Words of Crisis as Words of Power
The jeremiad in American presidential speeches
The volume explores crisis rhetoric in contemporary U.S. American presidential speechmaking. Rhetorical leadership constitutes an inherent feature of the modern presidency. Particularly during times of critical events, the president is expected to react and address the nation. However, the power of the office also allows him or her to direct attention to particular topics and thus rhetorically create or exploit the notion of crisis. This monograph examines the verbal responses of George W. Bush and Barack Obama to pressing issues during their terms in office. Assuming an interdisciplinary approach, it illuminates the characteristics of modern crisis rhetoric. The aim of the book is to show that elements of Puritan rhetoric, and specifically the tradition of the jeremiad, although taken out of their original context and modified to suit a modern multiethnic society, can still be detected in contemporary political communication. It will be of interest to students and scholars of presidential rhetoric, political communication, sociolinguistics, and cultural studies.
[Discourse Approaches to Politics, Society and Culture, 77] 2018. xiii, 401 pp.
Publishing status: Available
© John Benjamins
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. The rhetorical presidency, presidential crisis rhetoric, and the American jeremiad
Chapter 3. Crisis rhetoric and the tradition of the jeremiad in 21st century U.S. American Presidential speechmaking: Analysis of President George W. Bush’s and President Barack Obama’s speeches
Chapter 4. Comparisons, conclusions, and implications
“In times of crisis, American presidents, Republican or Democrat, return to the rhetorical form of the jeremiad. But how they use it, what they transport with it, and how successful they are in their crisis management differs. In this magnificent book, Marta Neüff has greatly added to our understanding how the rhetorical presidency in America works.”
Martin Klepper, Humboldt University of Berlin
“Read through the lenses of communication studies, discourse analysis, and pragmatics, Marta Neüff offers a vigorous and incisive interpretation of 21st century presidential crisis rhetoric that both refines and challenges our understanding of the shifting strategies and increasing power of presidential communication at a time of profound transformations in the tools and spaces of political conversation. Well written and researched, this book provides important insights into the mechanism of the growing presence of presidential self-staging in the United States and beyond.”
Reinhard Isensee, Humboldt University of Berlin
“This interdisciplinary contribution provides a wealth of literature and methodology and opens new dimensions on political discourse study. It will appeal to researchers and students in fields like rhetoric, critical discourse analysis, and politics.”
Chunrong Wang and Biyu Zeng, Shanghai University of Political Science and Law / Hunan University of Technology and Business, in Journal of Language and Politics 19:3 (2020)
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2008 “Americans Favor Congressional Action on Crisis.” Gallup, Sept 26, Web. 31 May 2015. http://www.gallup.com/poll/110746/americans-favor-congressional-action-crisis.aspx.
2010a “Americans Want BP to Pay All Losses, No Matter the Cost.” Gallup, June 15, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://www.gallup.com/poll/140744/americans-pay-losses-no-matter-cost.aspx.
2010b “Obama Receives 44% Approval on Oil Spill While BP Gets 16%.” Gallup, June 21, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://www.gallup.com/poll/140957/obama-receives-approval-oil-spill-gets.aspx.
2012 “In U.S., 77% Identify as Christian.” Gallup, Dec 24, Web. 23 March 2014. http://www.gallup.com/poll/159548/identify-christian.aspx.
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2011 “More Than 9 in 10 Americans Continue to Believe in God.” Gallup, June 3, Web. 21 June 2014. http://www.gallup.com/poll/147887/americans-continue-believe-god.aspx.
2001 “Overwhelming Support for War Continues.” Gallup, Nov 29 2001, Web. 17 June 2013. http://www.gallup.com/poll/5083/overwhelming-support-war-continues.aspx.
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Simon, Julian L.
2002 “Community: The Thread that Holds Individuals Together.” Constructing the Past 3 (1), Web. 2 Dec. 2013. http://digitalcommons.iwu.edu/constructing/vol3/iss1/8.
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Smith, Craig R.
2004 “Why ‘We’ Lovehate ‘You.’” Contemporary Conflicts SSRC, Mar 26, Web. 5 Dec. 2012. http://conconflicts.ssrc.org/USA/smith/.
Soltysik Monnet, Agnieszka
Sobel, Russel S., and Peter T. Leeson
Sommers, Samuel R., Evan P. Apfelbaum, Kristin Dukes, and Elsie J. Wang
2005 “President Bush’s “Brownie” Quote Wins Award.” Common Dreams, Dec 30, Web. 10 Sept. 2014. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines05/1230-01.htm.
Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty
Stigler, George J.
Stuckey, Mary E.
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Teten, Ryan Lee
‘t Hart, Paul, Karen Tindall, and Christer Brown
‘t Hart, Paul, and Karen Tindall
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Thibodeau, Paul H., and Lera Boroditsky
2011 “Metaphors We Think With: The Role of Metaphor in Reasoning.” PLoS ONE 6 (2), Feb 23, Web. 11 Feb. 2014. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0016782.
Tierney, Kathleen, Christine Bevc, and Erica Kuligowski
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Tulis, Jeffrey K.
Van Alstyne, Andrew D.
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Wagner, Norbert, and Michal Machnowski
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2001 “America and the World: The Twin Towers as Metaphor.” SSRC, Dec. , Web. 5 Dec. 2012. http://www.ssrc.org/sept11/essays/wallerstein.htm.
2016 “Who delivered the longest State of the Union and other trivia.” PBS NewsHours, Web. 14 Jan. 2016 https://www.pbs.org/newshour/politics/a-short-history-of-the-state-of-the-union
Whissell, Cynthia M.
White House Rejects Clerics’ Recommendation.” CNN.com, Sept 20 2001, Web. 8 Aug. 2013. http://edition.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/asiapcf/central/09/20/ret.afghan.clerics/.
2014 “Why We Love Bad News More Than Good News.” Psychology Today, Nov 1, Web. 16 Aug. 2015. https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/wired-success/201411/why-we-love-bad-news-more-good-news.
Windt, Theodor Otto, Jr.
Windt, Theodore O.
Yardle, William, and Maria Newman
2009 “Five Turning Points of the Decade.” CNN.com, Dec 22, Web. 10 Feb. 2015. http://edition.cnn.com/2009/OPINION/12/21/zelizer.tough.decade/
Blake, Eric S. et al.
2011 “The Deadliest, Costliest, and Most Intense United States Tropical Cyclones From 1851 to 2010 (and other Frequently Requested Hurricane Facts).” NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS NHC-6, National Hurricane Center, Web. 7 June 2014. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/nws-nhc-6.pdf.
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement
2011 “Report Regarding the Causes of the April 20, 2010 Macondo Well Blowout.” National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Sept 14, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://docs.lib.noaa.gov/noaa_documents/DWH_IR/reports/dwhfinal.pdf.
Duelfer, Charles A.
2004 “Comprehensive Report of the Special Advisor to the Director of Central Intelligence on Iraq’s WMD.” U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, Web. 5 Nov. 2013. http:// www.cia.gov/cia/reports/iraq_wmd_2004.
Federal Emergency Management Agency
2014 “About Hurricane Katrina.” FEMA.gov, June 24, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. https://www.fema.gov/response-recovery/about-hurricane-katrina.
2006 “By the Numbers – One Year Later.” FEMA.gov, Aug 22, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. https://www.fema.gov/news-release/2006/08/22/numbers-one-year-later.
Iraq Study Group
2006 “The Iraq Study Group Report: The Way Forward – A New Approach.” Dec. 6, Web. 5 Dec. 2013. http://www.usip.org/iraq-study-group/the-isg-report.
Knabb, Richard D.. et al.
2005 “Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Katrina: 23–30 August 2005.” National Hurricane Center, Dec. 20, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/AL122005_Katrina.pdf.
National Bureau of Economic Research
The NBER’s Business Cycle Dating Procedure: Frequently Asked Questions.” NBER, Web. 31 May 2015. http://www.nber.org/cycles/recessions_faq.html.
US Business Cycle Expansions and Contractions.” NBER, Web. 31 May 2015. http://www.nber.org/cycles/cyclesmain.html.
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States
2004 “The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States.” Aug. , Web. 2 Feb. 2013. http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf.
National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling
2011 “Deep Water: The Gulf Oil Disaster and the Future of Offshore Drilling.” Report to the President, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-OILCOMMISSION/pdf/GPO-OILCOMMISSION.pdf.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
1949 “The North Atlantic Treaty.” April 4. NATO, Web. 6 Mar. 2014 http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/official_texts_17120.htm.
Obama, Barack H., and Joe Biden
2008 “Blueprint for Change: Obama and Biden’s Plan for America.” Web. 17 May 2015. https://assets.documentcloud.org/documents/550007/barack-obama-2008-blueprint-for-change.pdf.
Prados, Alfred B.
2002 “Iraq-U.S. Confrontation.” Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://fas.org/man/crs/IB94049.pdf.
