Words of Crisis as Words of Power

The jeremiad in American presidential speeches

| Humboldt University of Berlin
ISBN 9789027200501 | EUR 105.00 | USD 158.00
ISBN 9789027264268 | EUR 105.00 | USD 158.00
The volume explores crisis rhetoric in contemporary U.S. American presidential speechmaking. Rhetorical leadership constitutes an inherent feature of the modern presidency. Particularly during times of critical events, the president is expected to react and address the nation. However, the power of the office also allows him or her to direct attention to particular topics and thus rhetorically create or exploit the notion of crisis. This monograph examines the verbal responses of George W. Bush and Barack Obama to pressing issues during their terms in office. Assuming an interdisciplinary approach, it illuminates the characteristics of modern crisis rhetoric. The aim of the book is to show that elements of Puritan rhetoric, and specifically the tradition of the jeremiad, although taken out of their original context and modified to suit a modern multiethnic society, can still be detected in contemporary political communication. It will be of interest to students and scholars of presidential rhetoric, political communication, sociolinguistics, and cultural studies.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. The rhetorical presidency, presidential crisis rhetoric, and the American jeremiad
Chapter 3. Crisis rhetoric and the tradition of the jeremiad in 21st century U.S. American Presidential speechmaking: Analysis of President George W. Bush’s and President Barack Obama’s speeches
Chapter 4. Comparisons, conclusions, and implications
“In times of crisis, American presidents, Republican or Democrat, return to the rhetorical form of the jeremiad. But how they use it, what they transport with it, and how successful they are in their crisis management differs. In this magnificent book, Marta Neüff has greatly added to our understanding how the rhetorical presidency in America works.”
“Read through the lenses of communication studies, discourse analysis, and pragmatics, Marta Neüff offers a vigorous and incisive interpretation of 21st century presidential crisis rhetoric that both refines and challenges our understanding of the shifting strategies and increasing power of presidential communication at a time of profound transformations in the tools and spaces of political conversation. Well written and researched, this book provides important insights into the mechanism of the growing presence of presidential self-staging in the United States and beyond.”
“This interdisciplinary contribution provides a wealth of literature and methodology and opens new dimensions on political discourse study. It will appeal to researchers and students in fields like rhetoric, critical discourse analysis, and politics.”



Ahmed, Leila
1992Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Ahmed, Sara
2004The Cultural Politics of Emotion. New York: Routledge.
Allswang, John M.
1978New Deal and American Politics: Study in Political Change. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Altheide, David
2006Terrorism and the Politics of Fear. Lanham MD: Rowman Altamira.
1968Poetics. London: Oxford University Press.
1975The ‘Art’ of Rhetoric. London: Harvard University Press.
Artz, Lee, and Yahya R. Kamalipour
(eds.) 2004Bring 'em On: Media and Politics in the Iraq War. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Austermühl, Frank
2014The Great American Scaffold: Intertextuality and Identity in American Presidential Discourse. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Anderson, Benedict
1983Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso.
Aune, James Aunt, and Martin J. Medhurst
2008The Prospect of Presidential Rhetoric. Austen: Texas A&M University Press.
Bacharach, Marc N.
2006War Metaphors: How the Presidents Use the Language of War to Sell Policy. Miami University (Dissertation), Oxford, Ohio. Web. 25 Nov. 2011 https://​etd​.ohiolink​.edu​/ap:0:0:APPLICATION​_PROCESS​=DOWNLOAD​_ETD​_SUB​_DOC​_ACCNUM:::F1501​_ID:miami1154105266,inline.
Bailey, Ronald
1993Eco Scam: The False Prophets of Ecological Apocalypse. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Beasley, Vanessa B.
2011You, the People: American National Identity in Presidential Rhetoric. Austen: Texas A&M University Press.
Bellah, Robert N.
(ed.) 1965Religion and Progress in Modern Asia. New York: Free Press.
1975The Broken Covenant: American Civil Religion in Time of Trial. New York: Seabury Press.
Bender, John B., and David E. Wellbery
(eds.) 1990The Ends of Rhetoric: History, Theory, Practice. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
Benjamin, D. & S. Simon
2005The Next Attack: The Failure of the War on Terror and a Strategy for Getting it Right. New York: Times Books.
Bennett, W. Lance, Regina G. Lawrence, and Steven Livingston
2007When the Press Fails: Political Power and the News Media from Iraq to Katrina. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Crossref link
Bentham, Jeremy
(ed.) 1995The Panopticon Writings. London: Bozovic, Miran, Verso.
Bercovitch, Sacvan
1978/2012The American Jeremiad. Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press.
1975The Puritan Origins of the American Self. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Bercovitch, Sacvan, and Myra Jehlen
1986Ideology and Classic American Literature. Massachusetts: Cambridge University Press.
Black, Amy E., Douglas L. Koopman, and David K. Ryden
2004Of Little Faith: The Politics of George W. Bush’s Faith-Based Initiatives. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
Bloom, Allan
1988The Closing of the American Mind. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Boin, Arjen, Paul‘t Hart, Eric Stern, and Bengt Sundelius
2005The Politics of Crisis Management: Public Leadership Under Pressure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Bormann, E.
2001The Force of Fantasy. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
Bostdorff, Denise M.
1994The Presidency and the Rhetoric of Foreign Crisis. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.
Bottici, Chiara
2007A Philosophy of Political Myth. Massachusetts: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Bovens, Mark, and Paul‘t Hart
1996Understanding Policy Fiascoes. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Bremer, Francis J.
1995The Puritan Experiment: New England Society From Bradford to Edwards. New Hampshire: University Press of New England.
Brunsma, David L., David Overfelt, and J. Steven Picou
(eds.) 2007The Sociology of Katrina: Perspectives on a Modern Catastrophe. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Buell, Frederick
2004From Apocalypse to Way of Life: Environmental Crisis in the American Century. New York: Routledge.
Buell, John, and Tom de Luca
2005Liars! Cheaters! Evildoers!: Demonization and the End of Civil Debate in American Politics. New York: NYU Press.
Buell, Lawrence
1995The Environmental Imagination: Thoreau, Nature Writing, and the Formation of American Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Buhite, Russell D., and David W. Levy
(eds.) 1992FDR’s Fireside Chats. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Burke, Kenneth
1969A Grammar of Motives. Berkley: University of California Press.
1966Language As Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method. Berkley: University of California Press.
1990Rhetoric of Motives. Berkley: University of California Press.
1970The Rhetoric of Religion: Studies in Logology. Berkley: University of California Press.
Burns, Arthur F., and Wesley C. Mitchell
1946Measuring Business Cycles. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Bush, George W.
2010Decision Points. New York: Random House.
Campbell, Ballard C.
2008Disasters, Accidents, and Crises in American History: A Reference Guide to Nation’s Most Catastrophic Events. Facts on File Library of American History.
Campbell, David
1998Writing Security: United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of Identity. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Cap, Piotr
2006Legitimization in political discourse: A cross-disciplinary perspective on the modern US war rhetoric. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Press.
2017The Language of Fear: Communication Threat in Public Discourse. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Crossref link
2008bLegitimization in Political Discourse: A Cross-Disciplinary Perspective on the Modern U.S. War Rhetoric (2nd ed.), New Castle, UK: Cambridge Scholars Press.
2013Proximization: The Pragmatics of Symbolic Distance Crossing. John Benjamins, Amsterdam. Crossref link
Carlson, John D., and Jonathan H. Ebel
(eds.) 2012From Jeremiad to Jihad: Religion, Violence, and America. Berkeley: University of California Press. Crossref link
Carver, Terrell, and Jernej Pikalo
2008Political Language and Metaphor: Interpreting and Changing the World. New York/London: Routledge.
Chapp, Christopher B.
2012Religious Rhetoric and American Politics: The Endurance of Civil Religion in Electoral Campaigns. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Crossref link
Charteris-Black, Jonathan
2005Politicians and Rhetoric: The Persuasive Power of Metaphor. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Crossref link
Chomsky, Noam
1997Media Control: The Spectacular Achievements of Propaganda. New York: Seven Stories Press.
2002Pirates And Emperors, Old And New: International Terrorism In The Real World. Cambridge, Massachusetts: South End Press.
Chilton, Paul
2004Analysing Political Discourse: Theory and Practice. London and New York: Routledge.
Cicero, Marcus T.
1970On Oratory and Orators. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press.
Collins, John, and Ross Glover
(eds.) 2002Collateral Language: A User’s Guide to America’s New War. New York: New York University Press.
Connoly, William E.
1995The Ethos of Pluralisation. Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press.
Conroy, Hillary, and Harry Wray
(eds.) 1990Pearl Harbor: Reexamined: Prologue to the Pacific War. Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press.
Coogan, Michael D.
2009A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament. New York: Oxford University Press.
Correnti, Laura
2015What a President Says Matters: An Analysis of Presidential Responses in Times of Economic Crisis. A Seniors Honors Thesis Submitted to the Department of Communication of Boston College, Web. 25 June 2015 http://​www​.bc​.edu​/content​/dam​/files​/schools​/cas​_sites​/communication​/pdf​/thesis10​.correnti​.pdf.
Darsey, James F.
1997The Prophetic Tradition and Radical Rhetoric in America. New York: NYU Press.
Daschke, Dereck, and Andrew Kille
(eds.) 2010A Cry Instead of Justice: The Bible and Cultures of Violence in Psychological Perspective. New York: T & T Clark International.
Davis, William T.
(ed.) 1908Bradford’s History of Plymouth Plantation, 1606–1646. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, Electronic Edition, copyright 2003, Web. 24 Nov. 2013 http://​mith​.umd​.edu/​/eada​/html​/display​.php​?docs​=bradford​_history​.xml.
Denton, Robert E., Jr.
(ed.) 2012The George W. Bush Presidency: A Rhetorical Perspective. Lanham: Lexington Books.
DiMaggio, Anthony R.
2008Mass Media, Mass Propaganda: Examining American News in the War on Terror. Lanham: Lexington Books.
Domke, David
2004God Willing? Political Fundamentalism in the White House, the “War on Terror,” and the Echoing Press. Michigan: Pluto Press.
Domke, David, and Kevin Coe
2010The God Strategy: How Religion Became a Political Weapon in America. New York: Oxford University Press.
Dorsey, Leroy G.
(ed.) 2008The Presidency and Rhetorical Leadership. Texas: Texas A&M University Press.
Duff, David
1999Modern Genre Theory. Edinburgh UK: Pearson Education Limited.
Dunmire, Patricia L.
2011Projecting the Future through Political Discourse. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Dunn, Charles
(ed.) 2013American Exceptionalism: The Origins, History, and Future of the Nation’s Greatest Strength. Plymouth, MA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Dyson, Michael Eric
2006Come Hell or High Water: Hurricane Katrina and the Color of Disaster. New York: Basic Books.
Edwards, Jason, and David Weiss
(eds.) 2011The Rhetoric of American Exceptionalism: Critical Essays. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co.
Elliott, Emory
1975Power And The Pulpit In Puritan New England. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Ellis, Richard J.
1993American Political Cultures. New York: Oxford University Press.
(ed.) 1999Speaking of the People: The Rhetorical Presidency in Historical Perspective. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
Fairclough, Norman, and Clive Holes
1995Critical Discourse Analysis: The Critical Study of Language. London: Longman.
Faludi, Susan
2007The Terror Dream: Fear and Fantasy in Post-9/11 America. New York: Metropolitan Books.
Fiebig-von Hase, Ragnhild, and Ursula Lehmkuhl
(eds.) 1997Enemy Images in American History. Providence, RI: Berghahn Books.
Finnegan, Lisa
2007No Questions Asked. News Coverage Since 9/11. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Fornieri, Joseph R.
2003Abraham Lincoln’s Political Faith. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press.
Foucault, Michel
1995Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Vintage Books.
Friedman, Thomas L.
2008Hot, Flat, and Crowded: Why We Need a Green Revolution-and How It Can Renew America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Gatta, John
2004Making Nature Sacred: Literature, Religion, and Environment in America from the Puritans to the Present. New York: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
Gavins, Joanna
2007Text World Theory: An Introduction: An Introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Crossref link
Gilbert, Gustave M.
1947Nuremberg Diary. New York: Farrar, Straus and Company.
Gilmour, Michael J.
2004Tangled Up in the Bible: Bob Dylan and Scripture. New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group.
Gore, Albert A.
2007An Inconvenient Truth: The Crisis of Global Warming. New York: Viking.
