Words of Crisis as Words of Power

The jeremiad in American presidential speeches

| Humboldt University of Berlin
HardboundAvailable
ISBN 9789027200501 | EUR 105.00 | USD 158.00
 
e-Book
ISBN 9789027264268 | EUR 105.00 | USD 158.00
 
The volume explores crisis rhetoric in contemporary U.S. American presidential speechmaking. Rhetorical leadership constitutes an inherent feature of the modern presidency. Particularly during times of critical events, the president is expected to react and address the nation. However, the power of the office also allows him or her to direct attention to particular topics and thus rhetorically create or exploit the notion of crisis. This monograph examines the verbal responses of George W. Bush and Barack Obama to pressing issues during their terms in office. Assuming an interdisciplinary approach, it illuminates the characteristics of modern crisis rhetoric. The aim of the book is to show that elements of Puritan rhetoric, and specifically the tradition of the jeremiad, although taken out of their original context and modified to suit a modern multiethnic society, can still be detected in contemporary political communication. It will be of interest to students and scholars of presidential rhetoric, political communication, sociolinguistics, and cultural studies.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. The rhetorical presidency, presidential crisis rhetoric, and the American jeremiad
Chapter 3. Crisis rhetoric and the tradition of the jeremiad in 21st century U.S. American Presidential speechmaking: Analysis of President George W. Bush’s and President Barack Obama’s speeches
Chapter 4. Comparisons, conclusions, and implications
Bibliography
Appendix
Index
“In times of crisis, American presidents, Republican or Democrat, return to the rhetorical form of the jeremiad. But how they use it, what they transport with it, and how successful they are in their crisis management differs. In this magnificent book, Marta Neüff has greatly added to our understanding how the rhetorical presidency in America works.”
“Read through the lenses of communication studies, discourse analysis, and pragmatics, Marta Neüff offers a vigorous and incisive interpretation of 21st century presidential crisis rhetoric that both refines and challenges our understanding of the shifting strategies and increasing power of presidential communication at a time of profound transformations in the tools and spaces of political conversation. Well written and researched, this book provides important insights into the mechanism of the growing presence of presidential self-staging in the United States and beyond.”
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Articles

100 Days of Gushing Oil – Eight Things to Know About How the Media Covered the Gulf Disaster.” Pew Research Center – Journalism Project, Aug. 25 2010, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.journalism​.org​/2010​/08​/25​/100​-days​-gushing​-oil​/#fn1.
100 Days of Gushing Oil – The Breaking News Never Went Away.” Pew Research Center – Journalism Project, Aug. 25 2010, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.journalism​.org​/2010​/08​/25​/100​-days​-gushing​-oil​/#fn1.
9/11 Victims List.” 9/11 Tenth Year Commemoration, EKTIMIS, Web. 19 June 2013. http://​www​.911tenthyear​.com​/911​-victims​-list​.html.
Aaltonen, Jouko
2014 “Claims of Hope and Disasters: Rhetoric Expression in Three Climate Change Documentaries.” Studies in Documentary Film 8 (1): 61–75. Crossref link
Abramowitz, Michael
2008 “Many Versions of ‘Bush Doctrine.’Washington Post, Sept. 13 2008.
Abu-Lughod, Lila
2002Do Muslim Women Really Need Saving?American Anthropologist 104 (3): 783–790. Crossref link
A Clash of Gloomy Prophets.” Time, Jan. 11 1971: 56–57.
Allen, Jodie T.
2010 “How a Different America Responded to the Great Depression.” Pew Research Center, Web. 17 Aug. 2015. http://​www​.pewresearch​.org​/2010​/12​/14​/how​-a​-different​-america​-responded​-to​-the​-great​-depression/.
Althaus, Scott L.
2002 “American News Consumption during Times of National Crisis.” Political Science & Politics, 517–521. Crossref link
Altschuter, Glenn C.
2003 “Apathy, Apocalypse and the American Jeremiad.” American Literary History 15 (1): 162–171. Crossref link
Andrews, J.
2002 “Presidential Leadership and National Identity.” In The Presidency and Rhetorical Leadership, ed. byL. Dorsey. Texas: Texas A&M University Press.
Applebaum-Sikorska, Anne
2002 “North Korea: Threat or Menace? Does North Korea Deserve Its Ranking as a Member of the “Axis of Evil”?Slate, Feb. 12 2002.
Appleby, Joyce
1992 “Recovering America’s Historic Diversity: Beyond Exceptionalism.” Journal of American History 79 (2): 419–431. Crossref link
Arnsten, Amy F. T.
2009 “Stress Signaling Pathways that Impair Prefrontal Cortex Structure and Function.” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 10: 410–422. Crossref link
Arthur, Damien
2011 “The Consequences of Rhetoric after 9/11.” State of Formation, Web. 5 Aug. 2012. http://​www​.stateofformation​.org​/2011​/09​/the​-consequences​-of​-rhetoric​-after​-911/.
Atkinson, Tyler, and David Luttrell
2013 “How Bad Was It? The Costs and Consequences of the 2007/09 Financial Crisis.” Dallas Fed, Staff Papers, 20, Web. 9 Mar. 2015. https://​dallasfed​.org​/assets​/documents​/research​/staff​/staff1301​.pdf.
