‘t Hart, Paul, and Karen Tindall
2009Framing the Global Economic Downturn: Crisis Rhetoric and the Politics of Recessions. Canberra: ANU E Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Thomas, Frank A.
2012American Dream 2.0: A Christian Way Out of the Great Recession. Nashville, Tennessee: Abingdon Press.Google Scholar
Thomas, Katharina E.
2009Abraham Lincoln’s ‘Gettysburg Address’: The Rhetoric of American Civil Religion. Munich: GRIN Publishing GmbH.Google Scholar
Thompson, Benjamin
1676New England’s Crisis. Boston: John Fowter, Web. 17. Aug. 2013. https://​archive​.org​/stream​/newenglandscris00hunngoog#page​/n5​/mode​/2up.Google Scholar
Thompson, John Arthur
1980The Book of Jeremiah: The New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.Google Scholar
Thomas, W. & D. Thomas
1928The Child in America: Behavior Problems and Programs. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
Tocqueville, Alexis de
2003Democracy in America. New York: Penguin Classics.Google Scholar
Troy, Gil
2005Morning in America: How Ronald Reagan Invented the 1980’s. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Tulis, Jeffrey K.
1987The Rhetorical Presidency. Princeton New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Van Dijk, Teun A.
1998Ideology: A Multidisciplinary Approach. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
Weber, Max
1978Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
1992The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Werth, Paul
1999Text Worlds: Representing Conceptual Space in Discourse. Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd.Google Scholar
Whitt, L.
1954The Jacksonians: A Study in Administrative History, 1829–1861. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
Whitt, David, and John Perlich
2014 (eds.). Myth in the Modern World: Essays on Intersections with Ideology and Culture. North Carolina: McFarland & Company.Google Scholar
Wigglesworth, Michael
1662The Day of Doom: Or, A Poetical Description of the Great and Last Judgment: With Other Poems. Printed by B. Green, and J. Allen, for Benjamin Eliot, at his shop under the west end of the town-house, Boston, 1701. (5th ed.) Microform version available in the Readex Early American Imprints series.Google Scholar
Windt, Theodore O., and Beth Ingold
(eds.) 1992Essays in Presidential Rhetoric (3rd ed.), Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt Publishing Company.Google Scholar
Windt, Theodore O.
1990Presidents and Protestors: Political Rhetoric in the 1960. Tuscaloosa Alabama: The University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
Wodak, Ruth, and Michael Meyer
2001Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Sage Publications. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wodak, Ruth, Rudolf de Cillia, Martin Reisigl, and Johann Wolfgang Unger
2009The Discursive Construction of National Identity. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
Woodward, Bob
2007Bush at War. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
Zulaika, Joseba, and William Douglass
1996Terror and Taboo: The Follies, Fables, and Faces of Terrorism. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar


100 Days of Gushing Oil – Eight Things to Know About How the Media Covered the Gulf Disaster.” Pew Research Center – Journalism Project, Aug. 25 2010, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.journalism​.org​/2010​/08​/25​/100​-days​-gushing​-oil​/#fn1.Google Scholar
100 Days of Gushing Oil – The Breaking News Never Went Away.” Pew Research Center – Journalism Project, Aug. 25 2010, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.journalism​.org​/2010​/08​/25​/100​-days​-gushing​-oil​/#fn1.Google Scholar
9/11 Victims List.” 9/11 Tenth Year Commemoration, EKTIMIS, Web. 19 June 2013. http://​www​.911tenthyear​.com​/911​-victims​-list​.html.
Aaltonen, Jouko
2014 “Claims of Hope and Disasters: Rhetoric Expression in Three Climate Change Documentaries.” Studies in Documentary Film 8 (1): 61–75. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Abramowitz, Michael
2008 “Many Versions of ‘Bush Doctrine.’Washington Post, Sept. 13 2008.Google Scholar
Abu-Lughod, Lila
2002Do Muslim Women Really Need Saving?American Anthropologist 104 (3): 783–790. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
A Clash of Gloomy Prophets.” Time, Jan 11 1971: 56–57.Google Scholar
Allen, Jodie T.
2010 “How a Different America Responded to the Great Depression.” Pew Research Center, Web. 17 Aug. 2015. http://​www​.pewresearch​.org​/2010​/12​/14​/how​-a​-different​-america​-responded​-to​-the​-great​-depression/.
Althaus, Scott L.
2002 “American News Consumption during Times of National Crisis.” Political Science & Politics, 517–521. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Altschuter, Glenn C.
2003 “Apathy, Apocalypse and the American Jeremiad.” American Literary History 15 (1): 162–171. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Andrews, J.
2002 “Presidential Leadership and National Identity.” In The Presidency and Rhetorical Leadership, ed. byL. Dorsey. Texas: Texas A&M University Press.Google Scholar
Applebaum-Sikorska, Anne
2002 “North Korea: Threat or Menace? Does North Korea Deserve Its Ranking as a Member of the “Axis of Evil”?Slate, Feb. 12 2002.Google Scholar
Appleby, Joyce
1992 “Recovering America’s Historic Diversity: Beyond Exceptionalism.” Journal of American History 79 (2): 419–431. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Arnsten, Amy F. T.
2009 “Stress Signaling Pathways that Impair Prefrontal Cortex Structure and Function.” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 10: 410–422. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Arthur, Damien
2011 “The Consequences of Rhetoric after 9/11.” State of Formation, Web. 5 Aug. 2012. http://​www​.stateofformation​.org​/2011​/09​/the​-consequences​-of​-rhetoric​-after​-911/.
Atkinson, Tyler, and David Luttrell
2013 “How Bad Was It? The Costs and Consequences of the 2007/09 Financial Crisis.” Dallas Fed, Staff Papers, 20, Web. 9 Mar. 2015. https://​dallasfed​.org​/assets​/documents​/research​/staff​/staff1301​.pdf.Google Scholar
Attack on Pearl Harbor.” New World Encyclopedia, Web. 10 Feb. 2012. http://​www​.newworldencyclopedia​.org​/entry​/Attack​_on​_Pearl​_Harbor.
Atwater, D.
2007 “Senator Barack Obama; The Rhetoric of Hope and the American Dream.” Journal of Black Studies 38(2): 121–129. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Avry, Heidi
2010 “The Ongoing Administration-Wide Response to the Deepwater BP Oil Spill.” The White House Blog, Web. 20 May 2015. https://​www​.whitehouse​.gov​/blog​/2010​/05​/05​/ongoing​-administration​-wide​-response​-deepwater​-bp​-oil​-spill.Google Scholar
Ayotte, Kevin J.
2002 “The Art of War: Aristotle on Rhetoric and Fear.” In The Philosophy of Communication. Vol. 2, Studies in Greek Philosophy, No. 40, ed. by K. Boudouris and T. Poulakos, 45–57, Athens, Greece: Ionia Publications.Google Scholar
Barack Obama’s Economic Record: End-of-Term Report.” Economist, Sept. 1 2012.Google Scholar
Bailey, Kevin L.
2009 “An Evaluation of the Impact of Hurricane Katrina on Crime in New Orleans, Louisiana.” Applied Research Projects, Paper 304, Texas State University, San Marcos.Google Scholar
Balz, Dan and Bob Woodward
2002 “A Presidency Defined in One Speech.” Washington Post, Feb. 1.Google Scholar
Barber, Kristen, Danielle Antoinette Hidalgo, Timothy Haney, and Jennifer Day
2007 “Narrating the Storm: Storytelling as a Methodological Approach to Understanding Hurricane Katrina.” Journal of Public Management & Social Policy, Fall 2007: 99–120.Google Scholar
Beasley, Vanessa B.
2010 “The Rhetorical Presidency Meets the Unitary Executive: Implications for Presidential Rhetoric on Public Policy.” Michigan State University Board of Trustees, Rhetoric & Public Affairs 13 (1): 7–36. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Belanger, Patrick W.
2005 “Language and War: The Rhetoric of George W. Bush.” Young Scholars in Writing: Undergraduate Research in Writing and Rhetoric 3: 24–29.Google Scholar
Bell, Katie
2011 “The Intersection of Race and Class as Exposed in Hurricane Katrina.” Drake University Social Science Journal, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.drake​.edu​/media​/departmentsoffices​/dussj​/2013​-2011documents​/KatrinaBell​.pdf.Google Scholar
Bellah, Robert N.
1967 “Civil Religion in America.” Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 96 (1): 1–21.Google Scholar
Benoit, William L., and Jayne Henson
2009 “President Bush’s Image Repair Discourse on Hurrican Katrina.” Public Relations Review 35(1): 40–46. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bergen, Benjamin, and Kathryn Wheeler
2010 “Grammatical Aspect and Mental Simulation.” Brain and Language 112 (3): 150–158. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bercovitch, Sacvan
1990 “The Ends of American Puritan Rhetoric.” In The Ends of Rhetoric: History, Theory, Practice, ed. by J. Bender and D. Wellbery, 171–190. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
1997 “The Winthrop Variation.” John F. Kennedy Institut für Amerikastudien, Working Papers, No. 95, Web. 15 April 2014. http://​www​.edocs​.fu​-berlin​.de​/docs​/servlets​/MCRFileNodeServlet​/FUDOCS​_derivate​_000000001178​/workingpaper095​.pdf.
Bestgen, Yves
1994 “Can Emotional Valence in Stories Be Determined from Words?Cognition & Emotion 8: 21–36. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Binswanger, Mathias
2009 “Is There a Growth Imperative in Capitalist Economies? A Circular Flow Perspective.” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 31 (4): 707–727. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bitzer, Lloyd F.
1968 “The Rhetorical Situation.” Philosophy and Rhetoric 1(1): 1–14.Google Scholar
Black, Amy E.
2004 “With God on Our Side: Religion in George W. Bush’s Foreign Policy Speeches.” Prepared for presentation at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, Illinois, Sept. 2–5, Web. 8 Aug. 2013. http://​cassidyjohns​.webs​.com​/documents​/bushreligion​-1​.pdf.
Bligh, Michelle C., and Jeffrey C. Kohles
2009 “The Enduring Allure of Charisma: How Barack Obama Won the Historic 2008 Presidential Election.” Leadership Quarterly 20(3): 483–492. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Boin, Arjen
2009 “Crisis Leadership in Terra Incognita: Why Meaning Making is Not Enough.” In Framing the Global Economic Downturn: Crisis Rhetoric and the Politics of Recession, ed. by P. ‘t Hart and K. Tindall, 309–315. Canberra, Australia: ANU E Press.Google Scholar
2005 “Disaster Research and Future Crises: Broadening the Research Agenda.” International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 23 (3): 199–214.Google Scholar
Bolton, J. R.
2002 “Beyond the Axis of Evil: Additional Threats From Weapons of Mass Destruction.” Remarks presented to the Heritage Foundation Washington, D.C. May 6, The DISAM Journal, Summer, Web. 18 Aug. 2012. http://​www​.disam​.dsca​.mil​/pubs​/V24​-4%20PDF%20Files%20By%20Author​/Bolton,%20John%20R​.,%20Axis%20of%20Evil​.pdf.Google Scholar
Bonnefille, Stéphanie
2013 “A Cognitive Linguistics Approach to the Rhetoric of Damage Control: B.P.’s Oil Spill and the E.P.A.’s Strategy of Communication.” Entrepalavras Entrepalavras, Fortaleza, Ano 3, 3 (1): 34–55.Google Scholar
Bostdorff, D.
1991 “The Presidency and Promoted Crisis: Reagan, Grenada, and Issue Management.” Presidential Studies Quarterly Fall: 737–750.Google Scholar
Bostdorff, Denise M.
2011 “Epideictic Rhetoric in the Service of War: George W. Bush on Iraq and the 60th Anniversary of the Victory Over Japan.” Communication Monographs 3: 296–323. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2003 “George W. Bush’s Post-September 11 Rhetoric of Covenant Renewal: Upholding the Faith of the Greatest Generation.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 89 (4): 293–319. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bostdorff, Denise M., and Daniel J. O’Rourke
1997 “The Presidency and the Promotion of Domestic Crisis: John Kennedy’s Management of the 1962 Steel Crisis.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 27 (2): 343–362.Google Scholar
Bostdorff, D. et al.