Greene, Helen Taylor, and Shaun L. Gabbidon
(eds.) 2009Encyclopedia of Race and Crime. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications. Crossref link
Griffin, Em
2009A First Look at Communication Theory (7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Gutterman, David S., and Andrew R. Murphy
(eds.) 2006Religion, Politics, and American Identity. Lanham: Lexington Books.
Hart, Christopher
2010Critical discourse analysis and cognitive science: New perspectives on immigration discourse. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Crossref link
2014Discourse, Grammar and Ideology: Functional and Cognitive Perspective. London and New York: Bloomsbury.
Hart, Christopher, and Piotr Cap
2014Contemporary Critical Discourse Studies. London: Bloomsbury.
Hart, Roderick P.
2000Political Keywords: Using Language That Uses Us. Oxford University Press: New York.
1977The Political Pulpit. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press.
1987The Sound of Leadership. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
1984Verbal Style and the Presidency: A Computer-Based Analysis. New York: New York Academic Press.
Hartman, Chester W., and Gregory D. Squires
(eds.) 2006There is No Such Thing as a Natural Disaster: Race, Class, and Hurricane Katrina. New York: Routledge.
Harvey, David
2005The New Imperialism. UK: Oxford University Press.
Hendricks, John Allen, and Robert E. Denton Jr.
(eds.) 2010Communicator-in-Chief: How Barack Obama Used New Media Technology to Win the White House. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Herrmann, Sebastian M.
2014Presidential Unrealities Epistemic Panic, Cultural Work, and the US Presidency. Heidelberg: Winter Verlag.
Hidalgo, Danielle, and Kristen Barber
(eds.) 2007Forthcoming. Narrating the Storm: Sociological Stories of Hurricane Katrina. Oxford: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Hodges, Adam
2011The “War on Terror” Narrative: Discourse and Intertextuality in the Construction and Contestation of Sociopolitical Reality. New York: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
Hodges, Adam, and Chad Nilep
(eds.) 2007Discourse, War and Terrorism. Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Hogan, Michael
2006Woodrow Wilson’s Western Tour: Rhetoric, Public Opinion, And the League of Nations. USA: Library of Congress.
Holloway, Diane
2005Who Killed New Orleans?: Mother Nature vs. Human Nature. Nebraska: iUniverse, Lincoln.
Houck, Davis W.
2001Rhetoric as Currency: Hoover, Roosevelt, and the Great Depression. Austin Texas: Texas A&M University Press.
Howard-Pitney, David
1990The Afro-American Jeremiad: Appeals for Justice in America. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Hughes, Richard T.
2004Myths America Lives By. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press.
Huntington, Samuel P.
1997A Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of the World. New Delhi, India: Penguin Books.
Hyde, Michael J.
(ed.) 2004The Ethos of Rhetoric. Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press.
Ignatieff, Michael
(ed.) 2005American Exceptionalism and Human Rights. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Jasinski, James
2001Sourcebook on Rhetoric: Key Concepts in Contemporary Rhetorical Studies. California, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Crossref link
Jendrysik, Mark Stephan
2007Modern Jeremiahs: Contemporary Visions of American Decline. Lanham: Lexington Books.
Jewett, Robert, and John S. Lawrence
2004Captain America and the Crusade Against Evil: The Dilemma of Zealous Nationalism. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing.
Jowett, Garth S., and Victoria O’Donnell
2006Propaganda & Persuasion. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
Kaal, Bertie, Isa Maks, and Annemarie van Elfrinkhof
(eds.) 2014From Text to Political Positions: TextAnalysis Across Disciplines. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Kellner, Douglas
1995Media Culture. Cultural Studies, Identity, and Politics Between the Modern and the Postmodern. New York: Routledge. Crossref link
2003From 9/11 to Terror War: The Dangers of the Bush Legacy. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Lanham.
2005Media Spectacle and the Crisis of Democracy. Colorado: Paradigm Press.
Kepel, Gilles
2004The War For Muslim Minds: Islam And The West. London: Belknap Press.
Kiewe, Amos, and Davis W. Houck
1991A Shining City on a Hill: Ronald Reagan’s Economic Rhetoric, 1951–1989. New York: Praeger.
Kiewe, Amos
(ed.) 1994The Modern Presidency and Crisis Rhetoric. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Killingsworth, M. Jimmie, and Jacqueline S. Palmer
2012Ecospeak: Rhetoric and Environmental Politics in America. Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press.
Kuypers, Jim A.
2009Presidential Crisis Rhetoric and the Press in the Post-Cold War World. Lexington Books.
LaHaye, Tim, and Jerry B. Jenkins
2011Left Behind: A Novel of the Earth’s Last Days, Left Behind Series. Colorado Springs: Tyndale House Publishers.
Lakoff, George
1996Moral Politics: How Liberals and Conservatives Think. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
2006Whose Freedom? The Battle over America’s Most Important Idea. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
2009aThe Political Mind: A Cognitive Scientist’s Guide to Your Brain and Its Politics. New York: Viking Penguin.
Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson
1980Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lakoff, George, and Elisabeth Wehling
2012The Little Blue Book: The Essential Guide for Thinking and Talking Democratic. New York: Free Press.
Laracey, Melvin C.
2002Presidents and the People: The Partisan Story of Going Public. Texas: Texas A&M University Press.
Levitt, Jeremy I., and Matthew C. Whitaker
(eds.) 2009Hurricane Katrina: America’s Unnatural Disaster. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Crossref link
Lincoln, Bruce
2003Holy Terrors: Thinking About Religion After September 11. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press.
Link, Arthur S.
(ed.) 1975The Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Vol. 19, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Lipset, Seymour Martin
1996American Exceptionalism: A Double-Edged Sword. New York: Norton.
Mather, Cotton
1689Memorable Providence, Relating to Witchcraft and Possessions. Web. 17 Jan. 2014. http://​law2​.umkc​.edu​/faculty​/projects​/ftrials​/salem​/ASA​_MATH​.HTM.
Madsen, Deborah L.
1998American Exceptionalism. Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi.
Makau, Josina M., and Debian L. Marty
2001Cooperative Argumentation: A Model for Deliberative Community. Illinois: Waveland Press.
Martin, J. R., and Ruth Wodak
(eds.) 2003Re/reading the Past: Critical and Functional Perspectives on Time and Value. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: John Benjamins Publishing. Crossref link
Mausbach, Wilfried, Dietmar Schloss, and Martin Thunert
2012The American Presidency: Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Heidelberg.
McKenna, George
2007The Puritan Origins of American Patriotism. USA: Library of Congress.
McLuhan, Marshall
2002The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Medhurst, Martin J.
(ed.) 1996Beyond the Rhetorical Presidency. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.
Mey, Jacob L.
2001Pragmatics: An Introduction (2nd ed.). Oxford, England: Wiley-Blackwell.
Milkis, Sidney M., and Michael Nelson
1999The American Presidency: Origins and Development, 1776–1998. Washington, D. C.: CQ Press.
Miller, Perry
1958Errand into the Wilderness. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
1967Nature’s Nation. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard-Belknap Press. Crossref link
1982The New England Mind: The Seventeenth Century. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
1953/1981The New England Mind: From Colony to Province. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Moses, Wilson J.
1982Black Messiahs and Uncle Toms: Social and Literary Manipulations of a Religious Myth. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Morone, James A.
2003Hellfire Nation: The Politics of Sin in American History. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Mueller, John E.
1973War, Presidents, and Public Opinion. New York: Jon Wiley & Sons.
Murphy, Andrew
2008Prodigal Nation: Moral Decline and Divine Punishment from New England to 9/11. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
Nacos, Brigitte L.
2007Mass-Mediated Terrorism: The Central Role of the Media in Terrorism and Counterterrorism. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Neustadt, Richard E.
1990Presidential Power: The Politics of Leadership, with Reflections on Johnson and Nixon. New York: Free Press.
Obama, Barack
2008The Audacity of Hope. New York: Vintage Books.
Perelman, Chaïm, and Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca
1969The New Rhetoric: A Treatise on Argumentation. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
Perloff, Richard M.
1998Political Communication: Politics, Press, and Public in America. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Pierard, Richard V., and Robert D. Linder
1988Civil Religion and the Presidency. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Academic Books.
Pious, Richard
1979The American Presidency. New York: Basic Books.
Platt, Rutherford
1999Disasters and Democracy: The Politics of Extreme Natural Events. Washington D.C.: Island Press.
Plouffe, David
2009The Audacity to Win. New York: Viking.
Pludowski, Tomasz
(ed.) 2007How the World’s News Media Reacted to 9/11: Essays from Around the Globe. Spokane, Washington: Marquette Books LLC.
Prett Ewing, Katherine
(ed.) 2008Being and Belonging: Muslims in the United States since 9/11. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Prizel, Ilya
1998National Identity and Foreign Policy: Nationalism and Leadership in Poland, Russia, and Ukraine. Cambridge Massachusetts: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Pyszczynski, Tom, Sheldon Solomon, and Jeff Greenberg
2003In the Wake of 9/11: The Psychology of Terror. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. Crossref link
Quarantelli, Enrico L.
1998What Is Disaster? Perspectives on the Question. London: Routledge.
Rampton, Sheldon, and John Stauber
2003Weapons of Mass Deception: The Uses of Propaganda in Bush’s War on Iraq. New York: Tarcher/Penguin.
Renn, Stephen D.
2008The Expository Dictionary of Bible Words. Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers.
Ricoeur, Paul
1978The Rule of Metaphor. London: Routledge & Kegan.
Ritter, Kurt, and Martin J. Medhurst
(eds.) 2003Presidential Speechwriting: From the New Deal to the Reagan Revolution and Beyond. United States: Library of Congress.
Roberts, Albert R.
(ed.) 2005Crisis Intervention Handbook: Assessment, Treatment, and Research. New York: Oxford University Press.
Rock, Stephan R.
2001The Views and Influence of U.S. Christians and Christian Organizations. New York: Continuum.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques
1968Social Contract. London: Penguin Classics.
Rozario, Kevin
2007The Culture of Calamity: Disaster and the Making of Modern America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Said, Edward
1979Orientalism. London: Vintage Books.
Schifferes, Steve, and Richard Roberts
(eds.) 2014The Media and Financial Crises: Comparative and Historical Perspectives. London: Routledge.
Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr.
2004The Imperial Presidency. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Shogan, Colleen J.
2006The Moral Politics of American Presidents. Austen: Texas University Press.
Silberstein, Sandra
2004War of Words: Language, Politics and 9/11. London: Routledge.
Singer, Eleanor T., and Phyllis M. Edreny
1993Reporting Risk: How the Mass Media Portray Accidents, Diseases, Disasters, and Other Hazards. New York: Russell Sage.
Skrimshire, Stefan
2008Politics of Fear, Practices of Hope. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.
Smith, Craig Allen, and Kathy B. Smith
1994The White House Speaks: Presidential Leadership as Persuasion. Westport CT: Praeger.
Smith, Gary S.
2006Faith and the Presidency From George Washington to George W. Bush. New York: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
Sorkin, Andrew Ross
2010Too Big to Fail. New York: Penguin Books.
Stout, Harry S.
1986The New England Soul: Preaching and Religious Culture in Colonial New England. New York: Oxford University Press.
Stuckey, Mary E.
1991The President as Interpreter-In-Chief. Chatham, New Jersey: Chatham House Publishers.
2011Defining Americans: The Presidency and National Identity. Kansas City: University Press of Kansas.
Tackach, James
2002Lincoln’s Moral Vision. Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi.
Taylor, Philip M.
1992War and the Media: Propaganda and Persuasion in the Gulf War. UK: Manchester University Press.
‘t Hart, Paul, and Karen Tindall
2009Framing the Global Economic Downturn: Crisis Rhetoric and the Politics of Recessions. Canberra: ANU E Press. Crossref link
Thomas, Frank A.
2012American Dream 2.0: A Christian Way Out of the Great Recession. Nashville, Tennessee: Abingdon Press.
Thomas, Katharina E.
2009Abraham Lincoln’s ‘Gettysburg Address’: The Rhetoric of American Civil Religion. Munich: GRIN Publishing GmbH.
Thompson, Benjamin
1676New England’s Crisis. Boston: John Fowter, Web. 17. Aug. 2013. https://​archive​.org​/stream​/newenglandscris00hunngoog#page​/n5​/mode​/2up.
Thompson, John Arthur
1980The Book of Jeremiah: The New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.
Thomas, W. & D. Thomas
1928The Child in America: Behavior Problems and Programs. New York: Knopf.
Tocqueville, Alexis de
2003Democracy in America. New York: Penguin Classics.
Troy, Gil
2005Morning in America: How Ronald Reagan Invented the 1980’s. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Tulis, Jeffrey K.