Romer, Christina, and Jared Bernstein
2009 “The Job Impact of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Plan.” Jan 9, Web. 17 May 2015. http://www.ampo.org/assets/library/184_obama.pdf.
Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina
2006 “A Failure of Initiative: Supplementary Report and Document Annex.” House Report 109–396, March 16, Web. 19 April 2014. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CRPT-109hrpt396/html/CRPT-109hrpt396.htm.
The White House
2003 “National Strategy for Combating Terrorism.” Feb 14, Web. 18, Mar. 2012. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030214-7.html.
2003 “Press Briefing by Ari Fleischer.” White House Press Release, 24 March 2003, The White House: G. W. Bush (Archived), Web. 7 June, 2014. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2003/03/20030324-4.html.
2002 “The National Security Strategy of the United States of America.” Sept., Web. 5 Jan. 2014. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/63562.pdf.
United Nations, Department of Public Information
2001 “Security Council Condemns, ‘In Strongest Terms’, Terrorist Attacks on United States; Unanimously Adopting Resolution 1368 (2001).” Release SC/7143, Security Council 4370th Meeting (PM), Web. 23 July 2014. http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2001/SC7143.doc.htm.
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
2012 “The Recession of 2007–2009.” BLS Spotlight on Statistics and the Recession of 2007–2009, Web. 16 June 2015. www.bls.gov/spotlight.
U.S. Census Bureau
2005 “American Community Survey – Special Data Studies – 2005 Gulf Coast Area.” Census.gov, Web. 10 Sept. 2014. http://www.census.gov/acs/www/methodology/special_data_studies/.
U. S. Congress
2009 “American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.” Feb 17 2009, Pub. L. 111–5, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-111hr1enr/pdf/BILLS-111hr1enr.pdf.
2001 “Authorization for Use of Military Force against Terrorists.” Sept 14, Pub. L. 107–40, S.J.Res. 23, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-107publ40/pdf/PLAW-107publ40.pdf.
2008 “Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (EESA).” Oct 3, Pub. L. 110–343, Web. 18 Aug. 2014. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-110publ343/html/PLAW-110publ343.htm.
2002 “Freedom Promotion Act of 2002.” June 23 2002, House Resolution 3969, did not pass, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/107/hr3969/text.
2001 “Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorist Act of 2001 (USA PATRIOT Act).” Oct 26, Pub. L. 107–56, 115 Stat. 272, Web. 4 Aug. 2014. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-107publ56/pdf/PLAW-107publ56.pdf.
2001 “National Day of Prayer and Remembrance for the Victims Of the Terrorist Attacks on September 11, 2001.” Proclamation 7462, Web. 5. Mar. 2013. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2001/09/20010913-7.html.
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Speeches  1
Bush, George W.
2000 “Speech in Florence.” South Carolina, Jan. 11.
2001a “Remarks at Emma Booker Elementary School.” Sarasota, Florida, Sept. 11.
2001b “9/11 Remarks at Barksdale Air Force Base.” Louisiana, Sept. 11.
2001c “Address to the Nation.” Oval Office, White House, Washington D.C., Sept. 11.
2001d “Speech at the National Day of Prayer and Remembrance Ceremony.” National Cathedral, Washington D.C., Sept. 14.
2001e “Bullhorn Address to Ground Zero Rescue Workers.” Ground Zero, New York City, Sept. 14.
2001f “Statement during a Call with Several World Leaders.” Camp David, Maryland, Sept. 15.
2001g “Remarks in a Meeting with the National Security Team and an Exchange with Reporters at Camp David.” Maryland, Sept. 15.
2001h “Radio Address of the President to the Nation.” Camp David, Maryland, Sept. 15.
2001i “Remarks by the President Upon Arrival.” South Lawn, White House, Washington D.C., Sept. 16.
2001j “Statement on Bringing down Osama Bin Laden.” Pentagon, Washington D.C., Sept. 17.
2001k “Address to a Joint Session of Congress Following 9/11 Attacks.” Washington D.C., Sept. 20.
2001l “Speech at O’Hare Airport.” Chicago, Illinois, Sept. 27.
2001m “The President’s Statement from the White House’s Office of the Press Secretary.” Treaty Room, Washington D.C., Oct. 7.
2001n “Press Conference with President G. W. Bush.” White House, Washington D.C., Oct. 11.
2001o “President Discusses War on Terrorism.” World Congress Center, Atlanta, Georgia, Nov. 8.
2002a “State of the Union Address 2002.” U.S. Congress, Washington D.C., Jan. 29.