Attack on Pearl Harbor.” New World Encyclopedia, Web. 10 Feb. 2012. http://​www​.newworldencyclopedia​.org​/entry​/Attack​_on​_Pearl​_Harbor.
Atwater, D.
2007 “Senator Barack Obama; The Rhetoric of Hope and the American Dream.” Journal of Black Studies 38(2): 121–129. Crossref link
Avry, Heidi
2010 “The Ongoing Administration-Wide Response to the Deepwater BP Oil Spill.” The White House Blog, Web. 20 May 2015. https://​www​.whitehouse​.gov​/blog​/2010​/05​/05​/ongoing​-administration​-wide​-response​-deepwater​-bp​-oil​-spill.
Ayotte, Kevin J.
2002 “The Art of War: Aristotle on Rhetoric and Fear.” In The Philosophy of Communication. Vol. 2, Studies in Greek Philosophy, No. 40, ed. by K. Boudouris and T. Poulakos, 45–57, Athens, Greece: Ionia Publications.
Barack Obama’s Economic Record: End-of-Term Report.” Economist, Sept. 1 2012.
Bailey, Kevin L.
2009 “An Evaluation of the Impact of Hurricane Katrina on Crime in New Orleans, Louisiana.” Applied Research Projects, Paper 304, Texas State University, San Marcos.
Balz, Dan and Bob Woodward
2002 “A Presidency Defined in One Speech.” Washington Post, Feb. 1.
Barber, Kristen, Danielle Antoinette Hidalgo, Timothy Haney, and Jennifer Day
2007 “Narrating the Storm: Storytelling as a Methodological Approach to Understanding Hurricane Katrina.” Journal of Public Management & Social Policy, Fall 2007: 99–120.
Beasley, Vanessa B.
2010 “The Rhetorical Presidency Meets the Unitary Executive: Implications for Presidential Rhetoric on Public Policy.” Michigan State University Board of Trustees, Rhetoric & Public Affairs 13 (1): 7–36. Crossref link
Belanger, Patrick W.
2005 “Language and War: The Rhetoric of George W. Bush.” Young Scholars in Writing: Undergraduate Research in Writing and Rhetoric 3: 24–29.
Bell, Katie
2011 “The Intersection of Race and Class as Exposed in Hurricane Katrina.” Drake University Social Science Journal, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.drake​.edu​/media​/departmentsoffices​/dussj​/2013​-2011documents​/KatrinaBell​.pdf.
Bellah, Robert N.
1967 “Civil Religion in America.” Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 96 (1): 1–21.
Benoit, William L., and Jayne Henson
2009 “President Bush’s Image Repair Discourse on Hurrican Katrina.” Public Relations Review 35(1): 40–46. Crossref link
Bergen, Benjamin, and Kathryn Wheeler
2010 “Grammatical Aspect and Mental Simulation.” Brain and Language 112 (3): 150–158. Crossref link
Bercovitch, Sacvan
1990 “The Ends of American Puritan Rhetoric.” In The Ends of Rhetoric: History, Theory, Practice, ed. by J. Bender and D. Wellbery, 171–190. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
1997 “The Winthrop Variation.” John F. Kennedy Institut für Amerikastudien, Working Papers, No. 95, Web. 15 April 2014. http://​www​.edocs​.fu​-berlin​.de​/docs​/servlets​/MCRFileNodeServlet​/FUDOCS​_derivate​_000000001178​/workingpaper095​.pdf.
Bestgen, Yves
1994 “Can Emotional Valence in Stories Be Determined from Words?Cognition & Emotion 8: 21–36. Crossref link
Binswanger, Mathias
2009 “Is There a Growth Imperative in Capitalist Economies? A Circular Flow Perspective.” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 31 (4): 707–727. Crossref link
Bitzer, Lloyd F.
1968 “The Rhetorical Situation.” Philosophy and Rhetoric 1(1): 1–14.
Black, Amy E.
2004 “With God on Our Side: Religion in George W. Bush’s Foreign Policy Speeches.” Prepared for presentation at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, Illinois, Sept. 2–5, Web. 8 Aug. 2013. http://​cassidyjohns​.webs​.com​/documents​/bushreligion​-1​.pdf.
Bligh, Michelle C., and Jeffrey C. Kohles
2009 “The Enduring Allure of Charisma: How Barack Obama Won the Historic 2008 Presidential Election.” Leadership Quarterly 20(3): 483–492. Crossref link
Boin, Arjen
2009 “Crisis Leadership in Terra Incognita: Why Meaning Making is Not Enough.” In Framing the Global Economic Downturn: Crisis Rhetoric and the Politics of Recession, ed. by P. ‘t Hart and K. Tindall, 309–315. Canberra, Australia: ANU E Press.
2005 “Disaster Research and Future Crises: Broadening the Research Agenda.” International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 23 (3): 199–214.
Bolton, J. R.
2002 “Beyond the Axis of Evil: Additional Threats From Weapons of Mass Destruction.” Remarks presented to the Heritage Foundation Washington, D.C. May 6, The DISAM Journal, Summer, Web. 18 Aug. 2012. http://​www​.disam​.dsca​.mil​/pubs​/V24​-4%20PDF%20Files%20By%20Author​/Bolton,%20John%20R​.,%20Axis%20of%20Evil​.pdf.
Bonnefille, Stéphanie
2013 “A Cognitive Linguistics Approach to the Rhetoric of Damage Control: B.P.’s Oil Spill and the E.P.A.’s Strategy of Communication.” Entrepalavras Entrepalavras, Fortaleza, Ano 3, 3 (1): 34–55.