1987The Rhetorical Presidency. Princeton New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Van Dijk, Teun A.
1998Ideology: A Multidisciplinary Approach. London: Sage Publications.
Weber, Max
1978Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology. Berkeley: University of California Press.
1992The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. New York: Routledge.
Werth, Paul
1999Text Worlds: Representing Conceptual Space in Discourse. Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd.
Whitt, L.
1954The Jacksonians: A Study in Administrative History, 1829–1861. New York: Free Press.
Whitt, David, and John Perlich
2014 (eds.). Myth in the Modern World: Essays on Intersections with Ideology and Culture. North Carolina: McFarland & Company.
Wigglesworth, Michael
1662The Day of Doom: Or, A Poetical Description of the Great and Last Judgment: With Other Poems. Printed by B. Green, and J. Allen, for Benjamin Eliot, at his shop under the west end of the town-house, Boston, 1701. (5th ed.) Microform version available in the Readex Early American Imprints series.
Windt, Theodore O., and Beth Ingold
(eds.) 1992Essays in Presidential Rhetoric (3rd ed.), Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt Publishing Company.
Windt, Theodore O.
1990Presidents and Protestors: Political Rhetoric in the 1960. Tuscaloosa Alabama: The University of Alabama Press.
Wodak, Ruth, and Michael Meyer
2001Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Sage Publications. Crossref link
Wodak, Ruth, Rudolf de Cillia, Martin Reisigl, and Johann Wolfgang Unger
2009The Discursive Construction of National Identity. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Woodward, Bob
2007Bush at War. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Zulaika, Joseba, and William Douglass
1996Terror and Taboo: The Follies, Fables, and Faces of Terrorism. New York: Routledge.


100 Days of Gushing Oil – Eight Things to Know About How the Media Covered the Gulf Disaster.” Pew Research Center – Journalism Project, Aug. 25 2010, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.journalism​.org​/2010​/08​/25​/100​-days​-gushing​-oil​/#fn1.
100 Days of Gushing Oil – The Breaking News Never Went Away.” Pew Research Center – Journalism Project, Aug. 25 2010, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.journalism​.org​/2010​/08​/25​/100​-days​-gushing​-oil​/#fn1.
9/11 Victims List.” 9/11 Tenth Year Commemoration, EKTIMIS, Web. 19 June 2013. http://​www​.911tenthyear​.com​/911​-victims​-list​.html.
Aaltonen, Jouko
2014 “Claims of Hope and Disasters: Rhetoric Expression in Three Climate Change Documentaries.” Studies in Documentary Film 8 (1): 61–75. Crossref link
Abramowitz, Michael
2008 “Many Versions of ‘Bush Doctrine.’Washington Post, Sept. 13 2008.
Abu-Lughod, Lila
2002Do Muslim Women Really Need Saving?American Anthropologist 104 (3): 783–790. Crossref link
A Clash of Gloomy Prophets.” Time, Jan. 11 1971: 56–57.
Allen, Jodie T.
2010 “How a Different America Responded to the Great Depression.” Pew Research Center, Web. 17 Aug. 2015. http://​www​.pewresearch​.org​/2010​/12​/14​/how​-a​-different​-america​-responded​-to​-the​-great​-depression/.
Althaus, Scott L.
2002 “American News Consumption during Times of National Crisis.” Political Science & Politics, 517–521. Crossref link
Altschuter, Glenn C.
2003 “Apathy, Apocalypse and the American Jeremiad.” American Literary History 15 (1): 162–171. Crossref link
Andrews, J.
2002 “Presidential Leadership and National Identity.” In The Presidency and Rhetorical Leadership, ed. byL. Dorsey. Texas: Texas A&M University Press.
Applebaum-Sikorska, Anne
2002 “North Korea: Threat or Menace? Does North Korea Deserve Its Ranking as a Member of the “Axis of Evil”?Slate, Feb. 12 2002.
Appleby, Joyce
1992 “Recovering America’s Historic Diversity: Beyond Exceptionalism.” Journal of American History 79 (2): 419–431. Crossref link
Arnsten, Amy F. T.
2009 “Stress Signaling Pathways that Impair Prefrontal Cortex Structure and Function.” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 10: 410–422. Crossref link
Arthur, Damien
2011 “The Consequences of Rhetoric after 9/11.” State of Formation, Web. 5 Aug. 2012. http://​www​.stateofformation​.org​/2011​/09​/the​-consequences​-of​-rhetoric​-after​-911/.
Atkinson, Tyler, and David Luttrell
2013 “How Bad Was It? The Costs and Consequences of the 2007/09 Financial Crisis.” Dallas Fed, Staff Papers, 20, Web. 9 Mar. 2015. https://​dallasfed​.org​/assets​/documents​/research​/staff​/staff1301​.pdf.
Attack on Pearl Harbor.” New World Encyclopedia, Web. 10 Feb. 2012. http://​www​.newworldencyclopedia​.org​/entry​/Attack​_on​_Pearl​_Harbor.
Atwater, D.
2007 “Senator Barack Obama; The Rhetoric of Hope and the American Dream.” Journal of Black Studies 38(2): 121–129. Crossref link
Avry, Heidi
2010 “The Ongoing Administration-Wide Response to the Deepwater BP Oil Spill.” The White House Blog, Web. 20 May 2015. https://​www​.whitehouse​.gov​/blog​/2010​/05​/05​/ongoing​-administration​-wide​-response​-deepwater​-bp​-oil​-spill.
Ayotte, Kevin J.
2002 “The Art of War: Aristotle on Rhetoric and Fear.” In The Philosophy of Communication. Vol. 2, Studies in Greek Philosophy, No. 40, ed. by K. Boudouris and T. Poulakos, 45–57, Athens, Greece: Ionia Publications.
Barack Obama’s Economic Record: End-of-Term Report.” Economist, Sept. 1 2012.
Bailey, Kevin L.
2009 “An Evaluation of the Impact of Hurricane Katrina on Crime in New Orleans, Louisiana.” Applied Research Projects, Paper 304, Texas State University, San Marcos.
Balz, Dan and Bob Woodward
2002 “A Presidency Defined in One Speech.” Washington Post, Feb. 1.
Barber, Kristen, Danielle Antoinette Hidalgo, Timothy Haney, and Jennifer Day
2007 “Narrating the Storm: Storytelling as a Methodological Approach to Understanding Hurricane Katrina.” Journal of Public Management & Social Policy, Fall 2007: 99–120.
Beasley, Vanessa B.
2010 “The Rhetorical Presidency Meets the Unitary Executive: Implications for Presidential Rhetoric on Public Policy.” Michigan State University Board of Trustees, Rhetoric & Public Affairs 13 (1): 7–36. Crossref link
Belanger, Patrick W.
2005 “Language and War: The Rhetoric of George W. Bush.” Young Scholars in Writing: Undergraduate Research in Writing and Rhetoric 3: 24–29.
Bell, Katie
2011 “The Intersection of Race and Class as Exposed in Hurricane Katrina.” Drake University Social Science Journal, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.drake​.edu​/media​/departmentsoffices​/dussj​/2013​-2011documents​/KatrinaBell​.pdf.
Bellah, Robert N.
1967 “Civil Religion in America.” Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 96 (1): 1–21.
Benoit, William L., and Jayne Henson
2009 “President Bush’s Image Repair Discourse on Hurrican Katrina.” Public Relations Review 35(1): 40–46. Crossref link
Bergen, Benjamin, and Kathryn Wheeler
2010 “Grammatical Aspect and Mental Simulation.” Brain and Language 112 (3): 150–158. Crossref link
Bercovitch, Sacvan
1990 “The Ends of American Puritan Rhetoric.” In The Ends of Rhetoric: History, Theory, Practice, ed. by J. Bender and D. Wellbery, 171–190. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
1997 “The Winthrop Variation.” John F. Kennedy Institut für Amerikastudien, Working Papers, No. 95, Web. 15 April 2014. http://​www​.edocs​.fu​-berlin​.de​/docs​/servlets​/MCRFileNodeServlet​/FUDOCS​_derivate​_000000001178​/workingpaper095​.pdf.
Bestgen, Yves
1994 “Can Emotional Valence in Stories Be Determined from Words?Cognition & Emotion 8: 21–36. Crossref link
Binswanger, Mathias
2009 “Is There a Growth Imperative in Capitalist Economies? A Circular Flow Perspective.” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 31 (4): 707–727. Crossref link
Bitzer, Lloyd F.
1968 “The Rhetorical Situation.” Philosophy and Rhetoric 1(1): 1–14.
Black, Amy E.
2004 “With God on Our Side: Religion in George W. Bush’s Foreign Policy Speeches.” Prepared for presentation at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, Illinois, Sept. 2–5, Web. 8 Aug. 2013. http://​cassidyjohns​.webs​.com​/documents​/bushreligion​-1​.pdf.
Bligh, Michelle C., and Jeffrey C. Kohles
2009 “The Enduring Allure of Charisma: How Barack Obama Won the Historic 2008 Presidential Election.” Leadership Quarterly 20(3): 483–492. Crossref link
Boin, Arjen
2009 “Crisis Leadership in Terra Incognita: Why Meaning Making is Not Enough.” In Framing the Global Economic Downturn: Crisis Rhetoric and the Politics of Recession, ed. by P. ‘t Hart and K. Tindall, 309–315. Canberra, Australia: ANU E Press.
2005 “Disaster Research and Future Crises: Broadening the Research Agenda.” International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 23 (3): 199–214.
Bolton, J. R.
2002 “Beyond the Axis of Evil: Additional Threats From Weapons of Mass Destruction.” Remarks presented to the Heritage Foundation Washington, D.C. May 6, The DISAM Journal, Summer, Web. 18 Aug. 2012. http://​www​.disam​.dsca​.mil​/pubs​/V24​-4%20PDF%20Files%20By%20Author​/Bolton,%20John%20R​.,%20Axis%20of%20Evil​.pdf.
Bonnefille, Stéphanie
2013 “A Cognitive Linguistics Approach to the Rhetoric of Damage Control: B.P.’s Oil Spill and the E.P.A.’s Strategy of Communication.” Entrepalavras Entrepalavras, Fortaleza, Ano 3, 3 (1): 34–55.
Bostdorff, D.
1991 “The Presidency and Promoted Crisis: Reagan, Grenada, and Issue Management.” Presidential Studies Quarterly Fall: 737–750.
Bostdorff, Denise M.
2011 “Epideictic Rhetoric in the Service of War: George W. Bush on Iraq and the 60th Anniversary of the Victory Over Japan.” Communication Monographs 3: 296–323. Crossref link
2003 “George W. Bush’s Post-September 11 Rhetoric of Covenant Renewal: Upholding the Faith of the Greatest Generation.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 89 (4): 293–319. Crossref link
Bostdorff, Denise M., and Daniel J. O’Rourke
1997 “The Presidency and the Promotion of Domestic Crisis: John Kennedy’s Management of the 1962 Steel Crisis.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 27 (2): 343–362.
Bostdorff, D. et al.
2008 “Report of the National Task Force on Presidential Rhetoric in Times of Crisis”. In J. Aune & M. Medhurst (eds.), The Prospect of Presidential Rhetoric. College Station, Austen: Texas A&M University Press.
BP Criticism Not about Nationality, Says Obama.” BBC News, June 12 2010, Web. 7 Sept. 2014 http://​www​.bbc​.co​.uk​/news​/10300082.
BP Fared Worse Than the Obama White House.” Pew Research Center – Journalism Project, Aug. 25 2010, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.journalism​.org​/2010​/08​/25​/coverage​-bp​-fared​-worse​-obama​-white​-house​-and​-gop​-may​-be​-part​-reason/.
Brinkley, Alan
2006 “Clear and Present Dangers.” New York Times Book Review 1: 10–11.
Broder, John M.
2008 “Gore Urges Change to Dodge an Energy Crisis.” New York Times, July 18 2008.
Bryner, Jeanna
2010 “Experts: Most of the Gulf Oil Spill Won’t Be Cleaned Up.” Live Science, April 29 2010.
Brzezinski, Zbigniew
2007 “Terrorized by ‘War on Terror.’” Washington Post, March 25 2007.
Burke, Kenneth
1947 “Ideology and Myth.” Accent 7: 195–205.
Burkholder, Thomas R., and David Henry
2009 “Criticism of Metaphor.” In Rhetorical Criticism: Perspectives in Action, ed. by J. Kuypers, 97–117. Plymouth UK: Lexington Books.