2008 “Report of the National Task Force on Presidential Rhetoric in Times of Crisis”. In J. Aune & M. Medhurst (eds.), The Prospect of Presidential Rhetoric. College Station, Austen: Texas A&M University Press.Google Scholar
BP Criticism Not about Nationality, Says Obama.” BBC News, June 12 2010, Web. 7 Sept. 2014 http://​www​.bbc​.co​.uk​/news​/10300082.Google Scholar
BP Fared Worse Than the Obama White House.” Pew Research Center – Journalism Project, Aug. 25 2010, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.journalism​.org​/2010​/08​/25​/coverage​-bp​-fared​-worse​-obama​-white​-house​-and​-gop​-may​-be​-part​-reason/.Google Scholar
Brinkley, Alan
2006 “Clear and Present Dangers.” New York Times Book Review 1: 10–11.Google Scholar
Broder, John M.
2008 “Gore Urges Change to Dodge an Energy Crisis.” New York Times, July 18 2008.Google Scholar
Bryner, Jeanna
2010 “Experts: Most of the Gulf Oil Spill Won’t Be Cleaned Up.” Live Science, April 29 2010.Google Scholar
Brzezinski, Zbigniew
2007 “Terrorized by ‘War on Terror.’” Washington Post, March 25 2007.Google Scholar
Burke, Kenneth
1947 “Ideology and Myth.” Accent 7: 195–205.Google Scholar
Burkholder, Thomas R., and David Henry
2009 “Criticism of Metaphor.” In Rhetorical Criticism: Perspectives in Action, ed. by J. Kuypers, 97–117. Plymouth UK: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
Burnes, Susan
2011 “Metaphors in Press Reports of Elections: Obama Walked on Water, but Musharraf Was Beaten by a Knockout.” Journal of Pragmatics 43: 2160–2175. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bush: Bailout Plan Necessary to Deal with Crisis.” CNN.com, Sept 25 2008, Web. 25 June 2015. http://​edition​.cnn​.com​/2008​/POLITICS​/09​/24​/bush​.bailout​/index​.html​?iref​=newssearch.Google Scholar
Bush’s Final Approval Rating: 22 Percent.” CBS News, Jan 16 2009, Web. 30 June 2015. http://​www​.cbsnews​.com​/news​/bushs​-final​-approval​-rating​-22​-percent/.Google Scholar
Calmes, Jackie
2013 “Live From the Oval Office: A Backdrop of History Fades From TV.” New York Times, July 9 2013.Google Scholar
2010 “Obama Plans First Oval Office Speech to Put Pressure on BP.” New York Times, June 13 2010.Google Scholar
Campbell, David
1993 “Cold Wars: Securing Identity, Identifying Danger.” In Rhetorical Republic: Governing Representations in American Politics, ed. by F. Dolan and T. Dumm. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.Google Scholar
Campbell, Karlyn Kohrs, and Kathleen Hall Jamieson
1978 “Form and Genre in Rhetorical Criticism: An Introduction.” In Form and Genre: Shaping Rhetorical Action, ed. by K. Campbell and K. Jamieson, 9–33. Falls Church, VA: The Speech Communication Association.Google Scholar
Canes-Wrone, Brandice
2001 “The President’s Legislative Influence from Public Appeals.” American Journal of Political Science 45(2): 313–329. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cap, Piotr
2010 “Axiological Aspects of Proximization.” Journal of Pragmatics 42: 392–407. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2008a “Towards the Proximization Model of the Analysis of Legitimization in Political Discourse.” Journal of Pragmatics 40: 17–41. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Capur, Ratna
2002 “Collateral Damage: Sacrificing Legitimacy in the Search for Justice.” Harvard International Review 24 (1).Google Scholar
Cassidy, John
2008 “Anatomy of a Meltdown: Ben Bernanke and the Financial Crisis.” New Yorker, Dec 1.Google Scholar
Chapman, Terrence L., and Dan Reiter
2004 “The United Nations Security Council and the Rally ‘Round the Flag Effect.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 48. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Charteris-Black, Jonathan
2009 “Metaphor and Political Communication.” In Metaphor and Discourse, ed. by A. Musloff and J. Zinken, 97–109. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Chertoff: Katrina Scenario Did Not Exist.” CNN.com, Sept 5 2005, Web. 9 Oct. 2014. http://​www​.cnn​.com​/2005​/US​/09​/03​/katrina​.chertoff/.Google Scholar
Ceaser, James W.
2012 “The Origins and Character of American Exceptionalism.” American Political Thought: A Journal of Ideas, Institutions, and Culture 1.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ceaser, James W., Glen E. Thurow, Jeffrey Tulis, and James Bessette
1981 “The Rise of the Rhetorical Presidency.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 11: 158–171.Google Scholar
Chovanec, Jan
2010 “Legitimation through differentiation: Discursive construction of Jacques Le Worm Chirac as an opponent to military action.” In Perspectives in Political Discourse, ed. by U. Okulska and P. Cap, 61–82. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cienki, A., B. Kaal, and I. Maks
2010Mapping world view in political texts using Discourse Space Theory: metaphor as an analytical tool. Paper presented at RaAM 8 conference, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.Google Scholar
Coe, Kevin, David Domke, Erica S. Graham, Sue Lockett John, and Victor W. Pickard
2004 “No Shades of Gray: The Binary Discourse of George W. Bush and an Echoing Press.” Journal of Communication, Web. 2 Jan. 2014. http://​www​.victorpickard​.com​/upload​/NoshadesofGray​.pdf. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, Jeffrey E.
1995 “Presidential Rhetoric and the Public Agenda.” American Journal of Political Science 39 (1): 87–107. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Coglianese, Cary
2009 “The Transparency President? The Obama Administration and Open Government.” Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper Series, Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions 22 (4): 529–544. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cohn, Carol
1993 “Wars, Wimps, and Women: Talking Gender and Thinking War.” In Gendering War Talk, ed. by M. Cooke, 227–246. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Cohn, Marjorie
2008 “Afghanistan: The Other Illegal War.” AlterNet, July 31, Web. 9 June 2014. http://​www​.alternet​.org​/story​/93473​/afghanistan%3A​_the​_other​_illegal​_war.Google Scholar
Coleman, John A.
1970 “Civil Religion.” Sociological Analysis 31(2): 67–77. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Collet, Tanja, and Tom Najem
2005 “Word Choices in Post-9/11 Speeches and the Identity Construction of the Other.” CPSA Annual Conference 2005, Web. 9 Oct. 2013. http://​www​.cpsa​-acsp​.ca​/conference​-pres​-2005​.shtml.
Colombani, Jean-Marie
2001 “Nous Sommes Tous Américains.” Le Mond, Sept 13.Google Scholar
Condit, Celeste Michelle
1985 “The Functions of Epideictic: The Boston Massacre Orations as Example.” Communication Quarterly 33 (4): 284–299. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Condon, Stephanie
2010 “Obama Defends Oil Spill Response, Cites Mistakes.” CBS News, May 27, Web. 10 April 2014. http://​www​.cbsnews​.com​/news​/obama​-defends​-oil​-spill​-response​-cites​-mistakes/.Google Scholar
Conger, Jay A.
1991 “Inspiring Others: The Language of Leadership.” McGill University, Academy of Management Executive 5 (1), Web. 15 Mar. 2012. http://​carmine​.se​.edu​/cvonbergen​/Inspiring%20Others​_The%20Language%20of%20Leadership​.pdf.Google Scholar
Costenbader, Chris, Curtis Donahoe, David Dry, Stephen Harvey, and Joshua Miller
2012 “Just War, National Interest, and the Iraq War: Analyzing the Strategic Rhetoric Used to Mobilize the American Public for War.” Paper, Westmont College, Nov 29 2012, Web. 11 Feb. 2014. http://​www​.westmont​.edu​/institute​/conversations​/2013​_program​/documents​/CostenbaderEtAl​.pdf.Google Scholar
Cook, Charles E.
2002 “On the Homefront: Politics as Usual?Washington Quarterly 25 (1): 237–239. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cornwell, Robert
2003 “In God He Trusts – How George Bush Infused the White House with a Religious Spirit.” London Independent, Feb 21, Web. 8 Aug. 2013. http://​www​.independent​.co​.uk​/news​/world​/politics/.Google Scholar
Crick, Nathan
2012 “Barack Obama and the Rhetoric of Religious Experience.” Journal of Communication and Religion 35(1): 1–15.Google Scholar
Crisis.” In Oxford Medical Companion (1st ed.) ed. by Walton et al., Oxford: Oxford University Press 1994.Google Scholar
Cronon, William
1996 “The Trouble with Wilderness: Or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature.” Environmental History 1 (1): 7–28. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cusick, Frederick
2005 “Activists Link Katrina Crisis, Iraq War.” Inquirer, Sept 15.Google Scholar
Daily, Matt
2005 “Rice Denies Race Affected Relief Effort.” Houston Chronicle, Sept 5.Google Scholar
Daschke, Dereck
2010 “A Destroyer Will Come Against Babylon: George W. Bush’s Oracles Against the Nation.” In A Cry Instead of Justice: The Bible and Cultures of Violence in Psychological Perspective, ed. by D. Daschke and A. Kille, 156–181. New York: T & T Clark International.Google Scholar
Davis, Tami R., and Sean M. Lynn-Jones
1987 “Citty Upon a Hill.” Foreign Policy 66: 20–39. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dean: U.S. Must Face ‘Ugly Truth’ About Katrina.” CNN.com, Web. 17 Sept. 2014. http://​edition​.cnn​.com​/2005​/POLITICS​/09​/08​/katrina​.dean​/index​.html.
Defense Planning Guidance.” Excerpts from draft leaked to New York Times, Feb. 18 1992, Web. 19 May 2014. http://​www2​.gwu​.edu​/~nsarchiv​/nukevault​/ebb245​/doc03​_extract​_nytedit​.pdf.Google Scholar
Delahunty, Robert, and John Yoo
2009 “The “Bush Doctrine”: Can Preventive War be Justified?Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy 32 (3): 843–864.Google Scholar
Dennis, Jack
1976 “Who Supports the Presidency?Society 13: 48–53. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dolan, Raymond J.
2002 “Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior.” Science 298 (5596): 1191–1194. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dolliver, Mark
2005 “The Divine and Profane as Hurricane Factors.” Adweek 46, Oct 10.Google Scholar
Dombey, Daniel, Demetri Sevastopulo, and James Politi
2008 “Bush To Enter Fray of Bail-Out Talks.” Financial Times, Sept 25.Google Scholar
Donato, Isaac Ijjo
2009 “The United States: Crisis Leadership in Times of Transition.” In Framing the Global Economic Downturn: Crisis Rhetoric and the Politics of Recession, ed. by P. ‘t Hart and K. Tindall, 43–68. Canberra, Australia: ANU E Press.Google Scholar
Dow, Bonnie J.
1989 “The Function of Epideictic and Deliberative Strategies in Presidential Crisis Rhetoric.” Western Journal of Speech Communication 53 (3): 294–310. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dowd, Maureen
2010 “Once More, With Feeling.” New York Times, May 29.Google Scholar
Dunmire, Patricia L.
2007 “ ‘Emerging Threats’ and ‘Coming Dangers:’ Claiming the Future for Preventive War.” In Discourse, War and Terrorism, ed. by A. Hodges and C. Nilep, 19–43. Philadelphia: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dynes, Russell R., and Havidán Rodríguez
2007 “Finding and Framing Katrina: The Social Construction of Disaster.” In The Sociology of Katrina: Perspectives on a Modern Catastrophe, ed. by D. Brunsma, D. Overfelt, and J. Picou, 24–36. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
Edwards, Jason A.
2011 “Contemporary Conservative Constructions of American Exceptionalism.” Journal of Contemporary Rhetoric 1 (2): 40–54.Google Scholar
Egan, Danielle R.