Bostdorff, D.
1991 “The Presidency and Promoted Crisis: Reagan, Grenada, and Issue Management.” Presidential Studies Quarterly Fall: 737–750.
Bostdorff, Denise M.
2011 “Epideictic Rhetoric in the Service of War: George W. Bush on Iraq and the 60th Anniversary of the Victory Over Japan.” Communication Monographs 3: 296–323. Crossref link
2003 “George W. Bush’s Post-September 11 Rhetoric of Covenant Renewal: Upholding the Faith of the Greatest Generation.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 89 (4): 293–319. Crossref link
Bostdorff, Denise M., and Daniel J. O’Rourke
1997 “The Presidency and the Promotion of Domestic Crisis: John Kennedy’s Management of the 1962 Steel Crisis.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 27 (2): 343–362.
Bostdorff, D. et al.
2008 “Report of the National Task Force on Presidential Rhetoric in Times of Crisis”. In J. Aune & M. Medhurst (eds.), The Prospect of Presidential Rhetoric. College Station, Austen: Texas A&M University Press.
BP Criticism Not about Nationality, Says Obama.” BBC News, June 12 2010, Web. 7 Sept. 2014 http://​www​.bbc​.co​.uk​/news​/10300082.
BP Fared Worse Than the Obama White House.” Pew Research Center – Journalism Project, Aug. 25 2010, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.journalism​.org​/2010​/08​/25​/coverage​-bp​-fared​-worse​-obama​-white​-house​-and​-gop​-may​-be​-part​-reason/.
Brinkley, Alan
2006 “Clear and Present Dangers.” New York Times Book Review 1: 10–11.
Broder, John M.
2008 “Gore Urges Change to Dodge an Energy Crisis.” New York Times, July 18 2008.
Bryner, Jeanna
2010 “Experts: Most of the Gulf Oil Spill Won’t Be Cleaned Up.” Live Science, April 29 2010.
Brzezinski, Zbigniew
2007 “Terrorized by ‘War on Terror.’” Washington Post, March 25 2007.
Burke, Kenneth
1947 “Ideology and Myth.” Accent 7: 195–205.
Burkholder, Thomas R., and David Henry
2009 “Criticism of Metaphor.” In Rhetorical Criticism: Perspectives in Action, ed. by J. Kuypers, 97–117. Plymouth UK: Lexington Books.
Burnes, Susan
2011 “Metaphors in Press Reports of Elections: Obama Walked on Water, but Musharraf Was Beaten by a Knockout.” Journal of Pragmatics 43: 2160–2175. Crossref link
Bush: Bailout Plan Necessary to Deal with Crisis.” CNN.com, Sept. 25 2008, Web. 25 June 2015. http://​edition​.cnn​.com​/2008​/POLITICS​/09​/24​/bush​.bailout​/index​.html​?iref​=newssearch.
Bush’s Final Approval Rating: 22 Percent.” CBS News, Jan. 16 2009, Web. 30 June 2015. http://​www​.cbsnews​.com​/news​/bushs​-final​-approval​-rating​-22​-percent/.
Calmes, Jackie
2013 “Live From the Oval Office: A Backdrop of History Fades From TV.” New York Times, July 9 2013.
2010 “Obama Plans First Oval Office Speech to Put Pressure on BP.” New York Times, June 13 2010.
Campbell, David
1993 “Cold Wars: Securing Identity, Identifying Danger.” In Rhetorical Republic: Governing Representations in American Politics, ed. by F. Dolan and T. Dumm. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
Campbell, Karlyn Kohrs, and Kathleen Hall Jamieson
1978 “Form and Genre in Rhetorical Criticism: An Introduction.” In Form and Genre: Shaping Rhetorical Action, ed. by K. Campbell and K. Jamieson, 9–33. Falls Church, VA: The Speech Communication Association.
Canes-Wrone, Brandice
2001 “The President’s Legislative Influence from Public Appeals.” American Journal of Political Science 45(2): 313–329. Crossref link
Cap, Piotr
2010 “Axiological Aspects of Proximization.” Journal of Pragmatics 42: 392–407. Crossref link
2008a “Towards the Proximization Model of the Analysis of Legitimization in Political Discourse.” Journal of Pragmatics 40: 17–41. Crossref link
Capur, Ratna
2002 “Collateral Damage: Sacrificing Legitimacy in the Search for Justice.” Harvard International Review 24 (1).
Cassidy, John
2008 “Anatomy of a Meltdown: Ben Bernanke and the Financial Crisis.” New Yorker, Dec. 1.
Chapman, Terrence L., and Dan Reiter
2004 “The United Nations Security Council and the Rally ‘Round the Flag Effect.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 48. Crossref link
Charteris-Black, Jonathan
2009 “Metaphor and Political Communication.” In Metaphor and Discourse, ed. by A. Musloff and J. Zinken, 97–109. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Crossref link
Chertoff: Katrina Scenario Did Not Exist.” CNN.com, Sept. 5 2005, Web. 9 Oct. 2014. http://​www​.cnn​.com​/2005​/US​/09​/03​/katrina​.chertoff/.
Ceaser, James W.