Burnes, Susan
2011 “Metaphors in Press Reports of Elections: Obama Walked on Water, but Musharraf Was Beaten by a Knockout.” Journal of Pragmatics 43: 2160–2175. Crossref link
Bush: Bailout Plan Necessary to Deal with Crisis.” CNN.com, Sept. 25 2008, Web. 25 June 2015. http://​edition​.cnn​.com​/2008​/POLITICS​/09​/24​/bush​.bailout​/index​.html​?iref​=newssearch.
Bush’s Final Approval Rating: 22 Percent.” CBS News, Jan. 16 2009, Web. 30 June 2015. http://​www​.cbsnews​.com​/news​/bushs​-final​-approval​-rating​-22​-percent/.
Calmes, Jackie
2013 “Live From the Oval Office: A Backdrop of History Fades From TV.” New York Times, July 9 2013.
2010 “Obama Plans First Oval Office Speech to Put Pressure on BP.” New York Times, June 13 2010.
Campbell, David
1993 “Cold Wars: Securing Identity, Identifying Danger.” In Rhetorical Republic: Governing Representations in American Politics, ed. by F. Dolan and T. Dumm. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
Campbell, Karlyn Kohrs, and Kathleen Hall Jamieson
1978 “Form and Genre in Rhetorical Criticism: An Introduction.” In Form and Genre: Shaping Rhetorical Action, ed. by K. Campbell and K. Jamieson, 9–33. Falls Church, VA: The Speech Communication Association.
Canes-Wrone, Brandice
2001 “The President’s Legislative Influence from Public Appeals.” American Journal of Political Science 45(2): 313–329. Crossref link
Cap, Piotr
2010 “Axiological Aspects of Proximization.” Journal of Pragmatics 42: 392–407. Crossref link
2008a “Towards the Proximization Model of the Analysis of Legitimization in Political Discourse.” Journal of Pragmatics 40: 17–41. Crossref link
Capur, Ratna
2002 “Collateral Damage: Sacrificing Legitimacy in the Search for Justice.” Harvard International Review 24 (1).
Cassidy, John
2008 “Anatomy of a Meltdown: Ben Bernanke and the Financial Crisis.” New Yorker, Dec. 1.
Chapman, Terrence L., and Dan Reiter
2004 “The United Nations Security Council and the Rally ‘Round the Flag Effect.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 48. Crossref link
Charteris-Black, Jonathan
2009 “Metaphor and Political Communication.” In Metaphor and Discourse, ed. by A. Musloff and J. Zinken, 97–109. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Crossref link
Chertoff: Katrina Scenario Did Not Exist.” CNN.com, Sept. 5 2005, Web. 9 Oct. 2014. http://​www​.cnn​.com​/2005​/US​/09​/03​/katrina​.chertoff/.
Ceaser, James W.
2012 “The Origins and Character of American Exceptionalism.” American Political Thought: A Journal of Ideas, Institutions, and Culture 1.Crossref link
Ceaser, James W., Glen E. Thurow, Jeffrey Tulis, and James Bessette
1981 “The Rise of the Rhetorical Presidency.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 11: 158–171.
Chovanec, Jan
2010 “Legitimation through differentiation: Discursive construction of Jacques Le Worm Chirac as an opponent to military action.” In Perspectives in Political Discourse, ed. by U. Okulska and P. Cap, 61–82. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Cienki, A., B. Kaal, and I. Maks
2010Mapping world view in political texts using Discourse Space Theory: metaphor as an analytical tool. Paper presented at RaAM 8 conference, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Coe, Kevin, David Domke, Erica S. Graham, Sue Lockett John, and Victor W. Pickard
2004 “No Shades of Gray: The Binary Discourse of George W. Bush and an Echoing Press.” Journal of Communication, Web. 2 Jan. 2014. http://​www​.victorpickard​.com​/upload​/NoshadesofGray​.pdf. Crossref link
Cohen, Jeffrey E.
1995 “Presidential Rhetoric and the Public Agenda.” American Journal of Political Science 39 (1): 87–107. Crossref link
Coglianese, Cary
2009 “The Transparency President? The Obama Administration and Open Government.” Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper Series, Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions 22 (4): 529–544. Crossref link
Cohn, Carol
1993 “Wars, Wimps, and Women: Talking Gender and Thinking War.” In Gendering War Talk, ed. by M. Cooke, 227–246. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Cohn, Marjorie
2008 “Afghanistan: The Other Illegal War.” AlterNet, July 31, Web. 9 June 2014. http://​www​.alternet​.org​/story​/93473​/afghanistan%3A​_the​_other​_illegal​_war.
Coleman, John A.
1970 “Civil Religion.” Sociological Analysis 31(2): 67–77. Crossref link
Collet, Tanja, and Tom Najem
2005 “Word Choices in Post-9/11 Speeches and the Identity Construction of the Other.” CPSA Annual Conference 2005, Web. 9 Oct. 2013. http://​www​.cpsa​-acsp​.ca​/conference​-pres​-2005​.shtml.
Colombani, Jean-Marie
2001 “Nous Sommes Tous Américains.” Le Mond, Sept. 13.
Condit, Celeste Michelle
1985 “The Functions of Epideictic: The Boston Massacre Orations as Example.” Communication Quarterly 33 (4): 284–299. Crossref link
Condon, Stephanie
2010 “Obama Defends Oil Spill Response, Cites Mistakes.” CBS News, May 27, Web. 10 April 2014. http://​www​.cbsnews​.com​/news​/obama​-defends​-oil​-spill​-response​-cites​-mistakes/.
Conger, Jay A.
1991 “Inspiring Others: The Language of Leadership.” McGill University, Academy of Management Executive 5 (1), Web. 15 Mar. 2012. http://​carmine​.se​.edu​/cvonbergen​/Inspiring%20Others​_The%20Language%20of%20Leadership​.pdf.
Costenbader, Chris, Curtis Donahoe, David Dry, Stephen Harvey, and Joshua Miller
2012 “Just War, National Interest, and the Iraq War: Analyzing the Strategic Rhetoric Used to Mobilize the American Public for War.” Paper, Westmont College, Nov. 29 2012, Web. 11 Feb. 2014. http://​www​.westmont​.edu​/institute​/conversations​/2013​_program​/documents​/CostenbaderEtAl​.pdf.
Cook, Charles E.
2002 “On the Homefront: Politics as Usual?Washington Quarterly 25 (1): 237–239. Crossref link
Cornwell, Robert
2003 “In God He Trusts – How George Bush Infused the White House with a Religious Spirit.” London Independent, Feb. 21, Web. 8 Aug. 2013. http://​www​.independent​.co​.uk​/news​/world​/politics/.
Crick, Nathan
2012 “Barack Obama and the Rhetoric of Religious Experience.” Journal of Communication and Religion 35(1): 1–15.
Crisis.” In Oxford Medical Companion (1st ed.) ed. by Walton et al., Oxford: Oxford University Press 1994.
Cronon, William
1996 “The Trouble with Wilderness: Or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature.” Environmental History 1 (1): 7–28. Crossref link
Cusick, Frederick
2005 “Activists Link Katrina Crisis, Iraq War.” Inquirer, Sept. 15.
Daily, Matt
2005 “Rice Denies Race Affected Relief Effort.” Houston Chronicle, Sept. 5.
Daschke, Dereck
2010 “A Destroyer Will Come Against Babylon: George W. Bush’s Oracles Against the Nation.” In A Cry Instead of Justice: The Bible and Cultures of Violence in Psychological Perspective, ed. by D. Daschke and A. Kille, 156–181. New York: T & T Clark International.
Davis, Tami R., and Sean M. Lynn-Jones
1987 “Citty Upon a Hill.” Foreign Policy 66: 20–39. Crossref link
Dean: U.S. Must Face ‘Ugly Truth’ About Katrina.” CNN.com, Web. 17 Sept. 2014. http://​edition​.cnn​.com​/2005​/POLITICS​/09​/08​/katrina​.dean​/index​.html.
Defense Planning Guidance.” Excerpts from draft leaked to New York Times, Feb. 18 1992, Web. 19 May 2014. http://​www2​.gwu​.edu​/~nsarchiv​/nukevault​/ebb245​/doc03​_extract​_nytedit​.pdf.
Delahunty, Robert, and John Yoo
2009 “The “Bush Doctrine”: Can Preventive War be Justified?Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy 32 (3): 843–864.
Dennis, Jack
1976 “Who Supports the Presidency?Society 13: 48–53. Crossref link
Dolan, Raymond J.
2002 “Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior.” Science 298 (5596): 1191–1194. Crossref link
Dolliver, Mark
2005 “The Divine and Profane as Hurricane Factors.” Adweek 46, Oct. 10.
Dombey, Daniel, Demetri Sevastopulo, and James Politi
2008 “Bush To Enter Fray of Bail-Out Talks.” Financial Times, Sept. 25.
Donato, Isaac Ijjo
2009 “The United States: Crisis Leadership in Times of Transition.” In Framing the Global Economic Downturn: Crisis Rhetoric and the Politics of Recession, ed. by P. ‘t Hart and K. Tindall, 43–68. Canberra, Australia: ANU E Press.
Dow, Bonnie J.
1989 “The Function of Epideictic and Deliberative Strategies in Presidential Crisis Rhetoric.” Western Journal of Speech Communication 53 (3): 294–310. Crossref link
Dowd, Maureen
2010 “Once More, With Feeling.” New York Times, May 29.
Dunmire, Patricia L.
2007 “ ‘Emerging Threats’ and ‘Coming Dangers:’ Claiming the Future for Preventive War.” In Discourse, War and Terrorism, ed. by A. Hodges and C. Nilep, 19–43. Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Dynes, Russell R., and Havidán Rodríguez
2007 “Finding and Framing Katrina: The Social Construction of Disaster.” In The Sociology of Katrina: Perspectives on a Modern Catastrophe, ed. by D. Brunsma, D. Overfelt, and J. Picou, 24–36. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Edwards, Jason A.
2011 “Contemporary Conservative Constructions of American Exceptionalism.” Journal of Contemporary Rhetoric 1 (2): 40–54.
Egan, Danielle R.
2002 “Cowardice.” In Collateral Language: A User’s Guide to America’s New War, ed. by J. Collins and R. Glover, 53–64. New York: New York University Press.
Eisenstadt, Michael
2014 “Presidential Epideictic Rhetoric During Times of Crisis: Barack Obama’s “9/11” Moment.” UNLV, Paper 2077, Web. 10 Sept. 2014. http://​digitalscholarship​.unlv​.edu​/thesesdissertations​/2077.
Emrich, Cynthia G., Holly H. Brower, and Jack M. Feldman
2001 “Images in Words: Presidential Rhetoric, Charisma, and Greatness.” Administrative Science Quarterly 46 (3). Crossref link
Esch, Joanne
2010 “Legitimizing the “War on Terror”: Political Myth in Official-Level Rhetoric.” Political Psychology 31 (3): 357–391. Crossref link
Fadda, Sandra
. “The Use of Metaphor in Political Discourse: The Speeches of George W. Bush.” 33rd ISFC, Web. 9 Oct. 2014, 921–931. http://​www​.pucsp​.br​/isfc​/proceedings​/Artigos%20pdf​/44mtp​_fadda​_921a931​.pdf.
Fairbanks, James David
1981 “The Priestly Functions of the Presidency: A Discussion of the Literature on Civil Religion and Its Implications for the Study of Presidential Leadership.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 11: 214–232.
Fairclough, Norman, and Ruth Wodak
1997 “Critical Discourse Analysis.” In Discourse as Social Interaction, Vol. 2, ed. by Teun A. van Dijk, 258–284. London: Sage.
Farrell, Justin
2014 “Moral Outpouring: Shock and Generosity in the Aftermath of the BP Oil Spill.” Social Problems 61 (3): 482–506. Crossref link
Fenn, Richard K.
1977 “The Relevance of Bellah’s ‘Civil Religion’ Thesis to a Theory of Secularization.” Social Science History 1 (4): 502–517. Crossref link
Filardo-Llamas, Laura
2014 “Between the Union and a United Ireland: Shifting Positions in Northern Ireland’s Post-Agreement Political Discourse.” In From Text to Political Positions: Text Analysis Across Disciplines, ed. by Bertie Kaal, Isa Maks and Annemarie van Elfrinkhof, 207–225. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Fineman, Howard
2003 “Bush and God.” Newsweek, March 10.
2004 “The Gospel According to George.” Newsweek, April 25.
First Lady: Charges that Racism Slowed Aid ‘Disgusting.’” CNN.com, Sept. 9 2005, Web. 17 Sept. 2014. http://​edition​.cnn​.com​/2005​/POLITICS​/09​/08​/katrina​.laurabush/.