2002 “Cowardice.” In Collateral Language: A User’s Guide to America’s New War, ed. by J. Collins and R. Glover, 53–64. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
Eisenstadt, Michael
2014 “Presidential Epideictic Rhetoric During Times of Crisis: Barack Obama’s “9/11” Moment.” UNLV, Paper 2077, Web. 10 Sept. 2014. http://​digitalscholarship​.unlv​.edu​/thesesdissertations​/2077.Google Scholar
Emrich, Cynthia G., Holly H. Brower, and Jack M. Feldman
2001 “Images in Words: Presidential Rhetoric, Charisma, and Greatness.” Administrative Science Quarterly 46 (3). CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Esch, Joanne
2010 “Legitimizing the “War on Terror”: Political Myth in Official-Level Rhetoric.” Political Psychology 31 (3): 357–391. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Fadda, Sandra
The Use of Metaphor in Political Discourse: The Speeches of George W. Bush.” 33rd ISFC, Web. 9 Oct. 2014, 921–931. http://​www​.pucsp​.br​/isfc​/proceedings​/Artigos%20pdf​/44mtp​_fadda​_921a931​.pdf.
Fairbanks, James David
1981 “The Priestly Functions of the Presidency: A Discussion of the Literature on Civil Religion and Its Implications for the Study of Presidential Leadership.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 11: 214–232.Google Scholar
Fairclough, Norman, and Ruth Wodak
1997 “Critical Discourse Analysis.” In Discourse as Social Interaction, Vol. 2, ed. by Teun A. van Dijk, 258–284. London: Sage.Google Scholar
Farrell, Justin
2014 “Moral Outpouring: Shock and Generosity in the Aftermath of the BP Oil Spill.” Social Problems 61 (3): 482–506. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Fenn, Richard K.
1977 “The Relevance of Bellah’s ‘Civil Religion’ Thesis to a Theory of Secularization.” Social Science History 1 (4): 502–517. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Filardo-Llamas, Laura
2014 “Between the Union and a United Ireland: Shifting Positions in Northern Ireland’s Post-Agreement Political Discourse.” In From Text to Political Positions: Text Analysis Across Disciplines, ed. by Bertie Kaal, Isa Maks and Annemarie van Elfrinkhof, 207–225. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Fineman, Howard
2003 “Bush and God.” Newsweek, March 10.Google Scholar
2004 “The Gospel According to George.” Newsweek, April 25. Google Scholar
First Lady: Charges that Racism Slowed Aid ‘Disgusting.’” CNN.com, Sept 9 2005, Web. 17 Sept. 2014. http://​edition​.cnn​.com​/2005​/POLITICS​/09​/08​/katrina​.laurabush/.Google Scholar
Fischer Liu, Brooke
2009 “An Analysis of US Government and Media Disaster Frames.” Journal of Communication Management 13 (3): 268–283. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2007 “President Bush’s Major Post-Katrina Speeches: Enhancing Image Repair Discourse Theory Applied to the Public Sector.” Public Relations Review 33 (1): 40–48. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Focus on the Financial Crisis.” Connection, Swiss Finance Institute, Summer 2011.Google Scholar
Ford, Peter
2001 “Europe cringes at Bush 'crusade' against terrorists.” The Christian Science Monitor, Sept 19, 2001. http://​www​.csmonitor​.com​/2001​/0919​/p12s2​-woeu​.html.Google Scholar
Forman, Tyron A., and Amanda E. Lewis
2006 “Racial Apathy and Hurricane Katrina: The Social Anatomy of Prejudice in the Post-Civil Rights Era.” Du Bois Review 3 (1): 175–202. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Foucault, Michael
1980 “The Eye of Power.” In Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972–1977, ed. by C. Gordon, 146–165. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
Franklin, Benjamin
1836 “The Way to Wealth.” In The Works of Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 2, ed. by J. Sparks, 92–103. Boston: American Literature Research and Analysis Website, Florida Gulf Coast University, Web. 3 April 2015. http://​itech​.fgcu​.edu​/faculty​/wohlpart​/alra​/franklin​.htm.Google Scholar
Friedman, Thomas L.
2010 “Obama and the Oil Spill.” New York Times, May 18.Google Scholar
Gamino, Doris K., Manuel de los Suliman Reyes Garcia Márkina, and Gemma Aktham Pörzgen
2011 “Der 11. September als Globale Zäsur? Wahrnehmungen aus Lateinamerika, Nahost, Russland und Indonesien.” Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte (Bundeszentrale für Politische Bildung), 27.Google Scholar
Gärling, Tommy, Erich Kirchler, Alan Lewis, and Fred van Raaij
2010 “Psychology, Financial Decision Making, and Financial Crises.” Psychological Science in the Public Interest, March 29.Google Scholar
Gehrig, Gail
1981 “The American Civil Religion Debate: A Source for Theory Construction.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 20 (1): 51–63. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gerstein, Josh
2001 “Terror Attacks Spark Cowardly Debate.” abcNews, Sept 26 2001, Web. 17 Aug. 2013. http://​abcnews​.go​.com​/Politics​/story​?id​=121312​&page​=1.Google Scholar
Gill, Duane A., Steven Picou, and Liesel A. Ritchie
2010 “The Exxon Valdez and
BP Oil Spills: A Comparison of Initial Social and Psychological Impacts.” American Behavioral Scientist 20 (10): 1–21.Google Scholar
Gillis, Justin
2010 “Estimates of Oil Flow Jump Higher.” New York Times, June 15.Google Scholar
2010 “Size of Oil Spill Underestimated, Scientists Say.” New York Times, May 13.Google Scholar
Goetsch, Paul
1993 “Präsidentenrhetorik seit F. D. Roosevelt: Eine Einführung.” In Die Rhetorik Amerikanischer Präsidenten seit F. D. Roosevelt, ScriptOralia 54, ed. by P. Goetsch and G. Hurm, 11–30. Tübingen: Narr.Google Scholar
Goldenberg, Suzanne
2010 “Deepwater Horizon Clean-Up Workers Fight to Prevent Disaster.” Guardian, April 23.Google Scholar
Gore, Albert A.
2010 “Statement by Alliance for Climate Protection Chairman Al Gore on President Obama’s Oval Office Address on the Gulf Oil Disaster.” PRNewswire, June 15 2010, Web. 10 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.prnewswire​.com​/news​-releases​/statement​-by​-alliance​-for​-climate​-protection​-chairman​-al​-gore​-on​-president​-obamas​-oval​-office​-address​-on​-the​-gulf​-oil​-disaster​-96436749​.html.Google Scholar
Gorski, Philip S.
2011 “Barack Obama and Civil Religion.” In Rethinking Obama (Political Power and Social Theory, Vol. 22), ed. by J. Go, 179–214. Bingley: Emerald Group. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Graham: ‘I Would Never Say This is God’s Judgment.’” CNN.com, Oct 4 2005, Web. 10 Sept​. 2014. http://​www​.cnn​.com​/2005​/US​/10​/04​/cnna​.graham/.Google Scholar
Gray, Colin S.
2007 “The Implications of Preemptive and Preventive War Doctrines: A Reconsideration.” Strategic Studies Institute, The U.S. Army War College, Web. 5 Jan. 2014. http://​www​.strategicstudiesinstitute​.army​.mil​/pdffiles​/pub789​.pdf .
Gray, Madison
2006 “The Press, Race and Katrina.” Time, Aug 30.Google Scholar
Griffin, David Ray
2013 “9/11 Contradictions: Bush in the Classroom on the Morning of September 11, 2001.” Global Research, Sept 10, Web. 5 Jan. 2014. http://​www​.globalresearch​.ca​/9​-11​-contradictions​-bush​-in​-the​-classroom​/8555.Google Scholar
Gregg, Gary L.
2003 “Crisis Leadership: The Symbolic Transformation of the Bush Presidency.” Perspectives on Political Science 32 (3): 143–148. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gunn, Joshua
2004 “The Rhetoric of Exorcism: George W. Bush and the Return of Political Demonology.” Western Journal of Communication 68 (1): 1–23. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hahn, Dan F.
1987 “The Media and the Presidency: Ten Propositions.” Communications Quarterly 35 (3): 254–266. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hall, Wynton C.
2004 “Economically Speaking: George Bush and the Price of Perception.” In Principles vs. Politics: The Rhetorical Education of George Herbert Walker Bush, ed. by M. Medhurst. Austen: Texas A&M University Press.Google Scholar
Hamm, Mark S.
2004 “The USA PATRIOT Act and the Politics of Fear.” In Cultural Criminology Unleashed, ed. by J. Ferrell, 287–300. London: The Glass House Press.Google Scholar
Hammond, Philip E.
1976 “The Sociology of American Civil Religion.” Sociological Analysis 37: 169–182. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Han, Lori Cox
2006 “New Strategies for an Old Medium: The Weekly Radio Addresses of Reagan and Clinton.” Congress and the Presidency 33 (1): 25–45. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hansen, Lene
2004 “From Bentham to Bush.” In Contemporary Security Analysis and Copenhagen Peace Research, ed. by S. Guzzini and D. Jung, 117–127. London: Routledge. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Harlow, William F.
2010 “Nixon’s Use of Civil Religion to Justify Economic Treaty Violation.” American Communication Journal, 12.Google Scholar
Harrell, Willie J.
2011 “A ‘21st Century Economic Agenda for America’: Barack Obama’s Pre-Presidential Economic Jeremiads.” Canadian Review of American Studies 41 (3): 299–324.Google Scholar
Harrell, Willie J., Jr.
2008 “Call to Political and Social Activism: The Jeremiadic Discourse of Maria Miller Stewart, 1831–1833.” Journal of International Women's Studies 9 (3): Article 17.Google Scholar
2009 “The Reality of American Life Has Strayed From Its Myths: Barack Obama’s The Audacity of Hope and the Discourse of the American Reclamation Jeremiad.” Journal of Black Studies, July 15.Google Scholar
Hart, Roderick P.
2002 “Why Do They Talk That Way? A Research Agenda for the Presidency.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 22 (4): 693–709. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hart, Roderick P., Sharon E. Jarvis, and Elvin T. Lim
2002 “The American People in Crisis: A Content Analysis.” Political Psychology 23 (3). CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hauerwas, Stanley
2012 “Why War is a Moral Necessity for America.” In From Jeremiad to Jihad: Religion, Violence, and America, ed. by J. Carlson and J. Ebel, 220–232. Berkeley: University of California Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Henkel, Kristin E., John F. Dovidio, and Samuel L. Gaertner
2006 “Institutional Discrimination, Individual Racism, and Hurricane Katrina.” Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy 6: 99–124. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Herring, Cedric
2006 “Hurricane Katrina and the Racial Gulf: A Du Boisian Analysis of Victims’ Experiences.” Du Bois Review 3 (1): 129–144. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Herszenhorn, David M.
2008 “Bailout Plan Wins Approval; Democrats Vow Tighter Rules.” New York Times, Oct 3.Google Scholar
2009 “Recovery Bill Gets Final Approval.” New York Times, Feb 13.Google Scholar
Hofstadter, Richard
1964 “The Paranoid Style in American Politics.” Harper’s Magazine, Nov.Google Scholar
Holland, Steve
2010 “Bush Rejects Accusations of Racism over Katrina.” Reuters, Nov 3, Web. 8 Aug. 2014. http://​www​.reuters​.com​/article​/2010​/11​/03​/us​-bush​-book​-katrina​-idUSTRE6A25N820101103.Google Scholar
Hope, Mat
2011 “Framing the “Greatest Environmental Disaster in Our History”: The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill as a Social Event.” Paper for presentation at the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, March, Chicago, Web. 10 Sept. 2014. https://​www​.academia​.edu​/708921​/Framing​_the​_Greatest​_Environmental​_Disaster​_in​_Our​_History​_The​_Deepwater​_Horizon​_Oil​_Spill​_as​_a​_Social​_Event.
Hornick, Ed
2010 “Is Oil Spill ‘Obama’s Katrina’?CNN.com, May 4, Web. 10 Sept. 2014. http://​edition​.cnn​.com​/2010​/POLITICS​/05​/04​/obama​.oil​.fallout/.Google Scholar
Hubanks, Joshua
2009 “Praise, Blame and Advocacy: An Examination of President George W. Bush’s Post-9/11 Discourse and the Rhetorical Genres that Define It.” Intersections Online 10 (2): 199–225.Google Scholar
Huntington, Samuel P.