2012 “The Origins and Character of American Exceptionalism.” American Political Thought: A Journal of Ideas, Institutions, and Culture 1.Crossref link
Ceaser, James W., Glen E. Thurow, Jeffrey Tulis, and James Bessette
1981 “The Rise of the Rhetorical Presidency.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 11: 158–171.
Chovanec, Jan
2010 “Legitimation through differentiation: Discursive construction of Jacques Le Worm Chirac as an opponent to military action.” In Perspectives in Political Discourse, ed. by U. Okulska and P. Cap, 61–82. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Cienki, A., B. Kaal, and I. Maks
2010Mapping world view in political texts using Discourse Space Theory: metaphor as an analytical tool. Paper presented at RaAM 8 conference, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Coe, Kevin, David Domke, Erica S. Graham, Sue Lockett John, and Victor W. Pickard
2004 “No Shades of Gray: The Binary Discourse of George W. Bush and an Echoing Press.” Journal of Communication, Web. 2 Jan. 2014. http://​www​.victorpickard​.com​/upload​/NoshadesofGray​.pdf. Crossref link
Cohen, Jeffrey E.
1995 “Presidential Rhetoric and the Public Agenda.” American Journal of Political Science 39 (1): 87–107. Crossref link
Coglianese, Cary
2009 “The Transparency President? The Obama Administration and Open Government.” Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper Series, Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions 22 (4): 529–544. Crossref link
Cohn, Carol
1993 “Wars, Wimps, and Women: Talking Gender and Thinking War.” In Gendering War Talk, ed. by M. Cooke, 227–246. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Cohn, Marjorie
2008 “Afghanistan: The Other Illegal War.” AlterNet, July 31, Web. 9 June 2014. http://​www​.alternet​.org​/story​/93473​/afghanistan%3A​_the​_other​_illegal​_war.
Coleman, John A.
1970 “Civil Religion.” Sociological Analysis 31(2): 67–77. Crossref link
Collet, Tanja, and Tom Najem
2005 “Word Choices in Post-9/11 Speeches and the Identity Construction of the Other.” CPSA Annual Conference 2005, Web. 9 Oct. 2013. http://​www​.cpsa​-acsp​.ca​/conference​-pres​-2005​.shtml.
Colombani, Jean-Marie
2001 “Nous Sommes Tous Américains.” Le Mond, Sept. 13.
Condit, Celeste Michelle
1985 “The Functions of Epideictic: The Boston Massacre Orations as Example.” Communication Quarterly 33 (4): 284–299. Crossref link
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2010 “Obama Defends Oil Spill Response, Cites Mistakes.” CBS News, May 27, Web. 10 April 2014. http://​www​.cbsnews​.com​/news​/obama​-defends​-oil​-spill​-response​-cites​-mistakes/.
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1991 “Inspiring Others: The Language of Leadership.” McGill University, Academy of Management Executive 5 (1), Web. 15 Mar. 2012. http://​carmine​.se​.edu​/cvonbergen​/Inspiring%20Others​_The%20Language%20of%20Leadership​.pdf.
Costenbader, Chris, Curtis Donahoe, David Dry, Stephen Harvey, and Joshua Miller
2012 “Just War, National Interest, and the Iraq War: Analyzing the Strategic Rhetoric Used to Mobilize the American Public for War.” Paper, Westmont College, Nov. 29 2012, Web. 11 Feb. 2014. http://​www​.westmont​.edu​/institute​/conversations​/2013​_program​/documents​/CostenbaderEtAl​.pdf.
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2002 “On the Homefront: Politics as Usual?Washington Quarterly 25 (1): 237–239. Crossref link
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2003 “In God He Trusts – How George Bush Infused the White House with a Religious Spirit.” London Independent, Feb. 21, Web. 8 Aug. 2013. http://​www​.independent​.co​.uk​/news​/world​/politics/.
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2012 “Barack Obama and the Rhetoric of Religious Experience.” Journal of Communication and Religion 35(1): 1–15.
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2005 “Activists Link Katrina Crisis, Iraq War.” Inquirer, Sept. 15.
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2005 “Rice Denies Race Affected Relief Effort.” Houston Chronicle, Sept. 5.
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2010 “A Destroyer Will Come Against Babylon: George W. Bush’s Oracles Against the Nation.” In A Cry Instead of Justice: The Bible and Cultures of Violence in Psychological Perspective, ed. by D. Daschke and A. Kille, 156–181. New York: T & T Clark International.
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1987 “Citty Upon a Hill.” Foreign Policy 66: 20–39. Crossref link
Dean: U.S. Must Face ‘Ugly Truth’ About Katrina.” CNN.com, Web. 17 Sept. 2014. http://​edition​.cnn​.com​/2005​/POLITICS​/09​/08​/katrina​.dean​/index​.html.
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2009 “The “Bush Doctrine”: Can Preventive War be Justified?Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy 32 (3): 843–864.
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2002 “Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior.” Science 298 (5596): 1191–1194. Crossref link
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2005 “The Divine and Profane as Hurricane Factors.” Adweek 46, Oct. 10.
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2008 “Bush To Enter Fray of Bail-Out Talks.” Financial Times, Sept. 25.
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2009 “The United States: Crisis Leadership in Times of Transition.” In Framing the Global Economic Downturn: Crisis Rhetoric and the Politics of Recession, ed. by P. ‘t Hart and K. Tindall, 43–68. Canberra, Australia: ANU E Press.