Fischer Liu, Brooke
2009 “An Analysis of US Government and Media Disaster Frames.” Journal of Communication Management 13 (3): 268–283. Crossref link
2007 “President Bush’s Major Post-Katrina Speeches: Enhancing Image Repair Discourse Theory Applied to the Public Sector.” Public Relations Review 33 (1): 40–48. Crossref link
Focus on the Financial Crisis.” Connection, Swiss Finance Institute, Summer 2011.
Ford, Peter
2001 “Europe cringes at Bush 'crusade' against terrorists.” The Christian Science Monitor, Sept. 19, 2001. http://​www​.csmonitor​.com​/2001​/0919​/p12s2​-woeu​.html.
Forman, Tyron A., and Amanda E. Lewis
2006 “Racial Apathy and Hurricane Katrina: The Social Anatomy of Prejudice in the Post-Civil Rights Era.” Du Bois Review 3 (1): 175–202. Crossref link
Foucault, Michael
1980 “The Eye of Power.” In Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972–1977, ed. by C. Gordon, 146–165. New York: Pantheon.
Franklin, Benjamin
1836 “The Way to Wealth.” In The Works of Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 2, ed. by J. Sparks, 92–103. Boston: American Literature Research and Analysis Website, Florida Gulf Coast University, Web. 3 April 2015. http://​itech​.fgcu​.edu​/faculty​/wohlpart​/alra​/franklin​.htm.
Friedman, Thomas L.
2010 “Obama and the Oil Spill.” New York Times, May 18.
Gamino, Doris K., Manuel de los Suliman Reyes Garcia Márkina, and Gemma Aktham Pörzgen
2011 “Der 11. September als Globale Zäsur? Wahrnehmungen aus Lateinamerika, Nahost, Russland und Indonesien.” Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte (Bundeszentrale für Politische Bildung), 27.
Gärling, Tommy, Erich Kirchler, Alan Lewis, and Fred van Raaij
2010 “Psychology, Financial Decision Making, and Financial Crises.” Psychological Science in the Public Interest, March 29.
Gehrig, Gail
1981 “The American Civil Religion Debate: A Source for Theory Construction.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 20 (1): 51–63. Crossref link
Gerstein, Josh
2001 “Terror Attacks Spark Cowardly Debate.” abcNews, Sept. 26 2001, Web. 17 Aug. 2013. http://​abcnews​.go​.com​/Politics​/story​?id​=121312​&page​=1.
Gill, Duane A., Steven Picou, and Liesel A. Ritchie
2010 “The Exxon Valdez and
BP Oil Spills: A Comparison of Initial Social and Psychological Impacts.” American Behavioral Scientist 20 (10): 1–21.
Gillis, Justin
2010 “Estimates of Oil Flow Jump Higher.” New York Times, June 15.
2010 “Size of Oil Spill Underestimated, Scientists Say.” New York Times, May 13.
Goetsch, Paul
1993 “Präsidentenrhetorik seit F. D. Roosevelt: Eine Einführung.” In Die Rhetorik Amerikanischer Präsidenten seit F. D. Roosevelt, ScriptOralia 54, ed. by P. Goetsch and G. Hurm, 11–30. Tübingen: Narr.
Goldenberg, Suzanne
2010 “Deepwater Horizon Clean-Up Workers Fight to Prevent Disaster.” Guardian, April 23.
Gore, Albert A.
2010 “Statement by Alliance for Climate Protection Chairman Al Gore on President Obama’s Oval Office Address on the Gulf Oil Disaster.” PRNewswire, June 15 2010, Web. 10 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.prnewswire​.com​/news​-releases​/statement​-by​-alliance​-for​-climate​-protection​-chairman​-al​-gore​-on​-president​-obamas​-oval​-office​-address​-on​-the​-gulf​-oil​-disaster​-96436749​.html.
Gorski, Philip S.
2011 “Barack Obama and Civil Religion.” In Rethinking Obama (Political Power and Social Theory, Vol. 22), ed. by J. Go, 179–214. Bingley: Emerald Group. Crossref link
Graham: ‘I Would Never Say This is God’s Judgment.’” CNN.com, Oct. 4 2005, Web. 10 Sept​. 2014. http://​www​.cnn​.com​/2005​/US​/10​/04​/cnna​.graham/.
Gray, Colin S.
2007 “The Implications of Preemptive and Preventive War Doctrines: A Reconsideration.” Strategic Studies Institute, The U.S. Army War College, Web. 5 Jan. 2014. http://​www​.strategicstudiesinstitute​.army​.mil​/pdffiles​/pub789​.pdf .
Gray, Madison
2006 “The Press, Race and Katrina.” Time, Aug. 30.
Griffin, David Ray
2013 “9/11 Contradictions: Bush in the Classroom on the Morning of September 11, 2001.” Global Research, Sept. 10, Web. 5 Jan. 2014. http://​www​.globalresearch​.ca​/9​-11​-contradictions​-bush​-in​-the​-classroom​/8555.
Gregg, Gary L.
2003 “Crisis Leadership: The Symbolic Transformation of the Bush Presidency.” Perspectives on Political Science 32 (3): 143–148. Crossref link
Gunn, Joshua
2004 “The Rhetoric of Exorcism: George W. Bush and the Return of Political Demonology.” Western Journal of Communication 68 (1): 1–23. Crossref link
Hahn, Dan F.
1987 “The Media and the Presidency: Ten Propositions.” Communications Quarterly 35 (3): 254–266. Crossref link
Hall, Wynton C.
2004 “Economically Speaking: George Bush and the Price of Perception.” In Principles vs. Politics: The Rhetorical Education of George Herbert Walker Bush, ed. by M. Medhurst. Austen: Texas A&M University Press.
Hamm, Mark S.
2004 “The USA PATRIOT Act and the Politics of Fear.” In Cultural Criminology Unleashed, ed. by J. Ferrell, 287–300. London: The Glass House Press.
Hammond, Philip E.
1976 “The Sociology of American Civil Religion.” Sociological Analysis 37: 169–182. Crossref link
Han, Lori Cox
2006 “New Strategies for an Old Medium: The Weekly Radio Addresses of Reagan and Clinton.” Congress and the Presidency 33 (1): 25–45. Crossref link
Hansen, Lene
2004 “From Bentham to Bush.” In Contemporary Security Analysis and Copenhagen Peace Research, ed. by S. Guzzini and D. Jung, 117–127. London: Routledge. Crossref link
Harlow, William F.
2010 “Nixon’s Use of Civil Religion to Justify Economic Treaty Violation.” American Communication Journal, 12.
Harrell, Willie J.
2011 “A ‘21st Century Economic Agenda for America’: Barack Obama’s Pre-Presidential Economic Jeremiads.” Canadian Review of American Studies 41 (3): 299–324.
Harrell, Willie J., Jr.
2008 “Call to Political and Social Activism: The Jeremiadic Discourse of Maria Miller Stewart, 1831–1833.” Journal of International Women's Studies 9 (3): Article 17.
2009 “The Reality of American Life Has Strayed From Its Myths: Barack Obama’s The Audacity of Hope and the Discourse of the American Reclamation Jeremiad.” Journal of Black Studies, July 15.
Hart, Roderick P.
2002 “Why Do They Talk That Way? A Research Agenda for the Presidency.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 22 (4): 693–709. Crossref link
Hart, Roderick P., Sharon E. Jarvis, and Elvin T. Lim
2002 “The American People in Crisis: A Content Analysis.” Political Psychology 23 (3). Crossref link
Hauerwas, Stanley
2012 “Why War is a Moral Necessity for America.” In From Jeremiad to Jihad: Religion, Violence, and America, ed. by J. Carlson and J. Ebel, 220–232. Berkeley: University of California Press. Crossref link
Henkel, Kristin E., John F. Dovidio, and Samuel L. Gaertner
2006 “Institutional Discrimination, Individual Racism, and Hurricane Katrina.” Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy 6: 99–124. Crossref link
Herring, Cedric
2006 “Hurricane Katrina and the Racial Gulf: A Du Boisian Analysis of Victims’ Experiences.” Du Bois Review 3 (1): 129–144. Crossref link
Herszenhorn, David M.
2008 “Bailout Plan Wins Approval; Democrats Vow Tighter Rules.” New York Times, Oct. 3.
2009 “Recovery Bill Gets Final Approval.” New York Times, Feb. 13.
Hofstadter, Richard
1964 “The Paranoid Style in American Politics.” Harper’s Magazine, Nov.
Holland, Steve
2010 “Bush Rejects Accusations of Racism over Katrina.” Reuters, Nov. 3, Web. 8 Aug. 2014. http://​www​.reuters​.com​/article​/2010​/11​/03​/us​-bush​-book​-katrina​-idUSTRE6A25N820101103.
Hope, Mat
2011 “Framing the “Greatest Environmental Disaster in Our History”: The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill as a Social Event.” Paper for presentation at the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, March, Chicago, Web. 10 Sept. 2014. https://​www​.academia​.edu​/708921​/Framing​_the​_Greatest​_Environmental​_Disaster​_in​_Our​_History​_The​_Deepwater​_Horizon​_Oil​_Spill​_as​_a​_Social​_Event.
Hornick, Ed
2010 “Is Oil Spill ‘Obama’s Katrina’?CNN.com, May 4, Web. 10 Sept. 2014. http://​edition​.cnn​.com​/2010​/POLITICS​/05​/04​/obama​.oil​.fallout/.
Hubanks, Joshua
2009 “Praise, Blame and Advocacy: An Examination of President George W. Bush’s Post-9/11 Discourse and the Rhetorical Genres that Define It.” Intersections Online 10 (2): 199–225.
Huntington, Samuel P.
1993 “The Clash of Civilizations?Foreign Affairs 72 (3): 22–49. Crossref link
Hutcheson, John, David Domke, Andre Billeaudeaux, and Philip Garland
2004 “U.S. National Identity, Political Elites, and a Patriotic Press Following September 11.” Political Communication 21: 27–50. Crossref link
Ignatieff, Michael
1998 “Identity Parades.” Prospect, April 20.
Infinite Justice, Out – Enduring Freedom, In.” BBC.News, Sept. 25 2001, Web. 8 Aug. 2013. http://​news​.bbc​.co​.uk​/2​/hi​/americas​/1563722​.stm.
Ivie, Robert L.
1994 “Declaring a national Emergency: Truman’s Rhetorical Crisis and the Great Debate of 1951.” In The Modern Presidency and Crisis Rhetoric, ed. by A. Kiewe, 1–18. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
2007 “Fighting Terror by Rite of Redemption and Reconciliation.” Rhetoric & Public Affairs 10: 221–248. Crossref link
1980 “Images of Savagery in American Justifications for War.” Communication Monographs 47 (4). Crossref link
1990 “Metaphor and the Rhetorical Invention of Cold War ‘Idealists.’” In Cold War Rhetoric: Strategy, Metaphor, and Ideology (Contributions to the Study of Mass Media and Communications: Vol. 19.), ed. by B. Johnpoll, 103–127. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Ivie, Robert L., and Oscar Giner
2009 “More Good, Less Evil: Contesting the Mythos of National Insecurity in the 2008 Presidential Primaries.” Rhetoric & Public Affairs 12 (2): 279–301. Crossref link
James, Colin
2003 “Moran’s Secret Crusade Against the Tyranny of Saddam.” Adelaide Advertiser, Australia, April 5.
Jamieson, Kathleen Hall, and Karlyn Kohrs Campbell
1982 “Rhetorical Hybrids: ‘Fusion of Generic Elements.’Quarterly Journal of Speech 68: 146–157. Crossref link
Jasinski, James, and John Murphy
2009 “Time, Space, and Generic Reconstitution: Martin Luther King’s ‘A Time to Break Silence’ as Radical Jeremiad.” In Public Address and Moral Judgment: Critical Studies in Ethical Tensions, ed. by T. Parry-Giles, 97–125. East Lansing: Trevor, Michigan State University Press.
Jendrysik, Mark Stephan
2006 “Sinners in the Hands of Two Angry White Men: Michael Moore and Bill O’Reilly as Modern Jeremiahs.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Apr. 20, Web. 14 Oct. 2014. http://​citation​.allacademic​.com​/meta​/p139569​_index​.html.
2002 “The Modern Jeremiad: Bloom, Bennett, and Bork on American Decline.” Journal of Popular Culture 36 (2): 361–383. Crossref link
Johannesen, Richard L.