1993 “The Clash of Civilizations?Foreign Affairs 72 (3): 22–49. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hutcheson, John, David Domke, Andre Billeaudeaux, and Philip Garland
2004 “U.S. National Identity, Political Elites, and a Patriotic Press Following September 11.” Political Communication 21: 27–50. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ignatieff, Michael
1998 “Identity Parades.” Prospect, April 20.Google Scholar
Infinite Justice, Out – Enduring Freedom, In.” BBC.News, Sept 25 2001, Web. 8 Aug. 2013. http://​news​.bbc​.co​.uk​/2​/hi​/americas​/1563722​.stm.Google Scholar
Ivie, Robert L.
1994 “Declaring a national Emergency: Truman’s Rhetorical Crisis and the Great Debate of 1951.” In The Modern Presidency and Crisis Rhetoric, ed. by A. Kiewe, 1–18. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
2007 “Fighting Terror by Rite of Redemption and Reconciliation.” Rhetoric & Public Affairs 10: 221–248. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1980 “Images of Savagery in American Justifications for War.” Communication Monographs 47 (4). CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1990 “Metaphor and the Rhetorical Invention of Cold War ‘Idealists.’” In Cold War Rhetoric: Strategy, Metaphor, and Ideology (Contributions to the Study of Mass Media and Communications: Vol. 19.), ed. by B. Johnpoll, 103–127. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
Ivie, Robert L., and Oscar Giner
2009 “More Good, Less Evil: Contesting the Mythos of National Insecurity in the 2008 Presidential Primaries.” Rhetoric & Public Affairs 12 (2): 279–301. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
James, Colin
2003 “Moran’s Secret Crusade Against the Tyranny of Saddam.” Adelaide Advertiser, Australia, April 5.Google Scholar
Jamieson, Kathleen Hall, and Karlyn Kohrs Campbell
1982 “Rhetorical Hybrids: ‘Fusion of Generic Elements.’Quarterly Journal of Speech 68: 146–157. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Jasinski, James, and John Murphy
2009 “Time, Space, and Generic Reconstitution: Martin Luther King’s ‘A Time to Break Silence’ as Radical Jeremiad.” In Public Address and Moral Judgment: Critical Studies in Ethical Tensions, ed. by T. Parry-Giles, 97–125. East Lansing: Trevor, Michigan State University Press.Google Scholar
Jendrysik, Mark Stephan
2006 “Sinners in the Hands of Two Angry White Men: Michael Moore and Bill O’Reilly as Modern Jeremiahs.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Apr. 20, Web. 14 Oct. 2014. http://​citation​.allacademic​.com​/meta​/p139569​_index​.html.
2002 “The Modern Jeremiad: Bloom, Bennett, and Bork on American Decline.” Journal of Popular Culture 36 (2): 361–383. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Johannesen, Richard L.
1986 “Ronald Reagan’s Economic Jeremiad.” Central States Speech Journal 37 (2): 79–89. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Jones, David
2010 “Disaster that Never Was: Why Claims that BP Created History’s Worst Oil Spill May Be the Most Cynical Spin Campaign Ever.” Daily Mail, Aug 6.Google Scholar
Jones, Jeffrey M.
2010 “Americans See U.S. as Exceptional; 37% Doubt Obama Does.” Gallup, Dec 22, Web. 14 Oct. 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/145358​/americans​-exceptional​-doubt​-obama​.aspx.Google Scholar
2008 “Bush’s Approval Rating Drops to New Low of 27%.” Gallup, Sept 30, Web. 5 Dec. 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/110806​/bushs​-approval​-rating​-drops​-new​-low​-27​.aspx.Google Scholar
2009 “Obama Averages 63% Approval in His First Quarter.” Gallup, April 17, Web. 23 Nov. 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/117598​/obama​-averages​-approval​-first​-quarter​.aspx.Google Scholar
2012 “President’s Support Usually Unaffected by State of Union.” Gallup, Jan 26, Web. 14 Oct. 2013. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/125396​/president​-support​-usually​-unaffected​-state​-union​.aspx.Google Scholar
2003 “Sept. 11 Effects, Though Largely Faded, Persist.” Gallup, Sept 9, Web. 5 Dec. 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/9208​/sept​-effects​-though​-largely​-faded​-persis​.aspx.Google Scholar
Juhasz, Antonia
2013 “Why the War in Iraq Was Fought for Big Oil.” CNN.com, April 15, Web. 15 April 2014. http://​edition​.cnn​.com​/2013​/03​/19​/opinion​/iraq​-war​-oil​-juhasz/.Google Scholar
Kahle, Shannon, Nan Yu, and Erin Whiteside
2007 “Disaster: An Examination of Portrayals of Race in Hurricane Katrina Coverage.” Visual Communication Quarterly 14 (2): 75–89. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kang, Ning
2009 “Puritanism and its Impact upon American Values.” Review of European Studies 1 (2): 148–159. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kaplan, Lawrence F.
2001 “No Choice.” New Republic, Oct 1.Google Scholar
Keller, Punam A., and Lauren G. Block
1996 “Increasing the Persuasiveness of Fear Appeals: The Effect of Arousal and Elaboration.” Journal of Consumer Research 22 (4): 448–459. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kellner, Douglas
2004 “9/11, Spectacles of Terror, and Media Manipulation.” Critical Discourse Studies 1 (1): 41–64. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
An Orwellian Nightmare: Critical Reflections on the Bush Administration.” UCLA GSEIS, Web. 17 July 2014. http://​pages​.gseis​.ucla​.edu​/faculty​/kellner​/papers​/orwelliannightmare​.htm.
2007 “Bushspeak and the Politics of Lying: Presidential Rhetoric in the ‘War on Terror.’Presidential Studies Quarterly 37 (4): 622–645. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2007 “The Katrina Hurricane Spectacle and Crisis of the Bush Presidency.” Cultural Studies – Critical Methodologies, SAGE Journals 7: 222–234. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2007 “The Media In and After 9/11: Book Review.” International Journal of Communication 1: 123–142.Google Scholar
Kennedy, Caroline
2013 “The Manichean Temptation: Moralising Rhetoric and the Invocation of Evil in US Foreign Policy.” International Politics 50. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Khatchadourian, Raffi
2011 “The Gulf War: Were there any Heroes in the BP Oil Disaster?New Yorker, March 14.Google Scholar
Kiewe, Amos
1998 “The Crisis Tool in American Political Discourse.” In Politically Speaking: A Worldwide Examination of Language Used in the Public Sphere, ed. by O. Feldman and Ch. De Landtsheer, 79–90. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
Killingsworth, M. Jimmie, and Jacqueline S. Palmer
1996 “ ‘Millennial Ecology’: The Apocalyptic Narrative from Silent Spring to Global Warming.” In Green Culture: Environmental Rhetoric in Contemporary America, ed. by C. Herndl and S. Brown, 21–45. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
Kittredge, Cynthia Briggs
2008 “Echoes of Paul in the Speeches of George W. Bush.” In The Bible in the Public Square: Reading the Signs of the Times, ed. by C. Briggs et al., 55–66. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.Google Scholar
Krauss, Clifford, and John Schwartz
2012 “BP Will Plead Guilty and Pay Over $4 Billion.” New York Times, Nov 15.Google Scholar
Krauthammer, Charles
2001 “The Bush Doctrine in American Foreign Policy, a New Motto: Don’t Ask. Tell.” Inside Politics, CNN.com, Web. 3 May 2012. http://​edition​.cnn​.com​/ALLPOLITICS​/time​/2001​/03​/05​/doctrine​.html.Google Scholar
Kuypers, Jim A.
2007 “From Chaos, Community: The Crisis Leadership of Virginia Tech President Charles W. Steger.” American Communication Journal 9 (1).Google Scholar
Labrecque, Daniel R.
Fearing Terror: The Effects of the Political Climate on George W. Bush’s Use of Fear Rhetoric.” University of Connecticut, Web. 19 Sept. 2012. http://​www​.thepresidency​.org​/storage​/documents​/Calkins​/Labrecque​.pdf.
Lake, Anthony
1994 “Confronting Backlash States.” Foreign Affairs 73. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lakoff, George
2011 “Five Years After 9/11: Drop the War Metaphor.” Huffington Post, May 25, Web. 11 Feb. 2015. http://​www​.huffingtonpost​.com​/george​-lakoff​/five​-years​-after​-911​-drop​_b​_29181​.html.Google Scholar
2003 “Metaphor and War, Again.” AlterNet, March 17, Web. 9 Aug. 2014. http://​www​.alternet​.org​/story​/15414​/metaphor​_and​_war,​_again.Google Scholar
1991 “Metaphor and War: The Metaphor System Used to Justify War in the Gulf.” Viet Nam Generation: A Journal of Recent History and Contemporary Issues 3 (3), Web. 17 Jan. 2014. http://​www2​.iath​.virginia​.edu​/sixties​/HTML​_docs​/Texts​/Scholarly​/Lakoff​_Gulf​_Metaphor​_1​.html.Google Scholar
1995 “Metaphor, Morality, and Politics or Why Conservatives Have Left Liberals in the Dust.” Graduate Faculty of the New School for Social Research Quarterly 62 (2): 177–213.Google Scholar
2001 “Metaphors of Terror.” CSE.Buffalo, Sept 16, Web. 10 Feb. 2014. http://​www​.cse​.buffalo​.edu​/~rapaport​/575​/F01​/lakoff​.on​.terrorism​.html.Google Scholar
1993 “The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor.” In Metaphor and Thought (2nd ed.), ed. by A. Ortony, 202–251. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2009b “The Obama Code.” The Huffington Post, Feb 24, Web. 31 May 2015. http://​www​.huffingtonpost​.com​/george​-lakoff​/the​-obama​-code​_b​_169580​.html.Google Scholar
2005 “ ‘War on Terror,’ Rest in Peace.” AlterNet, July 31, Web. 12 Feb. 2014. http://​www​.alternet​.org​/story​/23810​/war​_on​_terror,​_rest​_in​_peace.Google Scholar
2010 “Why It Matters How We Frame the Environment.” Environmental Communication 4 (1): 78–81. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Landau, Mark J., Sheldon Solomon, Jeff Greenberg, Florette Cohen, Tom Pyszczynski, Jamie Arndt, Claude H. Miller, Daniel M. Ogilvie, and Alison Cook
2004 “Deliver Us From Evil: The Effects of Mortality Salience and Reminders of 9/11 on Support for President George W. Bush.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 30 (9): 1136–1150. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Laqueur, Walter
1976 “The Futility of Terrorism.” Harper’s Magazine 252 (1510): 99–105.Google Scholar
Lazar, Annita, and Michelle M. Lazar
2004 “The Discourse of the World Order: ‘Out-Casting’ in the Double Face of Threat.” Discourse & Society 15 (2–3): 223–242. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Levy, Clifford J.
2005 “Post-Katrina, Bricks and Mortals.” New York Times, Sept 18.Google Scholar
Lipka, Michael
2013 “5 facts About Atheists.” Pew Research Center, Oct 23, Web. 21 June 2014. http://​www​.pewresearch​.org​/fact​-tank​/2013​/10​/23​/5​-facts​-about​-atheists/. Google Scholar
Llorente, Marina A.
2002 “Civilization versus Barbarism.” In Collateral Language: A User’s Guide to America’s New War, ed. by J. Collins and R. Glover. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
Long, Richard
1983 “The Role of Audience in Chaïm Perelman’s New Rhetoric.” Journal of Advanced Composition 4.Google Scholar
Luscombe, Richard
2010 “BP Oil Spill: Michelle Obama Urges US Holidaymakers to Support Gulf Coast.” Guardian, July 13.Google Scholar
Mair, Victor H.
2009 “How a Misunderstanding about Chinese Characters Has Led Many Astray.” Pinyin.info, Web. 3 April 2015. http://​pinyin​.info​/chinese​/crisis​.html.Google Scholar
Majority Disapprove of the Handling of Katrina, Iraq.” CNN.com, Sept 20 2005, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​edition​.cnn​.com​/2005​/POLITICS​/09​/19​/bush​.poll/.Google Scholar
Marshall, Brent K., J. Steven Picou, and Duane A. Gill
2003 “Terrorism as Disaster: Selected Commonalities and Long-Term Recovery for 9/11 Survivors.” Research in Social Problems and Public Policy 11: 73–96. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Marty, Martin E.