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2007 “ ‘Emerging Threats’ and ‘Coming Dangers:’ Claiming the Future for Preventive War.” In Discourse, War and Terrorism, ed. by A. Hodges and C. Nilep, 19–43. Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Crossref link
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2007 “Finding and Framing Katrina: The Social Construction of Disaster.” In The Sociology of Katrina: Perspectives on a Modern Catastrophe, ed. by D. Brunsma, D. Overfelt, and J. Picou, 24–36. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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2014 “Presidential Epideictic Rhetoric During Times of Crisis: Barack Obama’s “9/11” Moment.” UNLV, Paper 2077, Web. 10 Sept. 2014. http://​digitalscholarship​.unlv​.edu​/thesesdissertations​/2077.
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2001 “Images in Words: Presidential Rhetoric, Charisma, and Greatness.” Administrative Science Quarterly 46 (3). Crossref link
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2014 “Moral Outpouring: Shock and Generosity in the Aftermath of the BP Oil Spill.” Social Problems 61 (3): 482–506. Crossref link
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2014 “Between the Union and a United Ireland: Shifting Positions in Northern Ireland’s Post-Agreement Political Discourse.” In From Text to Political Positions: Text Analysis Across Disciplines, ed. by Bertie Kaal, Isa Maks and Annemarie van Elfrinkhof, 207–225. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
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2006 “Racial Apathy and Hurricane Katrina: The Social Anatomy of Prejudice in the Post-Civil Rights Era.” Du Bois Review 3 (1): 175–202. Crossref link
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Žižek, Slavoj
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Government Publications

Blake, Eric S. et al.
2011 “The Deadliest, Costliest, and Most Intense United States Tropical Cyclones From 1851 to 2010 (and other Frequently Requested Hurricane Facts).” NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS NHC-6, National Hurricane Center, Web. 7 June 2014. http://​www​.nhc​.noaa​.gov​/pdf​/nws​-nhc​-6​.pdf.
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement
2011 “Report Regarding the Causes of the April 20, 2010 Macondo Well Blowout.” National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Sept. 14, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​docs​.lib​.noaa​.gov​/noaa​_documents​/DWH​_IR​/reports​/dwhfinal​.pdf.
Duelfer, Charles A.
2004 “Comprehensive Report of the Special Advisor to the Director of Central Intelligence on Iraq’s WMD.” U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, Web. 5 Nov. 2013. http://​ www​.cia​.gov​/cia​/reports​/iraq​_wmd​_2004.
Federal Emergency Management Agency
2014 “About Hurricane Katrina.” FEMA.gov, June 24, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. https://​www​.fema​.gov​/response​-recovery​/about​-hurricane​-katrina.
2006 “By the Numbers – One Year Later.” FEMA.gov, Aug. 22, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. https://​www​.fema​.gov​/news​-release​/2006​/08​/22​/numbers​-one​-year​-later.
Iraq Study Group
2006 “The Iraq Study Group Report: The Way Forward – A New Approach.” Dec. 6, Web. 5 Dec. 2013. http://​www​.usip​.org​/iraq​-study​-group​/the​-isg​-report.
Knabb, Richard D.. et al.
2005 “Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Katrina: 23–30 August 2005.” National Hurricane Center, Dec. 20, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.nhc​.noaa​.gov​/data​/tcr​/AL122005​_Katrina​.pdf.
National Bureau of Economic Research
. “The NBER’s Business Cycle Dating Procedure: Frequently Asked Questions.” NBER, Web. 31 May 2015. http://​www​.nber​.org​/cycles​/recessions​_faq​.html.
. “US Business Cycle Expansions and Contractions.” NBER, Web. 31 May 2015. http://​www​.nber​.org​/cycles​/cyclesmain​.html.
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States
2004 “The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States.” Aug. , Web. 2 Feb. 2013. http://​govinfo​.library​.unt​.edu​/911​/report​/911Report​.pdf.
National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling
2011 “Deep Water: The Gulf Oil Disaster and the Future of Offshore Drilling.” Report to the President, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.gpo​.gov​/fdsys​/pkg​/GPO​-OILCOMMISSION​/pdf​/GPO​-OILCOMMISSION​.pdf.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
1949 “The North Atlantic Treaty.” April 4. NATO, Web. 6 Mar. 2014 http://​www​.nato​.int​/cps​/en​/natolive​/official​_texts​_17120​.htm.
Obama, Barack H., and Joe Biden
2008 “Blueprint for Change: Obama and Biden’s Plan for America.” Web. 17 May 2015. https://​assets​.documentcloud​.org​/documents​/550007​/barack​-obama​-2008​-blueprint​-for​-change​.pdf.
Prados, Alfred B.
2002 “Iraq-U.S. Confrontation.” Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​fas​.org​/man​/crs​/IB94049​.pdf.
Romer, Christina, and Jared Bernstein
2009 “The Job Impact of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Plan.” Jan. 9, Web. 17 May 2015. http://​www​.ampo​.org​/assets​/library​/184​_obama​.pdf.
Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina
2006 “A Failure of Initiative: Supplementary Report and Document Annex.” House Report 109–396, March 16, Web. 19 April 2014. http://​www​.gpo​.gov​/fdsys​/pkg​/CRPT​-109hrpt396​/html​/CRPT​-109hrpt396​.htm.