1986 “Ronald Reagan’s Economic Jeremiad.” Central States Speech Journal 37 (2): 79–89. Crossref link
Jones, David
2010 “Disaster that Never Was: Why Claims that BP Created History’s Worst Oil Spill May Be the Most Cynical Spin Campaign Ever.” Daily Mail, Aug. 6.
Jones, Jeffrey M.
2010 “Americans See U.S. as Exceptional; 37% Doubt Obama Does.” Gallup, Dec. 22, Web. 14 Oct. 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/145358​/americans​-exceptional​-doubt​-obama​.aspx.
2008 “Bush’s Approval Rating Drops to New Low of 27%.” Gallup, Sept. 30, Web. 5 Dec. 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/110806​/bushs​-approval​-rating​-drops​-new​-low​-27​.aspx.
2009 “Obama Averages 63% Approval in His First Quarter.” Gallup, April 17, Web. 23 Nov. 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/117598​/obama​-averages​-approval​-first​-quarter​.aspx.
2012 “President’s Support Usually Unaffected by State of Union.” Gallup, Jan. 26, Web. 14 Oct. 2013. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/125396​/president​-support​-usually​-unaffected​-state​-union​.aspx.
2003 “Sept. 11 Effects, Though Largely Faded, Persist.” Gallup, Sept. 9, Web. 5 Dec. 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/9208​/sept​-effects​-though​-largely​-faded​-persis​.aspx.
Juhasz, Antonia
2013 “Why the War in Iraq Was Fought for Big Oil.” CNN.com, April 15, Web. 15 April 2014. http://​edition​.cnn​.com​/2013​/03​/19​/opinion​/iraq​-war​-oil​-juhasz/.
Kahle, Shannon, Nan Yu, and Erin Whiteside
2007 “Disaster: An Examination of Portrayals of Race in Hurricane Katrina Coverage.” Visual Communication Quarterly 14 (2): 75–89. Crossref link
Kang, Ning
2009 “Puritanism and its Impact upon American Values.” Review of European Studies 1 (2): 148–159. Crossref link
Kaplan, Lawrence F.
2001 “No Choice.” New Republic, Oct. 1.
Keller, Punam A., and Lauren G. Block
1996 “Increasing the Persuasiveness of Fear Appeals: The Effect of Arousal and Elaboration.” Journal of Consumer Research 22 (4): 448–459. Crossref link
Kellner, Douglas
2004 “9/11, Spectacles of Terror, and Media Manipulation.” Critical Discourse Studies 1 (1): 41–64. Crossref link
. “An Orwellian Nightmare: Critical Reflections on the Bush Administration.” UCLA GSEIS, Web. 17 July 2014. http://​pages​.gseis​.ucla​.edu​/faculty​/kellner​/papers​/orwelliannightmare​.htm.
2007 “Bushspeak and the Politics of Lying: Presidential Rhetoric in the ‘War on Terror.’Presidential Studies Quarterly 37 (4): 622–645. Crossref link
2007 “The Katrina Hurricane Spectacle and Crisis of the Bush Presidency.” Cultural Studies – Critical Methodologies, SAGE Journals 7: 222–234. Crossref link
2007 “The Media In and After 9/11: Book Review.” International Journal of Communication 1: 123–142.
Kennedy, Caroline
2013 “The Manichean Temptation: Moralising Rhetoric and the Invocation of Evil in US Foreign Policy.” International Politics 50. Crossref link
Khatchadourian, Raffi
2011 “The Gulf War: Were there any Heroes in the BP Oil Disaster?New Yorker, March 14.
Kiewe, Amos
1998 “The Crisis Tool in American Political Discourse.” In Politically Speaking: A Worldwide Examination of Language Used in the Public Sphere, ed. by O. Feldman and Ch. De Landtsheer, 79–90. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Killingsworth, M. Jimmie, and Jacqueline S. Palmer
1996 “ ‘Millennial Ecology’: The Apocalyptic Narrative from Silent Spring to Global Warming.” In Green Culture: Environmental Rhetoric in Contemporary America, ed. by C. Herndl and S. Brown, 21–45. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Kittredge, Cynthia Briggs
2008 “Echoes of Paul in the Speeches of George W. Bush.” In The Bible in the Public Square: Reading the Signs of the Times, ed. by C. Briggs et al., 55–66. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.
Krauss, Clifford, and John Schwartz
2012 “BP Will Plead Guilty and Pay Over $4 Billion.” New York Times, Nov. 15.
Krauthammer, Charles
2001 “The Bush Doctrine in American Foreign Policy, a New Motto: Don’t Ask. Tell.” Inside Politics, CNN.com, Web. 3 May 2012. http://​edition​.cnn​.com​/ALLPOLITICS​/time​/2001​/03​/05​/doctrine​.html.
Kuypers, Jim A.
2007 “From Chaos, Community: The Crisis Leadership of Virginia Tech President Charles W. Steger.” American Communication Journal 9 (1).
Labrecque, Daniel R.
. “Fearing Terror: The Effects of the Political Climate on George W. Bush’s Use of Fear Rhetoric.” University of Connecticut, Web. 19 Sept. 2012. http://​www​.thepresidency​.org​/storage​/documents​/Calkins​/Labrecque​.pdf.
Lake, Anthony
1994 “Confronting Backlash States.” Foreign Affairs 73. Crossref link
Lakoff, George
2011 “Five Years After 9/11: Drop the War Metaphor.” Huffington Post, May 25, Web. 11 Feb. 2015. http://​www​.huffingtonpost​.com​/george​-lakoff​/five​-years​-after​-911​-drop​_b​_29181​.html.
2003 “Metaphor and War, Again.” AlterNet, March 17, Web. 9 Aug. 2014. http://​www​.alternet​.org​/story​/15414​/metaphor​_and​_war,​_again.
1991 “Metaphor and War: The Metaphor System Used to Justify War in the Gulf.” Viet Nam Generation: A Journal of Recent History and Contemporary Issues 3 (3), Web. 17 Jan. 2014. http://​www2​.iath​.virginia​.edu​/sixties​/HTML​_docs​/Texts​/Scholarly​/Lakoff​_Gulf​_Metaphor​_1​.html.
1995 “Metaphor, Morality, and Politics or Why Conservatives Have Left Liberals in the Dust.” Graduate Faculty of the New School for Social Research Quarterly 62 (2): 177–213.
2001 “Metaphors of Terror.” CSE.Buffalo, Sept. 16, Web. 10 Feb. 2014. http://​www​.cse​.buffalo​.edu​/~rapaport​/575​/F01​/lakoff​.on​.terrorism​.html.
1993 “The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor.” In Metaphor and Thought (2nd ed.), ed. by A. Ortony, 202–251. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
2009b “The Obama Code.” The Huffington Post, Feb. 24, Web. 31 May 2015. http://​www​.huffingtonpost​.com​/george​-lakoff​/the​-obama​-code​_b​_169580​.html.
2005 “ ‘War on Terror,’ Rest in Peace.” AlterNet, July 31, Web. 12 Feb. 2014. http://​www​.alternet​.org​/story​/23810​/war​_on​_terror,​_rest​_in​_peace.
2010 “Why It Matters How We Frame the Environment.” Environmental Communication 4 (1): 78–81. Crossref link
Landau, Mark J., Sheldon Solomon, Jeff Greenberg, Florette Cohen, Tom Pyszczynski, Jamie Arndt, Claude H. Miller, Daniel M. Ogilvie, and Alison Cook
2004 “Deliver Us From Evil: The Effects of Mortality Salience and Reminders of 9/11 on Support for President George W. Bush.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 30 (9): 1136–1150. Crossref link
Laqueur, Walter
1976 “The Futility of Terrorism.” Harper’s Magazine 252 (1510): 99–105.
Lazar, Annita, and Michelle M. Lazar
2004 “The Discourse of the World Order: ‘Out-Casting’ in the Double Face of Threat.” Discourse & Society 15 (2–3): 223–242. Crossref link
Levy, Clifford J.
2005 “Post-Katrina, Bricks and Mortals.” New York Times, Sept. 18.
Lipka, Michael
2013 “5 facts About Atheists.” Pew Research Center, Oct. 23, Web. 21 June 2014. http://​www​.pewresearch​.org​/fact​-tank​/2013​/10​/23​/5​-facts​-about​-atheists/.
Llorente, Marina A.
2002 “Civilization versus Barbarism.” In Collateral Language: A User’s Guide to America’s New War, ed. by J. Collins and R. Glover. New York: New York University Press.
Long, Richard
1983 “The Role of Audience in Chaïm Perelman’s New Rhetoric.” Journal of Advanced Composition 4.
Luscombe, Richard
2010 “BP Oil Spill: Michelle Obama Urges US Holidaymakers to Support Gulf Coast.” Guardian, July 13.
Mair, Victor H.
2009 “How a Misunderstanding about Chinese Characters Has Led Many Astray.” Pinyin.info, Web. 3 April 2015. http://​pinyin​.info​/chinese​/crisis​.html.
Majority Disapprove of the Handling of Katrina, Iraq.” CNN.com, Sept. 20 2005, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​edition​.cnn​.com​/2005​/POLITICS​/09​/19​/bush​.poll/.
Marshall, Brent K., J. Steven Picou, and Duane A. Gill
2003 “Terrorism as Disaster: Selected Commonalities and Long-Term Recovery for 9/11 Survivors.” Research in Social Problems and Public Policy 11: 73–96. Crossref link
Marty, Martin E.
1974 “Two Kinds of Two Kinds of Civil Religion.” In American Civil Religion, ed. by R. Richey and D. Jones, 145–146. New York: Harper & Row.
McClay, Wilfred
2004 “The Soul of a Nation.” Public Interest 155 (4): 4–19.
McClure, Kevin
2011 “The Rhetoric of Disaster: The Presidential Natural Disaster Address as an Emergent Genre.” Relevant Rhetoric 2: 1–15, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​relevantrhetoric​.com​/The%20Rhetoric%20of%20Disaster​.pdf.
Medhurst, Martin J.
2000 “Text and Context in the 1952 Presidential Campaign: Eisenhower’s “I shall go to Korea” Speech.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 30 (3): 464–484. Crossref link
2003 “Presidential Speechwriting: Ten Myths that Plague Modern Scholarship.” In Presidential Speechwriting: From the New Deal to the Reagan Revolution and Beyond, ed. by K. Ritter and M. Medhurst, 3–19. United States: Library of Congress.
2007 “Rhetorical Leadership and the Presidency: A Situational Taxonomy.” In The Values of Presidential Leadership, ed. by T. Price and J. Wren, 59–84. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Crossref link
Merskin, Debra
2004 “The Construction of Arabs as Enemies: Post-September 11 Discourse of George W. Bush.” Mass Communication & Society 7 (2): 157–175. Crossref link
Miller, S. A., and Sean Lengell
2008 “Bush Signs Wall Street Bailout.” Washington Times, Oct. 4.
Mishra, Smeeta
2007 “ ‘Saving’ Muslim Women and Fighting Muslim Men: Analysis of Representations in The New York Times.” Global Media Journal 6 (11).
Moore, David W.
2001 “Bush Job Approval Highest in Gallup History. Widespread Public Support for War on Terrorism.” Gallup, Sept. 24, Web. 14 Mar. 2013. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/4924​/Bush​-Job​-Approval​-Highest​-Gallup​-History​.aspx.
2005 “Katrina Hurt Blacks and Poor Victims Most.” Gallup, Oct. 25, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/19405​/katrina​-hurt​-blacks​-poor​-victims​-most​.aspx.
2005 “Public Response to Katrina Better Now Than Just After Hurricane Hit Katrina.” Gallup, Sept. 13, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/18466​/Public​-Response​-Katrina​-Better​-Now​-Than​-Just​-After​-Hurricane​-Hit​.aspx.
Morales, Lymari
2010 “Americans Critical of Oil Spill Response; Keeping Close Tabs President Obama’s Efforts Rated More Positively than BP’s.” Gallup, May 27, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/137615​/americans​-critical​-oil​-spill​-response​-keeping​-close​-tabs​.aspx.
Morris, Nigel
2013 “Spike in Suicide Rate in Europe and US Linked to Financial Crisis.” Independent, Sept. 13.
Mouawad, Jad
2005 “Katrina’s Shock to the System.” New York Times, Sept. 4.
Murphy, Andrew R., and Elisabeth Hanson
2012 “From King Philip’s War to September 11: Religion, Violence, and the American Way.” In From Jeremiad to Jihad: Religion, Violence, and America, ed. by J. Carlson and J. Ebel, 29–47. Berkeley: University of California Press. Crossref link
Murphy, John M.