1974 “Two Kinds of Two Kinds of Civil Religion.” In American Civil Religion, ed. by R. Richey and D. Jones, 145–146. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
McClay, Wilfred
2004 “The Soul of a Nation.” Public Interest 155 (4): 4–19.Google Scholar
McClure, Kevin
2011 “The Rhetoric of Disaster: The Presidential Natural Disaster Address as an Emergent Genre.” Relevant Rhetoric 2: 1–15, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​relevantrhetoric​.com​/The%20Rhetoric%20of%20Disaster​.pdf.Google Scholar
Medhurst, Martin J.
2000 “Text and Context in the 1952 Presidential Campaign: Eisenhower’s “I shall go to Korea” Speech.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 30 (3): 464–484. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2003 “Presidential Speechwriting: Ten Myths that Plague Modern Scholarship.” In Presidential Speechwriting: From the New Deal to the Reagan Revolution and Beyond, ed. by K. Ritter and M. Medhurst, 3–19. United States: Library of Congress.Google Scholar
2007 “Rhetorical Leadership and the Presidency: A Situational Taxonomy.” In The Values of Presidential Leadership, ed. by T. Price and J. Wren, 59–84. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Merskin, Debra
2004 “The Construction of Arabs as Enemies: Post-September 11 Discourse of George W. Bush.” Mass Communication & Society 7 (2): 157–175. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Miller, S. A., and Sean Lengell
2008 “Bush Signs Wall Street Bailout.” Washington Times, Oct 4.Google Scholar
Mishra, Smeeta
2007 “ ‘Saving’ Muslim Women and Fighting Muslim Men: Analysis of Representations in The New York Times.” Global Media Journal 6 (11).Google Scholar
Moore, David W.
2001 “Bush Job Approval Highest in Gallup History. Widespread Public Support for War on Terrorism.” Gallup, Sept 24, Web. 14 Mar. 2013. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/4924​/Bush​-Job​-Approval​-Highest​-Gallup​-History​.aspx.Google Scholar
2005 “Katrina Hurt Blacks and Poor Victims Most.” Gallup, Oct 25, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/19405​/katrina​-hurt​-blacks​-poor​-victims​-most​.aspx.Google Scholar
2005 “Public Response to Katrina Better Now Than Just After Hurricane Hit Katrina.” Gallup, Sept 13, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/18466​/Public​-Response​-Katrina​-Better​-Now​-Than​-Just​-After​-Hurricane​-Hit​.aspx.Google Scholar
Morales, Lymari
2010 “Americans Critical of Oil Spill Response; Keeping Close Tabs President Obama’s Efforts Rated More Positively than BP’s.” Gallup, May 27, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/137615​/americans​-critical​-oil​-spill​-response​-keeping​-close​-tabs​.aspx.Google Scholar
Morris, Nigel
2013 “Spike in Suicide Rate in Europe and US Linked to Financial Crisis.” Independent, Sept. 13.Google Scholar
Mouawad, Jad
2005 “Katrina’s Shock to the System.” New York Times, Sept. 4.Google Scholar
Murphy, Andrew R., and Elisabeth Hanson
2012 “From King Philip’s War to September 11: Religion, Violence, and the American Way.” In From Jeremiad to Jihad: Religion, Violence, and America, ed. by J. Carlson and J. Ebel, 29–47. Berkeley: University of California Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Murphy, John M.
1990 “ ‘A Time of Shame and Sorrow’: Robert F. Kennedy and the American Jeremiad.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 76: 401–414. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Murphy, Andrew
2009 “New Israel in New England: The American Jeremiad and the Hebrew Scriptures.” Hebraic Political Studies 4 (2): 128–156.Google Scholar
Murphy, John M.
2015 “No End Save Victory: FDR and the End of Isolationism 1936–1941.” In Making the Case: Studies in Public Advocacy in Honor of David Zarefsky, ed. by K. Olson, K. Wilson, and M. Pfau. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.Google Scholar
2003 “ ‘Our Mission and Our Moment’: George W. Bush and September 11th.” Rhetoric and Public Affairs 6 (4): 607–632. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2009 “Political Economy and Rhetorical Matter.” Rhetoric & Public Affairs 12 (2): 303–315. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Murphy, Robert P.
2010 “Did Hoover Really Slash Spending?Mises Daily, Mises Institute, May 31, Web. 3 April 2015. https://​mises​.org​/library​/did​-hoover​-really​-slash​-spending.Google Scholar
Nagurney, Adam
2008 “Obama Wins Election; McCain Loses as Bush Legacy Is Rejected.” New York Times, Nov 4.Google Scholar
Newly-Released Memo by Donald Rumsfeld Proves Iraq War Started On False Pretenses.” Washington’s Blog, Feb 20 2013, Web. 15 April 2014. http://​www​.washingtonsblog​.com​/2013​/02​/newly​-released​-memos​-of​-donald​-rumsfeld​-prove​-knowing​-iraq​-war​.html.Google Scholar
New Orleans City Council President: “Maybe God’s Going to Cleanse Us.” LifeSiteNews, Sept 1 2005, Web. 14 Oct. 2014. http://​www​.lifesite​.net​/ldn​/2005​/sep​/05090111​.html.Google Scholar
New Orleans in Peril.” (Editorial) New York Times, Aug 31 2005, Web. 31 May 2015. http://​www​.nytimes​.com​/2005​/08​/31​/opinion​/new​-orleans​-in​-peril​.html.Google Scholar
Newport, Frank
2004 “Almost All Americans Consider World War II a “Just” War.” Gallup, June 3, Web. 21 June 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/11881​/almost​-all​-americans​-consider​-world​-war​-just​-war​.aspx.Google Scholar
2008 “Americans Favor Congressional Action on Crisis.” Gallup, Sept 26, Web. 31 May 2015. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/110746​/americans​-favor​-congressional​-action​-crisis​.aspx.Google Scholar
2010a “Americans Want BP to Pay All Losses, No Matter the Cost.” Gallup, June 15, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/140744​/americans​-pay​-losses​-no​-matter​-cost​.aspx.Google Scholar
2010b “Obama Receives 44% Approval on Oil Spill While BP Gets 16%.” Gallup, June 21, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/140957​/obama​-receives​-approval​-oil​-spill​-gets​.aspx.Google Scholar
2012 “In U.S., 77% Identify as Christian.” Gallup, Dec 24, Web. 23 March 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/159548​/identify​-christian​.aspx.Google Scholar
2006 “Little Impact of Katrina on Bush’s Overall Job Ratings.” Gallup, Aug 29, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/24283​/little​-impact​-katrina​-bushs​-overall​-job​-ratings​.aspx.Google Scholar
2011 “More Than 9 in 10 Americans Continue to Believe in God.” Gallup, June 3, Web. 21 June 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/147887​/americans​-continue​-believe​-god​.aspx.Google Scholar
2001 “Overwhelming Support for War Continues.” Gallup, Nov 29 2001, Web. 17 June 2013. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/5083​/overwhelming​-support​-war​-continues​.aspx.Google Scholar
2003 “Seventy-Two Percent of Americans Support War Against Iraq: Bush Approval up 13 Points to 71%.” Gallup, March 24, Web. 23 March 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/8038​/seventytwo​-percent​-americans​-support​-war​-against​-iraq​.aspx.Google Scholar
2009 “Views on Government Aid Depend on the Program.” Gallup, Feb 24, Web. 31 May 2015. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/116083​/views​-government​-aid​-depend​-program​.aspx.Google Scholar
Nocera, Joe
2008 “As Credit Crisis Spiraled, Alarm Led to Action.” New York Times, Oct 1.Google Scholar
Nünning, Ansgar
2007 “Grundzüge einer Narratologie der Krise: Wie aus einer Situation ein Plot und eine Krise (Konstruiert) Werden.” In Krisis! Krisenszenarien, Diagnosen, und Diskursstrategien, ed. by H. Grunwald and M. Pfister, 48–71. Munich: Fink.Google Scholar
Obama Heads to Gulf as Oil Spill Stakes Soar.” CBS News, May 28 2010, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.cbsnews​.com​/news​/obama​-heads​-to​-gulf​-as​-oil​-spill​-stakes​-soar/.Google Scholar
O’Connell, David J.
2012 “God Wills It: Presidents and the Political Use of Religion.” Columbia University, Web. 11 Nov. 2013. http://​academiccommons​.columbia​.edu​/catalog​/ac:147623.
Oil Estimate Raised to 35,000–60,000 Barrels a Day.” CNN, June 16 2010, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​edition​.cnn​.com​/2010​/US​/06​/15​/oil​.spill​.disaster/.Google Scholar
Oil Spill Seen As Ecological Disaster; Government, BP Responses Faulted.” Pew Research Center, May 11 2010, Web. 10 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.people​-press​.org​/2010​/05​/11​/oil​-spill​-seen​-as​-ecological​-disaster​-government​-bp​-responses​-faulted/.Google Scholar
Opie, John, and Norbert Elliot
1996 “Tracking the Elusive Jeremiad: The Rhetorical Character of American Environmental Discourse.” In The Symbolic Earth: Discourse and Our Creation of the Environment, ed. by J. Cantrill and Ch. Oravec, 9–37. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.Google Scholar
Palmerton, Patricia R.
1988 “The Rhetoric of Terrorism and Media Response to the ‘Crisis in Iran.’Western Journal of Speech Communication 52: 105–121. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Park, Yoosun, and Joshua Miller
2006 “The Social Ecology of Hurricane Katrina: Re-Writing the Discourse of “Natural” Disasters.” Smith College Studies in Social Work 76 (3): 9–24. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Parker, Kathleen
2001 “Silenced but Never Silent.” Positive Atheism, Oct 1, Web. 7 Oct. 2014. http://​www​.positiveatheism​.org​/mail​/eml8755​.htm.Google Scholar
Parry, Wynne
2012 “What ‘American Values’ Really Means.” Live Science, Jan 26, Web. 12 Sept. 2015. http://​www​.livescience​.com​/18154​-american​-values​-state​-union​-politics​.html.Google Scholar
Pentagon Gets PR Bulls-Eye.” O’Dwyer’s PR Daily, April 11 2003, Web. 11 Nov. 2013. http://​www​.odwyerpr​.com.Google Scholar
Perelman, Chaïm
1970 “The New Rhetoric: A Theory of Practical Reasoning.” In The Great Ideas Today, Chicago: Encyclopedia Brittanica, 264–274.Google Scholar
Pfau, Michael William
2007 “Who’s Afraid of Fear Appeals? Contingency, Courage, and Deliberation in Rhetorical Theory and Practice.” Philosophy & Rhetoric 40 (2): 216–237. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Poll: 70% Say BP Handling Oil Spill Badly.” CBS News, May 25 2010, Web. 10 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.cbsnews​.com​/news​/poll​-70​-say​-bp​-handling​-oil​-spill​-badly/.Google Scholar
Pratt, James W.
1970 “An Analysis of Three Crisis Speeches.” Western Journal of Speech Communication 34: 194–203. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Presidential Approval Ratings – Barack Obama.” Gallup, Web. 31 May 2015. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/116479​/barack​-obama​-presidential​-job​-approval​.aspx.
Presidential Approval Ratings – Gallup Historical Statistics and Trends.” Gallup, Web. 9 Sept. 2013. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/116677​/presidential​-approval​-ratings​-gallup​-historical​-statistics​-trends​.aspx.
Presidential Approval Ratings – George W. Bush.” Gallup, Web. 10 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/116500​/presidential​-approval​-ratings​-george​-bush​.aspx.
Presidential Job Approval Center – G. W. Bush.” Gallup, Web. 5 Oct. 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/124922​/presidential​-approval​-center​.aspx.
President Obama Must Reinstate Moratorium on Offshore Drilling.” Greenpeace USA Blog, April 30 2010, Web. 11 Feb. 2014. http://​www​.greenpeace​.org​/usa​/en​/news​-and​-blogs​/campaign​-blog​/president​-obama​-must​-reinstate​-moratorium​-on-​/blog​/25989/.Google Scholar
Preventive War: A Failed Doctrine.” New York Times (Editorial), Sept 12 2004.Google Scholar
Puar, Jasbir K, and Amit Rai
2002 “Monster, Terrorist, Fag: The War on Terrorism and the Production of Docile Patriots.” Social Text 20 (3): 117–148. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Quarantelli, Enrico L.