2002b “Speech at the Graduation Exercise of the United States Military Academy.” West Point, New York, June 1.
2002c “Speech to the UN General Assembly.” New York City, Sept. 12.
2002d “Remarks on the Iraqi Threat at the Cincinnati Museum Center.” Ohio, Oct. 7.
2003 “Presidential Address to the Nation.” Oval Office, White House, March 19.
2005c “Remarks on Hurricane Relief Efforts.” Oval Office, White House, Washington D.C., Sept. 1.
2005d “President Tours Biloxi, Mississippi Hurricane Damaged Neighborhoods.” Biloxi, Mississippi, Sept. 2.
2005e “Briefing on the Hurricane from the Mobile Regional Airport in Alabama.” Sept. 2.
2005f “Remarks on Hurricane Recovery Efforts at Louis Armstrong New Orleans.” International Airport in Kenner, Louisiana, Sept. 2.
2005h “Address to the Nation on Hurricane Katrina.” New Orleans, Louisiana, Sept. 15.
2005i “Speech before the Republican Jewish Coalition.” Washington D.C., Sept. 21.
2006a “White House Press Conference.” Washington D.C., Aug. 21.
2006b “Status of the Nation and the War: The President’s News Conference.” White House, Washington D.C., Dec. 20.
2008a “Speech at the Economic Club of New York.” New York Hilton Hotel, New York, Mar. 14.
2008b “President Bush Discusses Economy.” Oval Colonnade, Washington, D.C., Sept. 18.
2008c “Address on the Economy.” Rose Garden, White House, Washington, D.C., Sept. 19.
2008d “The President’s Radio Address.” Cabinet Room, White House, Washington D.C., Sept. 20.
2008e “The President’s News Conference With President Alvaro Uribe Velez of Colombia.” Rose Garden, White House, Washington D.C., Sept. 20.
Bush, George, and Vaclav Havel
2002 “Press Conference by US President George W. Bush and Vaclav Havel.” President of the Czech Republic, NATO Summit, Prague, Nov. 20. Web. 15 Aug. 2015 http://www.nato.int/docu/speech/2002/s021120b.htm
Clinton, William J. B.
1995 “Oklahoma Bombing Memorial Prayer Service Address.” Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, April 23.
Eisenhower, Dwight D.
1944 “Order of the Day” (Statement Given Prior to the Invasion/ ‘D-Day Speech’). England, June 6.
Kennedy, John F.
1959 “Speech at the United Negro College Fund Fundraiser.” Indianapolis, Indiana, April 12.
1961a “First Inaugural Address.” U.S. Capitol, Washington D.C., Jan. 20.
1961b “Speech before a Joint Session of Congress.” Washington D.C., May 25.
1962 “Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation, Radio and Television Address.” Washington D.C., Oct. 22.
1963 “Remarks at the 11th Annual Presidential Prayer Breakfast.” Mayflower Hotel, Washington D.C., Feb. 7.
Kennedy, Robert F.
1968 “A Time of Shame and Sorrow.” City Club of Cleveland, Ohio, April 5.
King, Martin Luther Jr
1963 “Normalcy, Never Again” (‘I Have A Dream Speech’). on the steps at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C., Aug. 28.
1861a “First Inaugural Address.” U.S. Capitol, Washington D.C., Mar. 4.
1861b “State of the Union Address” (First Annual Message), U.S. Capitol, Washington D.C., Dec. 4.
1863 “Gettysburg Address.” Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, Nov. 19.
Obama, Barack H.
2008 “Senate Floor Speech in Support of the Wall Street Bailout Bill.” U.S. Senate, Washington D.C., Oct. 1.
2009a “First Presidential Inaugural Address.” U.S. Capitol, Washington D.C., Jan. 20.
2009b “First Weekly Address to the Nation.” Briefing Room, White House, Washington D.C., Jan. 24.
2009c “Push for a Stimulus: Primetime Press Conference.” East Room, White House, Washington D.C., Feb. 9.
2009d “Weekly Address to the Nation.” Briefing Room, White House, Washington D.C., Feb. 14.
2009e “Remarks Upon Signing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.” Denver, Colorado, Feb. 17.
2009f “Address to a Joint Session of Congress.” Washington D.C., Feb. 24.
2010a “Remarks by the President on Energy Security at Andrews Air Force Base.” Morningside, Maryland, March 31.
2010b “Remarks by the President.” Rose Garden, White House, Washington D.C., April 29.
2010c “Remarks by the President on the Oil Spill.” Venice, Louisiana, May 2.