1990 “ ‘A Time of Shame and Sorrow’: Robert F. Kennedy and the American Jeremiad.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 76: 401–414. Crossref link
Murphy, Andrew
2009 “New Israel in New England: The American Jeremiad and the Hebrew Scriptures.” Hebraic Political Studies 4 (2): 128–156.
Murphy, John M.
2015 “No End Save Victory: FDR and the End of Isolationism 1936–1941.” In Making the Case: Studies in Public Advocacy in Honor of David Zarefsky, ed. by K. Olson, K. Wilson, and M. Pfau. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.
2003 “ ‘Our Mission and Our Moment’: George W. Bush and September 11th.” Rhetoric and Public Affairs 6 (4): 607–632. Crossref link
2009 “Political Economy and Rhetorical Matter.” Rhetoric & Public Affairs 12 (2): 303–315. Crossref link
Murphy, Robert P.
2010 “Did Hoover Really Slash Spending?Mises Daily, Mises Institute, May 31, Web. 3 April 2015. https://​mises​.org​/library​/did​-hoover​-really​-slash​-spending.
Murse, Tom
Nagurney, Adam
2008 “Obama Wins Election; McCain Loses as Bush Legacy Is Rejected.” New York Times, Nov. 4.
Newly-Released Memo by Donald Rumsfeld Proves Iraq War Started On False Pretenses.” Washington’s Blog, Feb. 20 2013, Web. 15 April 2014. http://​www​.washingtonsblog​.com​/2013​/02​/newly​-released​-memos​-of​-donald​-rumsfeld​-prove​-knowing​-iraq​-war​.html.
New Orleans City Council President: “Maybe God’s Going to Cleanse Us.” LifeSiteNews, Sept. 1 2005, Web. 14 Oct. 2014. http://​www​.lifesite​.net​/ldn​/2005​/sep​/05090111​.html.
New Orleans in Peril.” (Editorial) New York Times, Aug. 31 2005, Web. 31 May 2015. http://​www​.nytimes​.com​/2005​/08​/31​/opinion​/new​-orleans​-in​-peril​.html.
Newport, Frank
2004 “Almost All Americans Consider World War II a “Just” War.” Gallup, June 3, Web. 21 June 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/11881​/almost​-all​-americans​-consider​-world​-war​-just​-war​.aspx.
2008 “Americans Favor Congressional Action on Crisis.” Gallup, Sept. 26, Web. 31 May 2015. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/110746​/americans​-favor​-congressional​-action​-crisis​.aspx.
2010a “Americans Want BP to Pay All Losses, No Matter the Cost.” Gallup, June 15, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/140744​/americans​-pay​-losses​-no​-matter​-cost​.aspx.
2010b “Obama Receives 44% Approval on Oil Spill While BP Gets 16%.” Gallup, June 21, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/140957​/obama​-receives​-approval​-oil​-spill​-gets​.aspx.
2012 “In U.S., 77% Identify as Christian.” Gallup, Dec. 24, Web. 23 March 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/159548​/identify​-christian​.aspx.
2006 “Little Impact of Katrina on Bush’s Overall Job Ratings.” Gallup, Aug. 29, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/24283​/little​-impact​-katrina​-bushs​-overall​-job​-ratings​.aspx.
2011 “More Than 9 in 10 Americans Continue to Believe in God.” Gallup, June 3, Web. 21 June 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/147887​/americans​-continue​-believe​-god​.aspx.
2001 “Overwhelming Support for War Continues.” Gallup, Nov. 29 2001, Web. 17 June 2013. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/5083​/overwhelming​-support​-war​-continues​.aspx.
2003 “Seventy-Two Percent of Americans Support War Against Iraq: Bush Approval up 13 Points to 71%.” Gallup, March 24, Web. 23 March 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/8038​/seventytwo​-percent​-americans​-support​-war​-against​-iraq​.aspx.
2009 “Views on Government Aid Depend on the Program.” Gallup, Feb. 24, Web. 31 May 2015. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/116083​/views​-government​-aid​-depend​-program​.aspx.
Nocera, Joe
2008 “As Credit Crisis Spiraled, Alarm Led to Action.” New York Times, Oct. 1.
Nünning, Ansgar
2007 “Grundzüge einer Narratologie der Krise: Wie aus einer Situation ein Plot und eine Krise (Konstruiert) Werden.” In Krisis! Krisenszenarien, Diagnosen, und Diskursstrategien, ed. by H. Grunwald and M. Pfister, 48–71. Munich: Fink.
Obama Heads to Gulf as Oil Spill Stakes Soar.” CBS News, May 28 2010, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.cbsnews​.com​/news​/obama​-heads​-to​-gulf​-as​-oil​-spill​-stakes​-soar/.
O’Connell, David J.
2012 “God Wills It: Presidents and the Political Use of Religion.” Columbia University, Web. 11 Nov. 2013. http://​academiccommons​.columbia​.edu​/catalog​/ac:147623.
Oil Estimate Raised to 35,000–60,000 Barrels a Day.” CNN, June 16 2010, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​edition​.cnn​.com​/2010​/US​/06​/15​/oil​.spill​.disaster/.
Oil Spill Seen As Ecological Disaster; Government, BP Responses Faulted.” Pew Research Center, May 11 2010, Web. 10 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.people​-press​.org​/2010​/05​/11​/oil​-spill​-seen​-as​-ecological​-disaster​-government​-bp​-responses​-faulted/.
Opie, John, and Norbert Elliot
1996 “Tracking the Elusive Jeremiad: The Rhetorical Character of American Environmental Discourse.” In The Symbolic Earth: Discourse and Our Creation of the Environment, ed. by J. Cantrill and Ch. Oravec, 9–37. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
Palmerton, Patricia R.
1988 “The Rhetoric of Terrorism and Media Response to the ‘Crisis in Iran.’Western Journal of Speech Communication 52: 105–121. Crossref link
Park, Yoosun, and Joshua Miller
2006 “The Social Ecology of Hurricane Katrina: Re-Writing the Discourse of “Natural” Disasters.” Smith College Studies in Social Work 76 (3): 9–24. Crossref link
Parker, Kathleen
2001 “Silenced but Never Silent.” Positive Atheism, Oct. 1, Web. 7 Oct. 2014. http://​www​.positiveatheism​.org​/mail​/eml8755​.htm.
Parry, Wynne
2012 “What ‘American Values’ Really Means.” Live Science, Jan. 26, Web. 12 Sept. 2015. http://​www​.livescience​.com​/18154​-american​-values​-state​-union​-politics​.html.
Pentagon Gets PR Bulls-Eye.” O’Dwyer’s PR Daily, April 11 2003, Web. 11 Nov. 2013. http://​www​.odwyerpr​.com.
Perelman, Chaïm
1970 “The New Rhetoric: A Theory of Practical Reasoning.” In The Great Ideas Today, Chicago: Encyclopedia Brittanica, 264–274.
Pfau, Michael William
2007 “Who’s Afraid of Fear Appeals? Contingency, Courage, and Deliberation in Rhetorical Theory and Practice.” Philosophy & Rhetoric 40 (2): 216–237. Crossref link
Poll: 70% Say BP Handling Oil Spill Badly.” CBS News, May 25 2010, Web. 10 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.cbsnews​.com​/news​/poll​-70​-say​-bp​-handling​-oil​-spill​-badly/.
Pratt, James W.
1970 “An Analysis of Three Crisis Speeches.” Western Journal of Speech Communication 34: 194–203. Crossref link
Presidential Approval Ratings – Barack Obama.” Gallup, Web. 31 May 2015. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/116479​/barack​-obama​-presidential​-job​-approval​.aspx.
Presidential Approval Ratings – Gallup Historical Statistics and Trends.” Gallup, Web. 9 Sept. 2013. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/116677​/presidential​-approval​-ratings​-gallup​-historical​-statistics​-trends​.aspx.
Presidential Approval Ratings – George W. Bush.” Gallup, Web. 10 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/116500​/presidential​-approval​-ratings​-george​-bush​.aspx.
Presidential Job Approval Center – G. W. Bush.” Gallup, Web. 5 Oct. 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/124922​/presidential​-approval​-center​.aspx.
President Obama Must Reinstate Moratorium on Offshore Drilling.” Greenpeace USA Blog, April 30 2010, Web. 11 Feb. 2014. http://​www​.greenpeace​.org​/usa​/en​/news​-and​-blogs​/campaign​-blog​/president​-obama​-must​-reinstate​-moratorium​-on-​/blog​/25989/.
Preventive War: A Failed Doctrine.” New York Times (Editorial), Sept. 12 2004.
Puar, Jasbir K, and Amit Rai
2002 “Monster, Terrorist, Fag: The War on Terrorism and the Production of Docile Patriots.” Social Text 20 (3): 117–148. Crossref link
Quarantelli, Enrico L.
1996 “Local Mass Media Operations in Disasters in the USA.” Disaster Prevention and Management 5 (5): 1–6. Crossref link
Qutami, Mais, and Suha Qutami
2013 “Exporting Democracy and Liberating Women: An Examination of a Debilitating Rhetoric.” English Language and Literature Studies, Canadian Center of Science and Education 3 (1): 122–131.
Rediehs, Laura J.
2002 “Evil.” In Collateral Language: A User’s Guide to America’s New War, ch. 5, ed. by J. Collins and R. Glover. New York: New York University Press.
Reisigl, Martin
2006 “Rhetorical Tropes in Political Discourse.” In The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (2nd ed., Vol. 10), ed. by K. Brown, 596–605. Boston: Elsevier. Crossref link
Religion.” Gallup 2004, Web. 5 Dec. 2013. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/1690​/religion​.aspx.
Ricoeur, Paul
1991 “The Creativity of Language.” In A Ricoeur Reader, ed. by M. Valdés, 463–481. Harvester Wheatsheaf: Hertfordshire.
Riker, William H.
1990 “Political Science and Rational Choice.” In Perspectives on Positive Political Economy, ed. by J. Alt and K. Shepsle, 162–181. New York: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Ritter, Kurt W.
1980 “American Political Rhetoric and the Jeremiad Tradition: Presidential Nomination Acceptance Addresses, 1960–1976.” Central States Speech Journal 31: 153–171. Crossref link
Robertson, Campbell, and Clifford Krauss
2010 “Gulf Spill Is the Largest of Its Kind, Scientists Say.” New York Times, Aug. 2.
Robinson, Michael J.
2007 “Two Decades of American News Preferences.” Pew Research Center, Aug. 22, Web. 16 Aug. 2015. http://​www​.pewresearch​.org​/2007​/08​/22​/two​-decades​-of​-american​-news​-preferences​-2/.
Roof, Wade Clark
2009 “Presidential Rhetoric from Reagan to G. W. Bush: Another Look at Civil Religion.” Social Compass 56 (2): 286–301. Crossref link
Rose, Jacqueline
2000 “Edward Said Talks to Jacqueline Rose.” In Edward Said and the Work of the Critic: Speaking Truth to Power, ed. by P. Bové. Durham: Duke University Press.
Rosenberg, Emily S.
2002 “Rescuing Women and Children.” The Journal of American History 89 (2): “History and September 11: A Special Issue,” Organization of American Historians, 456–465. Crossref link
Rosteck, Thomas, and Thomas S. Frentz
2009 “Myth and Multiple Readings in Environmental Rhetoric: The Case of an Inconvenient Truth.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 95 (1): 1–19. Crossref link
Rove, Karl
2010 “Yes, the Gulf Spill Is Obama’s Katrina.” Wall Street Journal, May 27.
Rutenberg, Jim, and Adam Nagourney
2009 “Melding Obama’s Web to a YouTube Presidency.” New York Times, Jan. 25.
Saeger, Joni
2006 “Noticing Gender (or Not) in Disasters.” Geoforum (Editorial) 37: 2–3. Crossref link
Said, Edward
1998 “The Myth of ‘The Clash of Civilizations.’” Media Education Foundation, Transcript (Lecture), Web. 8 Sept. 2013. http://​www​.mediaed​.org​/assets​/products​/404​/transcript​_404​.pdf.
2001 “The Clash of Ignorance.” The Nation, Oct. 22.
2003 “A Window on the World.” The Guardian, Aug. 2.
Salter, Mark B.
2003 “The Clash of Civilisations and the War on Terror(ists): An Imperialist Discourse.” Global Dialogue 5 (1–2), Web. 10 Sept. 2013. http://​www​.worlddialogue​.org​/content​.php​?id​=222.
Sánchez Mugica, Alfonso
2011 “U.S.–U.K. Diplomatic Differences On the Oil Spill.” Voices of Mexico 90: 108–111.