1996 “Local Mass Media Operations in Disasters in the USA.” Disaster Prevention and Management 5 (5): 1–6. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Qutami, Mais, and Suha Qutami
2013 “Exporting Democracy and Liberating Women: An Examination of a Debilitating Rhetoric.” English Language and Literature Studies, Canadian Center of Science and Education 3 (1): 122–131.Google Scholar
Rediehs, Laura J.
2002 “Evil.” In Collateral Language: A User’s Guide to America’s New War, ch. 5, ed. by J. Collins and R. Glover. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
Reisigl, Martin
2006 “Rhetorical Tropes in Political Discourse.” In The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (2nd ed., Vol. 10), ed. by K. Brown, 596–605. Boston: Elsevier. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Religion.” Gallup 2004, Web. 5 Dec. 2013. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/1690​/religion​.aspx.Google Scholar
Ricoeur, Paul
1991 “The Creativity of Language.” In A Ricoeur Reader, ed. by M. Valdés, 463–481. Harvester Wheatsheaf: Hertfordshire.Google Scholar
Riker, William H.
1990 “Political Science and Rational Choice.” In Perspectives on Positive Political Economy, ed. by J. Alt and K. Shepsle, 162–181. New York: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ritter, Kurt W.
1980 “American Political Rhetoric and the Jeremiad Tradition: Presidential Nomination Acceptance Addresses, 1960–1976.” Central States Speech Journal 31: 153–171. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Robertson, Campbell, and Clifford Krauss
2010 “Gulf Spill Is the Largest of Its Kind, Scientists Say.” New York Times, Aug 2.Google Scholar
Robinson, Michael J.
2007 “Two Decades of American News Preferences.” Pew Research Center, Aug 22, Web. 16 Aug. 2015. http://​www​.pewresearch​.org​/2007​/08​/22​/two​-decades​-of​-american​-news​-preferences​-2/.Google Scholar
Roof, Wade Clark
2009 “Presidential Rhetoric from Reagan to G. W. Bush: Another Look at Civil Religion.” Social Compass 56 (2): 286–301. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Rose, Jacqueline
2000 “Edward Said Talks to Jacqueline Rose.” In Edward Said and the Work of the Critic: Speaking Truth to Power, ed. by P. Bové. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
Rosenberg, Emily S.
2002 “Rescuing Women and Children.” The Journal of American History 89 (2): “History and September 11: A Special Issue,” Organization of American Historians, 456–465. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Rosteck, Thomas, and Thomas S. Frentz
2009 “Myth and Multiple Readings in Environmental Rhetoric: The Case of an Inconvenient Truth.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 95 (1): 1–19. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Rove, Karl
2010 “Yes, the Gulf Spill Is Obama’s Katrina.” Wall Street Journal, May 27.Google Scholar
Rutenberg, Jim, and Adam Nagourney
2009 “Melding Obama’s Web to a YouTube Presidency.” New York Times, Jan 25.Google Scholar
Saeger, Joni
2006 “Noticing Gender (or Not) in Disasters.” Geoforum (Editorial) 37: 2–3. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Said, Edward
1998 “The Myth of ‘The Clash of Civilizations.’” Media Education Foundation, Transcript (Lecture), Web. 8 Sept. 2013. http://​www​.mediaed​.org​/assets​/products​/404​/transcript​_404​.pdf.Google Scholar
2001 “The Clash of Ignorance.” The Nation, Oct 22. Google Scholar
2003 “A Window on the World.” The Guardian, Aug 2.Google Scholar
Salter, Mark B.
2003 “The Clash of Civilisations and the War on Terror(ists): An Imperialist Discourse.” Global Dialogue 5 (1–2), Web. 10 Sept. 2013. http://​www​.worlddialogue​.org​/content​.php​?id​=222.Google Scholar
Sánchez Mugica, Alfonso
2011 “U.S.–U.K. Diplomatic Differences On the Oil Spill.” Voices of Mexico 90: 108–111.Google Scholar
Sanger, David E.
2005 “Bush Compares Responses to Hurricane and Terrorism.” New York Times, Sept 22, Web. 10 Sept. 2014. http://​query​.nytimes​.com​/gst​/fullpage​.html​?res​=9400E6DD1730F931A1575AC0A9639C8B63.Google Scholar
Schlesinger, Philip
1991 “Media, the Political Order and National Identity.” Media, Culture and Society 13: 297–308. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schmidt, Brad, and Jeffrey Winters
2002 “Anxiety After 9/11.” Psychology Today, Jan 1, Web. 5 Aug. 2013. http://​www​.psychologytoday​.com​/articles​/200201​/anxiety​-after​-911.Google Scholar
Schramm, Stefanie, and Claudia Wüstenhagen
2012 “Die Macht der Worte.” Zeit Online Wissen, Web. 5 Dec. 2012. http://​www​.zeit​.de​/zeit​-wissen​/2012​/06​/Sprache​-Worte​-Wahrnehmung​/seite​-1.Google Scholar
Schulzke, Eric
2005 “Wilsonian Crisis Leadership, the Organic State, and the Modern Presidency.” Polity 37 (2): 262–285. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Seeger, Matthew W., Timothy L. Sellnow, and Robert R. Ulmer
1998 “Communication, Organization and Crisis.” In Communication Yearbook, Vol. 21, ed. by M. Roloff, 231–275. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Shaping Economic Reality: A Critical Metaphor Analysis of President Barack Obama’s Economic Language During His First 100 Days.” Gnovis, Georgetown University, Dec 22 2009, Web. 17 May 2015. http://​www​.gnovisjournal​.org​/2009​/12​/22​/shaping​-economic​-reality​-critical​-metaphor​-analysis​-president​-barack​-obama​-s​-economic​-langua/.Google Scholar
Shapiro, Robert Y., and Brice M. Conforto
1980 “Presidential Performance the Economy, and the Public’s Evaluation of Economic Conditions.” The Journal of Politics 42 (1): 49–67. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Shribman, David
1994 “Presidents and Prayers.” Boston Globe, Dec 11.Google Scholar
Simon, Julian L.
1995 “Why Do We Hear Prophecies of Doom From Every Side?The Futurist 29 (1): 19–23.Google Scholar
Singer, Ross
2010 “Neoliberal Style, the American Re-Generation, and Ecological Jeremiad in Thomas Friedman’s ‘Code Green.’Environmental Communication 4 (2). CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Skeggs, Angela
2002 “Community: The Thread that Holds Individuals Together.” Constructing the Past 3 (1), Web. 2 Dec. 2013. http://​digitalcommons​.iwu​.edu​/constructing​/vol3​/iss1​/8.Google Scholar
Smith, Craig Allen
2005 “President Bush’s Enthymeme of Evil: The Amalgamation of 9/11, Iraq, and Moral Values.” American Behavioral Scientist 49 (32): 32–47. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Smith, Craig R.
2011 “Compromising the Manichaean Style: A Case Study of the 2006 State of the Union Address.” American Communication Journal 13 (2): 23–43.Google Scholar
Smith, Gary
2008 “The American Presidency: Looking Forward, Looking Back.” Focus on Law Studies 24 (1).Google Scholar
Smith, Paul
2004 “Why ‘We’ Lovehate ‘You.’Contemporary Conflicts SSRC, Mar 26, Web. 5 Dec. 2012. http://​conconflicts​.ssrc​.org​/USA​/smith/.Google Scholar
Soltysik Monnet, Agnieszka
2012 “War and National Renewal: Civil Religion and Blood Sacrifice in American Culture.” In European Journal of American Studies, special issue: “Wars and New Beginnings in American History”.Google Scholar
Sobel, Russel S., and Peter T. Leeson
2006 “Government’s Response to Hurricane Katrina: A Public Choice Analysis.” Public Choice 127 (1–2): 55–73. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sommers, Samuel R., Evan P. Apfelbaum, Kristin Dukes, and Elsie J. Wang
2006 “Race and Media Coverage of Hurricane Katrina: Analysis, Implications, and Future Research Questions.” Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy 6 (1): 1–17. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sontag, Susan
2001 “The Talk of the Town.” New Yorker, Sept 24.Google Scholar
Spiegelman, Arthur
2005 “President Bush’s “Brownie” Quote Wins Award.” Common Dreams, Dec 30, Web. 10 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.commondreams​.org​/headlines05​/1230​-01​.htm.Google Scholar
Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty
1988 “Can the Subaltern Speak?“ In Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture, ed. by C. Nelson and L. Grossberg, 271–310. Chicago: University of Illinois Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Stephanson, Wen
2010 “American Jeremiad: A Manifesto.” New York Times, March 23.Google Scholar
Stigler, George J.
1973 “General Economic Conditions and National Elections.” The American Economic Review 63 (2): 160–167.Google Scholar
Stuckey, Mary E.
2010 “Rethinking the Rhetorical Presidency and Presidential Rhetoric.” The Review of Communication 10 (1): 38–52. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Talbot, David
2001 “The ‘Traitor’ Fires Back.” Salon, Oct 16.Google Scholar
Taliban Speech in Full.” The Telegraph, Sept 19 2001, Web. 8 Aug. 2013. http://​www​.telegraph​.co​.uk​/news​/1341010​/Taliban​-speech​-in​-full​.html.Google Scholar
Terrorism in the United States.” Gallup, Web. 11 Feb. 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/4909​/terrorism​-united​-states​.aspx.
Teten, Ryan Lee
2007 “We the People: The ‘Modern’ Rhetorical Popular Address of the Presidents during the Founding Period.” Political Research Quarterly 60 (4): 669–682. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
‘t Hart, Paul, Karen Tindall, and Christer Brown
2009 “Crisis Leadership of the Bush Presidency: Advisory Capacity and Presidential Performance in the Acute Stages of the 9/11 and Katrina Crises.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 39 (3): 473–493. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
‘t Hart, Paul, and Karen Tindall
2009 “Understanding Crisis Exploitation: Leadership, Rhetoric and Framing Contests in Response to the Economic Meltdown.” In Framing the Global Economic Downturn: Crisis Rhetoric and the Politics of Recessions, ed. by P. ‘t Hart and K. Tindall, 21–40. Canberra: ANU E Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
The 2006 Pulitzer Prize Winners.” Pulitzer Prizes, Web. 10 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.pulitzer​.org​/citation​/2006​-Public​-Service.
Thibodeau, Paul H., and Lera Boroditsky
2011 “Metaphors We Think With: The Role of Metaphor in Reasoning.” PLoS ONE 6 (2), Feb 23, Web. 11 Feb. 2014. http://​journals​.plos​.org​/plosone​/article​?id​=10​.1371​/journal​.pone​.0016782. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Tierney, Kathleen, Christine Bevc, and Erica Kuligowski
2006 “Metaphors Matter: Disaster Myths, Media Frames, and Their Consequences in Hurricane Katrina.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 604: 57–81. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Translated Text of Bin Laden Broadcast.” New York Times, Oct 8 2001.Google Scholar
Treaty Room.” White House Museum, Web. 28 Feb. 2014. http://​www​.whitehousemuseum​.org​/floor2​/treaty​-room​.htm.
Tulis, Jeffrey K.
1996 “Revising the Rhetorical Presidency.” In Beyond the Rhetorical Presidency, ed. by M. Medhurst, 3–14. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.Google Scholar
Urbina, Ian
2010 “U.S. Said to Allow Drilling Without Needed Permits.” New York Times, May 14.Google Scholar
U.S. Must Hit Reset Button with BP.” Financial Times, June 11 2010.Google Scholar
Van Alstyne, Andrew D.
2002 “Freedom.” In Collateral Language: A User’s Guide to America’s New War, ch. 6, ed. by J. Collins and R. Glover. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
Waiting for a Leader.” New York Times (Editorial), Sept 1 2005, Web. 9 Oct. 2014. http://​www​.nytimes​.com​/2005​/09​/01​/opinion​/waiting​-for​-a​-leader​.html.Google Scholar
Wagner, Norbert, and Michal Machnowski
BP: Barack’s Problem.” KAS Länderbericht, Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.kas​.de​/wf​/doc​/kas​_20108​-1522​-2​-30​.pdf​?100711170245.