The White House
2003 “National Strategy for Combating Terrorism.” Feb. 14, Web. 18, Mar. 2012. http://​georgewbush​-whitehouse​.archives​.gov​/news​/releases​/2003​/02​/20030214​-7​.html.
2003 “Press Briefing by Ari Fleischer.” White House Press Release, 24 March 2003, The White House: G. W. Bush (Archived), Web. 7 June, 2014. http://​georgewbush​-whitehouse​.archives​.gov​/news​/releases​/2003​/03​/20030324​-4​.html.
2002 “The National Security Strategy of the United States of America.” Sept., Web. 5 Jan. 2014. http://​www​.state​.gov​/documents​/organization​/63562​.pdf.
United Nations, Department of Public Information
2001 “Security Council Condemns, ‘In Strongest Terms’, Terrorist Attacks on United States; Unanimously Adopting Resolution 1368 (2001).” Release SC/7143, Security Council 4370th Meeting (PM), Web. 23 July 2014. http://​www​.un​.org​/News​/Press​/docs​/2001​/SC7143​.doc​.htm.
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
2012 “The Recession of 2007–2009.” BLS Spotlight on Statistics and the Recession of 2007–2009, Web. 16 June 2015. www​.bls​.gov​/spotlight.
U.S. Census Bureau
2005 “American Community Survey – Special Data Studies – 2005 Gulf Coast Area.” Census.gov, Web. 10 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.census​.gov​/acs​/www​/methodology​/special​_data​_studies/.
U. S. Congress
2009 “American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.” Feb. 17 2009, Pub. L. 111–5, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.gpo​.gov​/fdsys​/pkg​/BILLS​-111hr1enr​/pdf​/BILLS​-111hr1enr​.pdf.
U.S. Congress
2001 “Authorization for Use of Military Force against Terrorists.” Sept. 14, Pub. L. 107–40, S.J.Res. 23, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.gpo​.gov​/fdsys​/pkg​/PLAW​-107publ40​/pdf​/PLAW​-107publ40​.pdf.
2008 “Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (EESA).” Oct. 3, Pub. L. 110–343, Web. 18 Aug. 2014. http://​www​.gpo​.gov​/fdsys​/pkg​/PLAW​-110publ343​/html​/PLAW​-110publ343​.htm.
2002 “Freedom Promotion Act of 2002.” June 23 2002, House Resolution 3969, did not pass, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. https://​www​.govtrack​.us​/congress​/bills​/107​/hr3969​/text.
2001 “Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorist Act of 2001 (USA PATRIOT Act).” Oct. 26, Pub. L. 107–56, 115 Stat. 272, Web. 4 Aug. 2014. http://​www​.gpo​.gov​/fdsys​/pkg​/PLAW​-107publ56​/pdf​/PLAW​-107publ56​.pdf.
U.S. President
2001 “National Day of Prayer and Remembrance for the Victims Of the Terrorist Attacks on September 11, 2001.” Proclamation 7462, Web. 5. Mar. 2013. http://​georgewbush​-whitehouse​.archives​.gov​/news​/releases​/2001​/09​/20010913​-7​.html.

Websites

American Rhetoric, Web. 9 Sept. 2015. http://​www​.americanrhetoric​.com/.
Committee for the Liberation of Iraq (Archived), Web. 7 Nov. 2014. http://​web​.archive​.org​/web​/20030611154222​/www​.liberationiraq​.org/.
Gallup, Web. 9 Sept. 2013. http://​www​.gallup​.com.
Obama-Biden Transition Project, Web. 9 June 2015. http://​change​.gov/.
Organizing For Action: Barack Obama, Web. 15 Aug. 2014. http://​www​.barackobama​.com/.
Presidential Rhetoric, Web. 5 Oct. 2014. http://​www​.presidentialrhetoric​.com.
September 11 News, Web. 22 June 2014. http://​www​.september11news​.com/.
The American Presidency Project, Web. 12 Dec. 2014. http://​www​.presidency​.ucsb​.edu​/index​.php.
The White House: G. W. Bush (Archived), Web. 7 June 2014. http://​georgewbush​-whitehouse​.archives​.gov​/president/.
The White House: President Barack Obama (Archived), Web. 15 May 2014. https://​obamawhitehouse​.archives​.gov/.
The White House YouTube Channel, Web. 9 June 2015. https://​www​.youtube​.com​/user​/whitehouse.
Washington National Cathedral, Web. 7 Nov. 2013. http://​www​.nationalcathedral​.org/.
Wordle, Web. 18 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.wordle​.net/.

Speeches1

Bush, George W.
2000 “Speech in Florence.” South Carolina, Jan. 11.
2001a “Remarks at Emma Booker Elementary School.” Sarasota, Florida, Sept. 11.
2001b “9/11 Remarks at Barksdale Air Force Base.” Louisiana, Sept. 11.
2001c “Address to the Nation.” Oval Office, White House, Washington D.C., Sept. 11.
2001d “Speech at the National Day of Prayer and Remembrance Ceremony.” National Cathedral, Washington D.C., Sept. 14.
2001e “Bullhorn Address to Ground Zero Rescue Workers.” Ground Zero, New York City, Sept. 14.
2001f “Statement during a Call with Several World Leaders.” Camp David, Maryland, Sept. 15.
2001g “Remarks in a Meeting with the National Security Team and an Exchange with Reporters at Camp David.” Maryland, Sept. 15.