2010d “Remarks by the President on the Ongoing Oil Spill Response.” Rose Garden, White House, Washington D.C., May 14.
2010e “Remarks by the President on the Gulf Oil Spill.” White House, Washington D.C., May 27.
2010f “Remarks by the President After Briefing on BP Oil Spill.” U.S. Coast Guard Station Grande Isle Grande Isle, Louisiana, May 28.
2010g “Remarks by the President to the Nation on the BP Oil Spill.” Oval Office, White House, Washington D.C., June 15.
2014 “Remarks by the President at Hurricane Preparedness Briefing.” FEMA Headquarters, Washington D.C., May 30.
1983 “Remarks at the Annual Convention of the National Association of Evangelicals in Orlando.” Florida, March 8.
1986 “Speech after the Explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger.” Oval Office, White House, Washington D.C., Jan. 28.
1989 “Farewell Address to the Nation.” Oval Office, White House, Washington D.C., Jan. 11.
Roosevelt, Franklin D.
1933a “First Inaugural Address.” U.S. Capitol, Washington D.C., March 4.
1933b “Radio Broadcast, First Fireside Chat.” Washington D.C., March 12.
1936 “Fireside Chat Radio Broadcast on the Drought and the Dust Bowl.” Washington, D.C., Sept. 6.
1940 “The Great Arsenal of Democracy.” Radio Broadcast, Washington D.C., Dec. 29.
1941a “State of the Union Address 1941.” U.S. Capitol, Washington D.C., Jan. 6.
1941b “Speech to Congress after the Pearl Harbor Attack.” Washington D.C., Dec. 8.
1944 “D-Day Prayer.” Washington D.C., June 6.
1670 “A Brief Recognition of New-Englands Errand into the Wilderness.” An Online Electronic Text Edition, Faculty Publications, UNL Libraries, Web. 27 Aug. 2014. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libraryscience/35.
1968 “An Exhortation to All: To Use Utmost Endeavours to Obtain a Visit of the God of Hosts, for the Preservation of Religion, and the Church, Upon Earth: In a Sermon Preached Before His Excellency the Governour, the Honourable Council and Representatives of the Province of the Massachusetts-Bay in N.E. On May 26, 1714. Being the Anniversary Day of the Election of Councellors of the Said Province.” Printed by B. Green: sold by Samuel Gerrish, at his shop on the north side of the town-house, Boston, 1714. In A. Plumstead (ed.): The Wall and the Garden: Selected Massachusetts Election Sermons, 1670–1775, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
1741 “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. A Sermon Preached at Enfield, July 8th, 1741.” In Electronic Texts in American Studies, ed. by R. Smolinski, Paper 54. Lincoln: Libraries at University of Nebraska, Web. 23 July 2014. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1053&context=etas.
1676 “A Brief History of the War with the Indians in New England.” In Papers of Increase Mather: An Inventory, Harvard University Archives, Web. 22 July 2014. http://oasis.lib.harvard.edu//oasis/deliver/deepLink?_collection=oasis&uniqueId=hua28004.
Renewal of Covenant the Great Duty Incumbent on or Distressed Churches a Sermon Concerning Renewing of Covenant with God in Christ Preached at Dorchester in New England the 21 Day of the 1 Month 1677 Being a Day of Humiliation There on that Occasion.” Printed by John Foster for Henry Phillips, and are to be sold at his shop in the west end of the Town-House in Boston, 1677. Evans Early American Imprint Collection, Web. 22 July 2014. http://quod.lib.umich.edu/e/evans/N00180.0001.001?rgn=main;view=fulltext.
1673 “The Day of Trouble Is Near. Two Sermons Wherein is Shewed, What Are the Signs of a Day of Trouble Being Near. And Particularly, What Reason There Is for New-England to Expect a Day of Trouble. Also What Is to Be Done, That We May Escape These Things Which Shall Come to Pass.” Evans Early American Imprint Collection, Web. 22 July 2014. http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=evans;idno=N00137.0001.001.
1662 “God’s Controversy with New-England.” In Electronic Texts in American Studies, ed. by R. Smolinski. Lincoln: Libraries at University of Nebraska, Paper 36, Web. 16 Aug. 2015. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/etas/36.
Cited by 1 other publications
Gilmore, Jason, Charles M. Rowling, Jason A. Edwards & Nicole T. Allen
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 08 may 2021. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.
BIC Subject: CFG – Semantics, Pragmatics, Discourse Analysis
BISAC Subject: LAN009030 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / Pragmatics