Wallis, Jim
2003 “George W. Bush’s Theology of Empire.” Sojourner’s Magazine, Sept./Oct.Google Scholar
Wallerstein, Immanuel
2001 “America and the World: The Twin Towers as Metaphor.” SSRC, Dec. , Web. 5 Dec. 2012. http://​www​.ssrc​.org​/sept11​/essays​/wallerstein​.htm.Google Scholar
Wander, Phillip
1984 “The Rhetoric of American Foreign Policy.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 70 (4): 339–361. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ward Howe, Julia
1917 “The Battle Hymn of the Republic.” The Journal of Education 86 (17): 453.Google Scholar
Warner, Jamie
2008 “Tyranny of the Dichotomy: Prophetic Dualism, Irony, and The Onion.” The Electronic Journal of Communication 18: 2–4.Google Scholar
Warrick, Joby
2006 “White House Got Early Warning on Katrina.” Washington Post, Jan 26.Google Scholar
Weber, Max
2009 “Discipline and Charisma.” In Essays in Sociology, ed. by M. Weber, 262–267. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Wellford, Rachel
2016 “Who delivered the longest State of the Union and other trivia.” PBS NewsHours, Web. 14 Jan. 2016 https://​www​.pbs​.org​/newshour​/politics​/a​-short​-history​-of​-the​-state​-of​-the​-union
Wheaton, Sarah
2010 “Protesters Gather at BP Stations.” The New York Times, June 3.Google Scholar
When Fortune Frowned.” The Economist, Oct 11 2008.Google Scholar
Whissell, Cynthia M.
1989 “The Dictionary of Affect in Language.” In Emotion: Theory, Research and Experience, ed. by R. Plutchnik and H. Kellerman, 131–131. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
2009 “Using the Revised Dictionary of Affect in Language to Quantify the Emotional Undertones of Samples of Natural Language.” Psychological Reports 105: 1–13. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
White House Rejects Clerics’ Recommendation.” CNN.com, Sept 20 2001, Web. 8 Aug. 2013. http://​edition​.cnn​.com​/2001​/WORLD​/asiapcf​/central​/09​/20​/ret​.afghan​.clerics/.Google Scholar
Williams, Paul
2008 “Twenty-First-Century Jeremiad: Contemporary Hip-Hop and American Tradition.” European Journal of American Culture 27 (2): 111–132. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Williams, Ray
2014 “Why We Love Bad News More Than Good News.” Psychology Today, Nov 1, Web. 16 Aug. 2015. https://​www​.psychologytoday​.com​/blog​/wired​-success​/201411​/why​-we​-love​-bad​-news​-more​-good​-news.Google Scholar
Wilson, W.
1975 “Abraham Lincoln: A Man of the People.” In A. Link (ed.), The Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Vol. 19. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Windt, Theodor Otto, Jr.
1986 “Presidential Rhetoric: Definition of a Field of Study.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 16 (1): The Media and the Presidency, Winter, 102–116.Google Scholar
Windt, Theodore O.
1987 “The Presidency and Speeches on International Crises: Repeating the Rhetorical Past.” In Essays in Presidential Rhetoric (3rd ed.), ed. by T. Windt and B. Ingold, 91–100. Dubuque, IA: Dubuque, Kendall Hunt Publishing Company.Google Scholar
Wodak, Ruth
2009 “Language and Politics.” In English Language: Description, Variation and Context, ed. by R. Wodak et al., 576–593. Basingstoke: Palgrave.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wolfe, Dylan
2008 “The Ecological Jeremiad, the American Myth, and the Vivid Force of Color in Dr. Seuss’s The Lorax.” Environmental Communication 2 (1). CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Yardle, William, and Maria Newman
2005 “Bush Denies Racial Component to Government’s Effort After Storm.” New York Times, Sept. 12.Google Scholar
Zarefsky, David
2003 “Four Senses of Rhetorical History.” In Doing Rhetorical History: Concepts and Cases, ed. by K. Turner. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
2004 “George W. Bush Discovers Rhetoric.” In The Ethos of Rhetoric, ed. by M. Hyde, 136–155. Columbus, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press.Google Scholar
2004 “Presidential Rhetoric and the Power of Definition.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 34 (3): 607–619. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2008 “The Presidency Has Always Been a Place for Rhetorical Leadership.” In The Presidency and Rhetorical Leadership, ed. by L. Dorsey. Texas: Texas A&M University Press.Google Scholar
Zeleny, Jeff
2008 “Obama Weighs Quick Undoing of Bush Policy.” New York Times, Nov 10.Google Scholar
Zelizer, Julian
2009 “Five Turning Points of the Decade.” CNN.com, Dec 22, Web. 10 Feb. 2015. http://​edition​.cnn​.com​/2009​/OPINION​/12​/21​/zelizer​.tough​.decade/ Google Scholar
Žižek, Slavoj
2004 “Iraq’s False Promises.” Foreign Policy, Jan./Feb, pp. 43–49.Google Scholar

Government Publications

Blake, Eric S. et al.
2011 “The Deadliest, Costliest, and Most Intense United States Tropical Cyclones From 1851 to 2010 (and other Frequently Requested Hurricane Facts).” NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS NHC-6, National Hurricane Center, Web. 7 June 2014. http://​www​.nhc​.noaa​.gov​/pdf​/nws​-nhc​-6​.pdf.Google Scholar
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement
2011 “Report Regarding the Causes of the April 20, 2010 Macondo Well Blowout.” National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Sept 14, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​docs​.lib​.noaa​.gov​/noaa​_documents​/DWH​_IR​/reports​/dwhfinal​.pdf.
Duelfer, Charles A.
2004 “Comprehensive Report of the Special Advisor to the Director of Central Intelligence on Iraq’s WMD.” U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, Web. 5 Nov. 2013. http://​ www​.cia​.gov​/cia​/reports​/iraq​_wmd​_2004.
Federal Emergency Management Agency
2014 “About Hurricane Katrina.” FEMA.gov, June 24, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. https://​www​.fema​.gov​/response​-recovery​/about​-hurricane​-katrina.Google Scholar
2006 “By the Numbers – One Year Later.” FEMA.gov, Aug 22, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. https://​www​.fema​.gov​/news​-release​/2006​/08​/22​/numbers​-one​-year​-later.Google Scholar
Iraq Study Group
2006 “The Iraq Study Group Report: The Way Forward – A New Approach.” Dec. 6, Web. 5 Dec. 2013. http://​www​.usip​.org​/iraq​-study​-group​/the​-isg​-report.
Knabb, Richard D.. et al.
2005 “Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Katrina: 23–30 August 2005.” National Hurricane Center, Dec. 20, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.nhc​.noaa​.gov​/data​/tcr​/AL122005​_Katrina​.pdf.Google Scholar
National Bureau of Economic Research
The NBER’s Business Cycle Dating Procedure: Frequently Asked Questions.” NBER, Web. 31 May 2015. http://​www​.nber​.org​/cycles​/recessions​_faq​.html.
US Business Cycle Expansions and Contractions.” NBER, Web. 31 May 2015. http://​www​.nber​.org​/cycles​/cyclesmain​.html.
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States
2004 “The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States.” Aug. , Web. 2 Feb. 2013. http://​govinfo​.library​.unt​.edu​/911​/report​/911Report​.pdf.
National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling
2011 “Deep Water: The Gulf Oil Disaster and the Future of Offshore Drilling.” Report to the President, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.gpo​.gov​/fdsys​/pkg​/GPO​-OILCOMMISSION​/pdf​/GPO​-OILCOMMISSION​.pdf.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
1949 “The North Atlantic Treaty.” April 4. NATO, Web. 6 Mar. 2014 http://​www​.nato​.int​/cps​/en​/natolive​/official​_texts​_17120​.htm.Google Scholar
Obama, Barack H., and Joe Biden
2008 “Blueprint for Change: Obama and Biden’s Plan for America.” Web. 17 May 2015. https://​assets​.documentcloud​.org​/documents​/550007​/barack​-obama​-2008​-blueprint​-for​-change​.pdf.
Prados, Alfred B.
2002 “Iraq-U.S. Confrontation.” Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​fas​.org​/man​/crs​/IB94049​.pdf.Google Scholar
Romer, Christina, and Jared Bernstein
2009 “The Job Impact of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Plan.” Jan 9, Web. 17 May 2015. http://​www​.ampo​.org​/assets​/library​/184​_obama​.pdf.
Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina
2006 “A Failure of Initiative: Supplementary Report and Document Annex.” House Report 109–396, March 16, Web. 19 April 2014. http://​www​.gpo​.gov​/fdsys​/pkg​/CRPT​-109hrpt396​/html​/CRPT​-109hrpt396​.htm.
The White House
2003 “National Strategy for Combating Terrorism.” Feb 14, Web. 18, Mar. 2012. http://​georgewbush​-whitehouse​.archives​.gov​/news​/releases​/2003​/02​/20030214​-7​.html.
2003 “Press Briefing by Ari Fleischer.” White House Press Release, 24 March 2003, The White House: G. W. Bush (Archived), Web. 7 June, 2014. http://​georgewbush​-whitehouse​.archives​.gov​/news​/releases​/2003​/03​/20030324​-4​.html.Google Scholar
2002 “The National Security Strategy of the United States of America.” Sept., Web. 5 Jan. 2014. http://​www​.state​.gov​/documents​/organization​/63562​.pdf.
United Nations, Department of Public Information
2001 “Security Council Condemns, ‘In Strongest Terms’, Terrorist Attacks on United States; Unanimously Adopting Resolution 1368 (2001).” Release SC/7143, Security Council 4370th Meeting (PM), Web. 23 July 2014. http://​www​.un​.org​/News​/Press​/docs​/2001​/SC7143​.doc​.htm.
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
2012 “The Recession of 2007–2009.” BLS Spotlight on Statistics and the Recession of 2007–2009, Web. 16 June 2015. www​.bls​.gov​/spotlight.Google Scholar
U.S. Census Bureau
2005 “American Community Survey – Special Data Studies – 2005 Gulf Coast Area.” Census.gov, Web. 10 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.census​.gov​/acs​/www​/methodology​/special​_data​_studies/.Google Scholar
U. S. Congress
2009 “American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.” Feb 17 2009, Pub. L. 111–5, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.gpo​.gov​/fdsys​/pkg​/BILLS​-111hr1enr​/pdf​/BILLS​-111hr1enr​.pdf.
U.S. Congress
2001 “Authorization for Use of Military Force against Terrorists.” Sept 14, Pub. L. 107–40, S.J.Res. 23, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.gpo​.gov​/fdsys​/pkg​/PLAW​-107publ40​/pdf​/PLAW​-107publ40​.pdf.
2008 “Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (EESA).” Oct 3, Pub. L. 110–343, Web. 18 Aug. 2014. http://​www​.gpo​.gov​/fdsys​/pkg​/PLAW​-110publ343​/html​/PLAW​-110publ343​.htm.
2002 “Freedom Promotion Act of 2002.” June 23 2002, House Resolution 3969, did not pass, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. https://​www​.govtrack​.us​/congress​/bills​/107​/hr3969​/text.
2001 “Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorist Act of 2001 (USA PATRIOT Act).” Oct 26, Pub. L. 107–56, 115 Stat. 272, Web. 4 Aug. 2014. http://​www​.gpo​.gov​/fdsys​/pkg​/PLAW​-107publ56​/pdf​/PLAW​-107publ56​.pdf.
U.S. President
2001 “National Day of Prayer and Remembrance for the Victims Of the Terrorist Attacks on September 11, 2001.” Proclamation 7462, Web. 5. Mar. 2013. http://​georgewbush​-whitehouse​.archives​.gov​/news​/releases​/2001​/09​/20010913​-7​.html.


American Rhetoric
Committee for the Liberation of Iraq (Archived)
Web. 9 Sept. 2013. http://​www​.gallup​.com.
Obama-Biden Transition Project
Web. 9 June 2015. http://​change​.gov/.