2001h “Radio Address of the President to the Nation.” Camp David, Maryland, Sept. 15.
2001i “Remarks by the President Upon Arrival.” South Lawn, White House, Washington D.C., Sept. 16.
2001j “Statement on Bringing down Osama Bin Laden.” Pentagon, Washington D.C., Sept. 17.
2001k “Address to a Joint Session of Congress Following 9/11 Attacks.” ­Washington D.C., Sept. 20.
2001l “Speech at O’Hare Airport.” Chicago, Illinois, Sept. 27.
2001m “The President’s Statement from the White House’s Office of the Press Secretary.” Treaty Room, Washington D.C., Oct. 7.
2001n “Press Conference with President G. W. Bush.” White House, Washington D.C., Oct. 11.
2001o “President Discusses War on Terrorism.” World Congress Center, Atlanta, Georgia, Nov. 8.
2002a “State of the Union Address 2002.” U.S. Congress, Washington D.C., Jan. 29.
2002b “Speech at the Graduation Exercise of the United States Military ­Academy.” West Point, New York, June 1.
2002c “Speech to the UN General Assembly.” New York City, Sept. 12.
2002d “Remarks on the Iraqi Threat at the Cincinnati Museum Center.” Ohio, Oct. 7.
2003 “Presidential Address to the Nation.” Oval Office, White House, March 19.
2005c “Remarks on Hurricane Relief Efforts.” Oval Office, White House, Washington D.C., Sept. 1.
2005d “President Tours Biloxi, Mississippi Hurricane Damaged Neighborhoods.” Biloxi, Mississippi, Sept. 2.
2005e “Briefing on the Hurricane from the Mobile Regional Airport in ­Alabama.” Sept. 2.
2005f “Remarks on Hurricane Recovery Efforts at Louis Armstrong New Orleans.” International Airport in Kenner, Louisiana, Sept. 2.
2005h “Address to the Nation on Hurricane Katrina.” New Orleans, Louisiana, Sept. 15.
2005i “Speech before the Republican Jewish Coalition.” Washington D.C., Sept. 21.
2006a “White House Press Conference.” Washington D.C., Aug. 21.
2006b “Status of the Nation and the War: The President’s News Conference.” White House, Washington D.C., Dec. 20.
2008a “Speech at the Economic Club of New York.” New York Hilton Hotel, New York, Mar. 14.
2008b “President Bush Discusses Economy.” Oval Colonnade, Washington, D.C., Sept. 18.
2008c “Address on the Economy.” Rose Garden, White House, Washington, D.C., Sept. 19.
2008d “The President’s Radio Address.” Cabinet Room, White House, Washington D.C., Sept. 20.
2008e “The President’s News Conference With President Alvaro Uribe Velez of Colombia.” Rose Garden, White House, Washington D.C., Sept. 20.
2008f“Primetime Address to the Nation.” East Room, White House, Washington D.C., Sept. 24.
Bush, George, and Vaclav Havel
2002 “Press Conference by US President George W. Bush and Vaclav Havel.” President of the Czech Republic, NATO Summit, Prague, Nov. 20. Web. 15 Aug. 2015 http://​www​.nato​.int​/docu​/speech​/2002​/s021120b​.htm
Clinton, William J. B.
1995 “Oklahoma Bombing Memorial Prayer Service Address.” Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, April 23.
Eisenhower, Dwight D.
1944“Order of the Day” (Statement Given Prior to the Invasion/ ‘D-Day Speech’). England, June 6.
Kennedy, John F.
1959 “Speech at the United Negro College Fund Fundraiser.” Indianapolis, Indiana, April 12.
1961a “First Inaugural Address.” U.S. Capitol, Washington D.C., Jan. 20.
1961b “Speech before a Joint Session of Congress.” Washington D.C., May 25.
1962 “Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation, Radio and Television Address.” Washington D.C., Oct. 22.
1963 “Remarks at the 11th Annual Presidential Prayer Breakfast.” Mayflower Hotel, Washington D.C., Feb. 7.
Kennedy, Robert F.
1968 “A Time of Shame and Sorrow.” City Club of Cleveland, Ohio, April 5.
King, Martin Luther Jr
1963 “Normalcy, Never Again” (‘I Have A Dream Speech’). on the steps at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C., Aug. 28.
Lincoln, Abraham
1861a “First Inaugural Address.” U.S. Capitol, Washington D.C., Mar. 4.
1861b “State of the Union Address” (First Annual Message), U.S. Capitol, Washington D.C., Dec. 4.
1863 “Gettysburg Address.” Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, Nov. 19.
Obama, Barack H.
2008 “Senate Floor Speech in Support of the Wall Street Bailout Bill.” U.S. Senate, Washington D.C., Oct. 1.
2009a “First Presidential Inaugural Address.” U.S. Capitol, Washington D.C., Jan. 20.
2009b “First Weekly Address to the Nation.” Briefing Room, White House, Washington D.C., Jan. 24.
2009c “Push for a Stimulus: Primetime Press Conference.” East Room, White House, Washington D.C., Feb. 9.
2009d “Weekly Address to the Nation.” Briefing Room, White House, Washington D.C., Feb. 14.
2009e “Remarks Upon Signing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.” Denver, Colorado, Feb. 17.
2009f “Address to a Joint Session of Congress.” Washington D.C., Feb. 24.
2010a “Remarks by the President on Energy Security at Andrews Air Force Base.” Morningside, Maryland, March 31.
2010b “Remarks by the President.” Rose Garden, White House, Washington D.C., April 29.
2010c “Remarks by the President on the Oil Spill.” Venice, Louisiana, May 2.
2010d “Remarks by the President on the Ongoing Oil Spill Response.” Rose Garden, White House, Washington D.C., May 14.
2010e “Remarks by the President on the Gulf Oil Spill.” White House, ­Washington D.C., May 27.
2010f “Remarks by the President After Briefing on BP Oil Spill.” U.S. Coast Guard Station Grande Isle Grande Isle, Louisiana, May 28.
2010g “Remarks by the President to the Nation on the BP Oil Spill.” Oval Office, White House, Washington D.C., June 15.
2014 “Remarks by the President at Hurricane Preparedness Briefing.” FEMA Headquarters, Washington D.C., May 30.
Reagan, Ronald
1983 “Remarks at the Annual Convention of the National Association of Evangelicals in Orlando.” Florida, March 8.
1986 “Speech after the Explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger.” Oval Office, White House, Washington D.C., Jan. 28.
1989 “Farewell Address to the Nation.” Oval Office, White House, Washington D.C., Jan. 11.
Roosevelt, Franklin D.
1933a “First Inaugural Address.” U.S. Capitol, Washington D.C., March 4.
1933b “Radio Broadcast, First Fireside Chat.” Washington D.C., March 12.
1936 “Fireside Chat Radio Broadcast on the Drought and the Dust Bowl.” Washington, D.C., Sept. 6.
1940 “The Great Arsenal of Democracy.” Radio Broadcast, Washington D.C., Dec. 29.
1941a “State of the Union Address 1941.” U.S. Capitol, Washington D.C., Jan. 6.
1941b “Speech to Congress after the Pearl Harbor Attack.” Washington D.C., Dec. 8.
1944 “D-Day Prayer.” Washington D.C., June 6.

Sermons

Danforth, Samuel
1670 “A Brief Recognition of New-Englands Errand into the Wilderness.” An Online Electronic Text Edition, Faculty Publications, UNL Libraries, Web. 27 Aug. 2014. http://​digitalcommons​.unl​.edu​/libraryscience​/35.
1968 “An Exhortation to All: To Use Utmost Endeavours to Obtain a Visit of the God of Hosts, for the Preservation of Religion, and the Church, Upon Earth: In a Sermon Preached Before His Excellency the Governour, the Honourable Council and Representatives of the Province of the Massachusetts-Bay in N.E. On May 26, 1714. Being the Anniversary Day of the Election of Councellors of the Said Province.” Printed by B. Green: sold by Samuel Gerrish, at his shop on the north side of the town-house, Boston, 1714. In A. Plumstead (ed.): The Wall and the Garden: Selected Massachusetts Election Sermons, 1670–1775, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
Edwards, Jonathan
1741 “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. A Sermon Preached at Enfield, July 8th, 1741.” In Electronic Texts in American Studies, ed. by R. Smolinski, Paper 54. Lincoln: Libraries at University of Nebraska, Web. 23 July 2014. http://​digitalcommons​.unl​.edu​/cgi​/viewcontent​.cgi​?article​=1053​&context​=etas.
Mather, Increase
1676 “A Brief History of the War with the Indians in New England.” In Papers of Increase Mather: An Inventory, Harvard University Archives, Web. 22 July 2014. http://​oasis​.lib​.harvard​.edu/​/oasis​/deliver​/deepLink​?_collection​=oasis​&uniqueId​=hua28004.
. “Renewal of Covenant the Great Duty Incumbent on or Distressed Churches a Sermon Concerning Renewing of Covenant with God in Christ Preached at Dorchester in New England the 21 Day of the 1 Month 1677 Being a Day of Humiliation There on that Occasion.” Printed by John Foster for Henry Phillips, and are to be sold at his shop in the west end of the Town-House in Boston, 1677. Evans Early American Imprint Collection, Web. 22 July 2014. http://​quod​.lib​.umich​.edu​/e​/evans​/N00180​.0001​.001​?rgn​=main;view​=fulltext.
1673 “The Day of Trouble Is Near. Two Sermons Wherein is Shewed, What Are the Signs of a Day of Trouble Being Near. And Particularly, What Reason There Is for New-England to Expect a Day of Trouble. Also What Is to Be Done, That We May Escape These Things Which Shall Come to Pass.” Evans Early American Imprint Collection, Web. 22 July 2014. http://​quod​.lib​.umich​.edu​/cgi​/t​/text​/text​-idx​?c​=evans;idno​=N00137​.0001​.001.
Wigglesworth, Michael
1662 “God’s Controversy with New-England.” In Electronic Texts in American Studies, ed. by R. Smolinski. Lincoln: Libraries at University of Nebraska, Paper 36, Web. 16 Aug. 2015. http://​digitalcommons​.unl​.edu​/etas​/36.
Winthrop, John
1995 “A Model of Christian Charity.” In The Norton Anthology of American Literature (Shorter 4th ed.), ed. by N. Baym, 101–112. New York: Norton.
Subjects

Communication Studies

Communication Studies
BIC Subject: CFG – Semantics, Pragmatics, Discourse Analysis
BISAC Subject: LAN009030 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / Pragmatics
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  2017056556