Organizing For Action: Barack Obama
Presidential Rhetoric
September 11 News
The American Presidency Project
The White House: G. W. Bush (Archived)
The White House: President Barack Obama (Archived)
The White House YouTube Channel
Washington National Cathedral
Web. 18 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.wordle​.net/.

Speeches [1] 1

Bush, George W.
2000 “Speech in Florence.” South Carolina, Jan. 11.
2001a “Remarks at Emma Booker Elementary School.” Sarasota, Florida, Sept. 11.
2001b “9/11 Remarks at Barksdale Air Force Base.” Louisiana, Sept. 11.
2001c “Address to the Nation.” Oval Office, White House, Washington D.C., Sept. 11.
2001d “Speech at the National Day of Prayer and Remembrance Ceremony.” National Cathedral, Washington D.C., Sept. 14.
2001e “Bullhorn Address to Ground Zero Rescue Workers.” Ground Zero, New York City, Sept. 14.
2001f “Statement during a Call with Several World Leaders.” Camp David, Maryland, Sept. 15.
2001g “Remarks in a Meeting with the National Security Team and an Exchange with Reporters at Camp David.” Maryland, Sept. 15.
2001h “Radio Address of the President to the Nation.” Camp David, Maryland, Sept. 15.
2001i “Remarks by the President Upon Arrival.” South Lawn, White House, Washington D.C., Sept. 16.
2001j “Statement on Bringing down Osama Bin Laden.” Pentagon, Washington D.C., Sept. 17.
2001k “Address to a Joint Session of Congress Following 9/11 Attacks.” ­Washington D.C., Sept. 20.
2001l “Speech at O’Hare Airport.” Chicago, Illinois, Sept. 27.
2001m “The President’s Statement from the White House’s Office of the Press Secretary.” Treaty Room, Washington D.C., Oct. 7.
2001n “Press Conference with President G. W. Bush.” White House, Washington D.C., Oct. 11.
2001o “President Discusses War on Terrorism.” World Congress Center, Atlanta, Georgia, Nov. 8.
2002a “State of the Union Address 2002.” U.S. Congress, Washington D.C., Jan. 29.
2002b “Speech at the Graduation Exercise of the United States Military ­Academy.” West Point, New York, June 1.
2002c “Speech to the UN General Assembly.” New York City, Sept. 12.
2002d “Remarks on the Iraqi Threat at the Cincinnati Museum Center.” Ohio, Oct. 7.
2003 “Presidential Address to the Nation.” Oval Office, White House, March 19.
2005c “Remarks on Hurricane Relief Efforts.” Oval Office, White House, Washington D.C., Sept. 1.
2005d “President Tours Biloxi, Mississippi Hurricane Damaged Neighborhoods.” Biloxi, Mississippi, Sept. 2.
2005e “Briefing on the Hurricane from the Mobile Regional Airport in ­Alabama.” Sept. 2.
2005f “Remarks on Hurricane Recovery Efforts at Louis Armstrong New Orleans.” International Airport in Kenner, Louisiana, Sept. 2.
2005h “Address to the Nation on Hurricane Katrina.” New Orleans, Louisiana, Sept. 15.
2005i “Speech before the Republican Jewish Coalition.” Washington D.C., Sept. 21.
2006a “White House Press Conference.” Washington D.C., Aug. 21.
2006b “Status of the Nation and the War: The President’s News Conference.” White House, Washington D.C., Dec. 20.
2008a “Speech at the Economic Club of New York.” New York Hilton Hotel, New York, Mar. 14.
2008b “President Bush Discusses Economy.” Oval Colonnade, Washington, D.C., Sept. 18.
2008c “Address on the Economy.” Rose Garden, White House, Washington, D.C., Sept. 19.
2008d “The President’s Radio Address.” Cabinet Room, White House, Washington D.C., Sept. 20.
2008e “The President’s News Conference With President Alvaro Uribe Velez of Colombia.” Rose Garden, White House, Washington D.C., Sept. 20.
2008f“Primetime Address to the Nation.” East Room, White House, Washington D.C., Sept. 24.Google Scholar
Bush, George, and Vaclav Havel
2002 “Press Conference by US President George W. Bush and Vaclav Havel.” President of the Czech Republic, NATO Summit, Prague, Nov. 20. Web. 15 Aug. 2015 http://​www​.nato​.int​/docu​/speech​/2002​/s021120b​.htm
Clinton, William J. B.
1995 “Oklahoma Bombing Memorial Prayer Service Address.” Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, April 23.
Eisenhower, Dwight D.
1944“Order of the Day” (Statement Given Prior to the Invasion/ ‘D-Day Speech’). England, June 6.
Kennedy, John F.
1959 “Speech at the United Negro College Fund Fundraiser.” Indianapolis, Indiana, April 12.
1961a “First Inaugural Address.” U.S. Capitol, Washington D.C., Jan. 20.
1961b “Speech before a Joint Session of Congress.” Washington D.C., May 25.
1962 “Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation, Radio and Television Address.” Washington D.C., Oct. 22.
1963 “Remarks at the 11th Annual Presidential Prayer Breakfast.” Mayflower Hotel, Washington D.C., Feb. 7.
Kennedy, Robert F.
1968 “A Time of Shame and Sorrow.” City Club of Cleveland, Ohio, April 5.
King, Martin Luther Jr
1963 “Normalcy, Never Again” (‘I Have A Dream Speech’). on the steps at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C., Aug. 28.
Lincoln, Abraham
1861a “First Inaugural Address.” U.S. Capitol, Washington D.C., Mar. 4.
1861b “State of the Union Address” (First Annual Message), U.S. Capitol, Washington D.C., Dec. 4.
1863 “Gettysburg Address.” Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, Nov. 19.
Obama, Barack H.
2008 “Senate Floor Speech in Support of the Wall Street Bailout Bill.” U.S. Senate, Washington D.C., Oct. 1.
2009a “First Presidential Inaugural Address.” U.S. Capitol, Washington D.C., Jan. 20.
2009b “First Weekly Address to the Nation.” Briefing Room, White House, Washington D.C., Jan. 24.
2009c “Push for a Stimulus: Primetime Press Conference.” East Room, White House, Washington D.C., Feb. 9.
2009d “Weekly Address to the Nation.” Briefing Room, White House, Washington D.C., Feb. 14.
2009e “Remarks Upon Signing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.” Denver, Colorado, Feb. 17.
2009f “Address to a Joint Session of Congress.” Washington D.C., Feb. 24.
2010a “Remarks by the President on Energy Security at Andrews Air Force Base.” Morningside, Maryland, March 31.
2010b “Remarks by the President.” Rose Garden, White House, Washington D.C., April 29.
2010c “Remarks by the President on the Oil Spill.” Venice, Louisiana, May 2.
2010d “Remarks by the President on the Ongoing Oil Spill Response.” Rose Garden, White House, Washington D.C., May 14.
2010e “Remarks by the President on the Gulf Oil Spill.” White House, ­Washington D.C., May 27.
2010f “Remarks by the President After Briefing on BP Oil Spill.” U.S. Coast Guard Station Grande Isle Grande Isle, Louisiana, May 28.
2010g “Remarks by the President to the Nation on the BP Oil Spill.” Oval Office, White House, Washington D.C., June 15.
2014 “Remarks by the President at Hurricane Preparedness Briefing.” FEMA Headquarters, Washington D.C., May 30.
Reagan, Ronald
1983 “Remarks at the Annual Convention of the National Association of Evangelicals in Orlando.” Florida, March 8.
1986 “Speech after the Explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger.” Oval Office, White House, Washington D.C., Jan. 28.
1989 “Farewell Address to the Nation.” Oval Office, White House, Washington D.C., Jan. 11.
Roosevelt, Franklin D.
1933a “First Inaugural Address.” U.S. Capitol, Washington D.C., March 4.
1933b “Radio Broadcast, First Fireside Chat.” Washington D.C., March 12.
1936 “Fireside Chat Radio Broadcast on the Drought and the Dust Bowl.” Washington, D.C., Sept. 6.
1940 “The Great Arsenal of Democracy.” Radio Broadcast, Washington D.C., Dec. 29.
1941a “State of the Union Address 1941.” U.S. Capitol, Washington D.C., Jan. 6.
1941b “Speech to Congress after the Pearl Harbor Attack.” Washington D.C., Dec. 8.
1944 “D-Day Prayer.” Washington D.C., June 6.


Danforth, Samuel
1670 “A Brief Recognition of New-Englands Errand into the Wilderness.” An Online Electronic Text Edition, Faculty Publications, UNL Libraries, Web. 27 Aug. 2014. http://​digitalcommons​.unl​.edu​/libraryscience​/35.
1968 “An Exhortation to All: To Use Utmost Endeavours to Obtain a Visit of the God of Hosts, for the Preservation of Religion, and the Church, Upon Earth: In a Sermon Preached Before His Excellency the Governour, the Honourable Council and Representatives of the Province of the Massachusetts-Bay in N.E. On May 26, 1714. Being the Anniversary Day of the Election of Councellors of the Said Province.” Printed by B. Green: sold by Samuel Gerrish, at his shop on the north side of the town-house, Boston, 1714. In A. Plumstead (ed.): The Wall and the Garden: Selected Massachusetts Election Sermons, 1670–1775, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
Edwards, Jonathan
1741 “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. A Sermon Preached at Enfield, July 8th, 1741.” In Electronic Texts in American Studies, ed. by R. Smolinski, Paper 54. Lincoln: Libraries at University of Nebraska, Web. 23 July 2014. http://​digitalcommons​.unl​.edu​/cgi​/viewcontent​.cgi​?article​=1053​&context​=etas.Google Scholar
Mather, Increase
1676 “A Brief History of the War with the Indians in New England.” In Papers of Increase Mather: An Inventory, Harvard University Archives, Web. 22 July 2014. http://​oasis​.lib​.harvard​.edu/​/oasis​/deliver​/deepLink​?_collection​=oasis​&uniqueId​=hua28004. Google Scholar
Renewal of Covenant the Great Duty Incumbent on or Distressed Churches a Sermon Concerning Renewing of Covenant with God in Christ Preached at Dorchester in New England the 21 Day of the 1 Month 1677 Being a Day of Humiliation There on that Occasion.” Printed by John Foster for Henry Phillips, and are to be sold at his shop in the west end of the Town-House in Boston, 1677. Evans Early American Imprint Collection, Web. 22 July 2014. http://​quod​.lib​.umich​.edu​/e​/evans​/N00180​.0001​.001​?rgn​=main;view​=fulltext.
1673 “The Day of Trouble Is Near. Two Sermons Wherein is Shewed, What Are the Signs of a Day of Trouble Being Near. And Particularly, What Reason There Is for New-England to Expect a Day of Trouble. Also What Is to Be Done, That We May Escape These Things Which Shall Come to Pass.” Evans Early American Imprint Collection, Web. 22 July 2014. http://​quod​.lib​.umich​.edu​/cgi​/t​/text​/text​-idx​?c​=evans;idno​=N00137​.0001​.001.
Wigglesworth, Michael
1662 “God’s Controversy with New-England.” In Electronic Texts in American Studies, ed. by R. Smolinski. Lincoln: Libraries at University of Nebraska, Paper 36, Web. 16 Aug. 2015. http://​digitalcommons​.unl​.edu​/etas​/36.Google Scholar
Winthrop, John
1995 “A Model of Christian Charity.” In The Norton Anthology of American Literature (Shorter 4th ed.), ed. by N. Baym, 101–112. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
Cited by

Cited by 1 other publications

Gilmore, Jason, Charles M. Rowling, Jason A. Edwards & Nicole T. Allen
2020. Exceptional “We” or Exceptional “Me”? Donald Trump, American Exceptionalism, and the Remaking of the Modern Jeremiad. Presidential Studies Quarterly 50:3  pp. 539 ff. Crossref logo

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 26 december 2021. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.

Subjects & Metadata

Communication Studies

Communication Studies
BIC Subject: CFG – Semantics, Pragmatics, Discourse Analysis
BISAC Subject: LAN009030 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / Pragmatics
ONIX Metadata
ONIX 2.1
ONIX 3.0
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  2017056556 | Marc record