Sanger, David E.
2005 “Bush Compares Responses to Hurricane and Terrorism.” New York Times, Sept. 22, Web. 10 Sept. 2014. http://​query​.nytimes​.com​/gst​/fullpage​.html​?res​=9400E6DD1730F931A1575AC0A9639C8B63.
Schlesinger, Philip
1991 “Media, the Political Order and National Identity.” Media, Culture and Society 13: 297–308. Crossref link
Schmidt, Brad, and Jeffrey Winters
2002 “Anxiety After 9/11.” Psychology Today, Jan. 1, Web. 5 Aug. 2013. http://​www​.psychologytoday​.com​/articles​/200201​/anxiety​-after​-911.
Schramm, Stefanie, and Claudia Wüstenhagen
2012 “Die Macht der Worte.” Zeit Online Wissen, Web. 5 Dec. 2012. http://​www​.zeit​.de​/zeit​-wissen​/2012​/06​/Sprache​-Worte​-Wahrnehmung​/seite​-1.
Schulzke, Eric
2005 “Wilsonian Crisis Leadership, the Organic State, and the Modern Presidency.” Polity 37 (2): 262–285. Crossref link
Seeger, Matthew W., Timothy L. Sellnow, and Robert R. Ulmer
1998 “Communication, Organization and Crisis.” In Communication Yearbook, Vol. 21, ed. by M. Roloff, 231–275. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Shaping Economic Reality: A Critical Metaphor Analysis of President Barack Obama’s Economic Language During His First 100 Days.” Gnovis, Georgetown University, Dec. 22 2009, Web. 17 May 2015. http://​www​.gnovisjournal​.org​/2009​/12​/22​/shaping​-economic​-reality​-critical​-metaphor​-analysis​-president​-barack​-obama​-s​-economic​-langua/.
Shapiro, Robert Y., and Brice M. Conforto
1980 “Presidential Performance the Economy, and the Public’s Evaluation of Economic Conditions.” The Journal of Politics 42 (1): 49–67. Crossref link
Shribman, David
1994 “Presidents and Prayers.” Boston Globe, Dec. 11.
Simon, Julian L.
1995 “Why Do We Hear Prophecies of Doom From Every Side?The Futurist 29 (1): 19–23.
Singer, Ross
2010 “Neoliberal Style, the American Re-Generation, and Ecological Jeremiad in Thomas Friedman’s ‘Code Green.’Environmental Communication 4 (2). Crossref link
Skeggs, Angela
2002 “Community: The Thread that Holds Individuals Together.” Constructing the Past 3 (1), Web. 2 Dec. 2013. http://​digitalcommons​.iwu​.edu​/constructing​/vol3​/iss1​/8.
Smith, Craig Allen
2005 “President Bush’s Enthymeme of Evil: The Amalgamation of 9/11, Iraq, and Moral Values.” American Behavioral Scientist 49 (32): 32–47. Crossref link
Smith, Craig R.
2011 “Compromising the Manichaean Style: A Case Study of the 2006 State of the Union Address.” American Communication Journal 13 (2): 23–43.
Smith, Gary
2008 “The American Presidency: Looking Forward, Looking Back.” Focus on Law Studies 24 (1).
Smith, Paul
2004 “Why ‘We’ Lovehate ‘You.’Contemporary Conflicts SSRC, Mar. 26, Web. 5 Dec. 2012. http://​conconflicts​.ssrc​.org​/USA​/smith/.
Soltysik Monnet, Agnieszka
2012 “War and National Renewal: Civil Religion and Blood Sacrifice in American Culture.” In European Journal of American Studies, special issue: “Wars and New Beginnings in American History”.
Sobel, Russel S., and Peter T. Leeson
2006 “Government’s Response to Hurricane Katrina: A Public Choice Analysis.” Public Choice 127 (1–2): 55–73. Crossref link
Sommers, Samuel R., Evan P. Apfelbaum, Kristin Dukes, and Elsie J. Wang
2006 “Race and Media Coverage of Hurricane Katrina: Analysis, Implications, and Future Research Questions.” Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy 6 (1): 1–17. Crossref link
Sontag, Susan
2001 “The Talk of the Town.” New Yorker, Sept. 24.
Spiegelman, Arthur
2005 “President Bush’s “Brownie” Quote Wins Award.” Common Dreams, Dec. 30, Web. 10 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.commondreams​.org​/headlines05​/1230​-01​.htm.
Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty
1988 “Can the Subaltern Speak?“ In Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture, ed. by C. Nelson and L. Grossberg, 271–310. Chicago: University of Illinois Press. Crossref link
Stephanson, Wen
2010 “American Jeremiad: A Manifesto.” New York Times, March 23.
Stigler, George J.
1973 “General Economic Conditions and National Elections.” The American Economic Review 63 (2): 160–167.
Stuckey, Mary E.
2010 “Rethinking the Rhetorical Presidency and Presidential Rhetoric.” The Review of Communication 10 (1): 38–52. Crossref link
Talbot, David
2001 “The ‘Traitor’ Fires Back.” Salon, Oct. 16.
Taliban Speech in Full.” The Telegraph, Sept. 19 2001, Web. 8 Aug. 2013. http://​www​.telegraph​.co​.uk​/news​/1341010​/Taliban​-speech​-in​-full​.html.
Terrorism in the United States.” Gallup, Web. 11 Feb. 2014. http://​www​.gallup​.com​/poll​/4909​/terrorism​-united​-states​.aspx.
Teten, Ryan Lee
2007 “We the People: The ‘Modern’ Rhetorical Popular Address of the Presidents during the Founding Period.” Political Research Quarterly 60 (4): 669–682. Crossref link
‘t Hart, Paul, Karen Tindall, and Christer Brown
2009 “Crisis Leadership of the Bush Presidency: Advisory Capacity and Presidential Performance in the Acute Stages of the 9/11 and Katrina Crises.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 39 (3): 473–493. Crossref link
‘t Hart, Paul, and Karen Tindall
2009 “Understanding Crisis Exploitation: Leadership, Rhetoric and Framing Contests in Response to the Economic Meltdown.” In Framing the Global Economic Downturn: Crisis Rhetoric and the Politics of Recessions, ed. by P. ‘t Hart and K. Tindall, 21–40. Canberra: ANU E Press. Crossref link
The 2006 Pulitzer Prize Winners.” Pulitzer Prizes, Web. 10 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.pulitzer​.org​/citation​/2006​-Public​-Service.
The US Refuses to Negotiate with the Taliban.” BBC.co.uk, Web. 8 Aug. 2013. http://​www​.bbc​.co​.uk​/history​/events​/the​_us​_refuses​_to​_negotiate​_with​_the​_taliban.
Thibodeau, Paul H., and Lera Boroditsky
2011 “Metaphors We Think With: The Role of Metaphor in Reasoning.” PLoS ONE 6 (2), Feb. 23, Web. 11 Feb. 2014. http://​journals​.plos​.org​/plosone​/article​?id​=10​.1371​/journal​.pone​.0016782. Crossref link
Tierney, Kathleen, Christine Bevc, and Erica Kuligowski
2006 “Metaphors Matter: Disaster Myths, Media Frames, and Their Consequences in Hurricane Katrina.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 604: 57–81. Crossref link
Translated Text of Bin Laden Broadcast.” New York Times, Oct. 8 2001.
Treaty Room.” White House Museum, Web. 28 Feb. 2014. http://​www​.whitehousemuseum​.org​/floor2​/treaty​-room​.htm.
Tulis, Jeffrey K.
1996 “Revising the Rhetorical Presidency.” In Beyond the Rhetorical Presidency, ed. by M. Medhurst, 3–14. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.
Urbina, Ian
2010 “U.S. Said to Allow Drilling Without Needed Permits.” New York Times, May 14.
U.S. Must Hit Reset Button with BP.” Financial Times, June 11 2010.
Van Alstyne, Andrew D.
2002 “Freedom.” In Collateral Language: A User’s Guide to America’s New War, ch. 6, ed. by J. Collins and R. Glover. New York: New York University Press.
Waiting for a Leader.” New York Times (Editorial), Sept. 1 2005, Web. 9 Oct. 2014. http://​www​.nytimes​.com​/2005​/09​/01​/opinion​/waiting​-for​-a​-leader​.html.
Wagner, Norbert, and Michal Machnowski
. “BP: Barack’s Problem.” KAS Länderbericht, Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.kas​.de​/wf​/doc​/kas​_20108​-1522​-2​-30​.pdf​?100711170245.
Wallis, Jim
2003 “George W. Bush’s Theology of Empire.” Sojourner’s Magazine, Sept./Oct.
Wallerstein, Immanuel
2001 “America and the World: The Twin Towers as Metaphor.” SSRC, Dec. , Web. 5 Dec. 2012. http://​www​.ssrc​.org​/sept11​/essays​/wallerstein​.htm.
Wander, Phillip
1984 “The Rhetoric of American Foreign Policy.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 70 (4): 339–361. Crossref link
Ward Howe, Julia
1917 “The Battle Hymn of the Republic.” The Journal of Education 86 (17): 453.
Warner, Jamie
2008 “Tyranny of the Dichotomy: Prophetic Dualism, Irony, and The Onion.” The Electronic Journal of Communication 18: 2–4.
Warrick, Joby
2006 “White House Got Early Warning on Katrina.” Washington Post, Jan. 26.
Weber, Max
2009 “Discipline and Charisma.” In Essays in Sociology, ed. by M. Weber, 262–267. New York: Routledge.
Wellford, Rachel
2016 “Who delivered the longest State of the Union and other trivia.” PBS NewsHours, Web. 14 Jan. 2016 https://​www​.pbs​.org​/newshour​/politics​/a​-short​-history​-of​-the​-state​-of​-the​-union
Wheaton, Sarah
2010 “Protesters Gather at BP Stations.” The New York Times, June 3.
When Fortune Frowned.” The Economist, Oct. 11 2008.
Whissell, Cynthia M.
1989 “The Dictionary of Affect in Language.” In Emotion: Theory, Research and Experience, ed. by R. Plutchnik and H. Kellerman, 131–131. New York: Academic Press.
2009 “Using the Revised Dictionary of Affect in Language to Quantify the Emotional Undertones of Samples of Natural Language.” Psychological Reports 105: 1–13. Crossref link
White House Rejects Clerics’ Recommendation.” CNN.com, Sept. 20 2001, Web. 8 Aug. 2013. http://​edition​.cnn​.com​/2001​/WORLD​/asiapcf​/central​/09​/20​/ret​.afghan​.clerics/.
Williams, Paul
2008 “Twenty-First-Century Jeremiad: Contemporary Hip-Hop and American Tradition.” European Journal of American Culture 27 (2): 111–132. Crossref link
Williams, Ray
2014 “Why We Love Bad News More Than Good News.” Psychology Today, Nov. 1, Web. 16 Aug. 2015. https://​www​.psychologytoday​.com​/blog​/wired​-success​/201411​/why​-we​-love​-bad​-news​-more​-good​-news.
Wilson, W.
1975 “Abraham Lincoln: A Man of the People.” In A. Link (ed.), The Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Vol. 19. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Windt, Theodor Otto, Jr.
1986 “Presidential Rhetoric: Definition of a Field of Study.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 16 (1): The Media and the Presidency, Winter, 102–116.
Windt, Theodore O.
1987 “The Presidency and Speeches on International Crises: Repeating the Rhetorical Past.” In Essays in Presidential Rhetoric (3rd ed.), ed. by T. Windt and B. Ingold, 91–100. Dubuque, IA: Dubuque, Kendall Hunt Publishing Company.
Wodak, Ruth
2009 “Language and Politics.” In English Language: Description, Variation and Context, ed. by R. Wodak et al., 576–593. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Crossref link
Wolfe, Dylan
2008 “The Ecological Jeremiad, the American Myth, and the Vivid Force of Color in Dr. Seuss’s The Lorax.” Environmental Communication 2 (1). Crossref link
Yardle, William, and Maria Newman
2005 “Bush Denies Racial Component to Government’s Effort After Storm.” New York Times, Sept. 12.
Zarefsky, David
2003 “Four Senses of Rhetorical History.” In Doing Rhetorical History: Concepts and Cases, ed. by K. Turner. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
2004 “George W. Bush Discovers Rhetoric.” In The Ethos of Rhetoric, ed. by M. Hyde, 136–155. Columbus, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press.
2004 “Presidential Rhetoric and the Power of Definition.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 34 (3): 607–619. Crossref link
2008 “The Presidency Has Always Been a Place for Rhetorical Leadership.” In The Presidency and Rhetorical Leadership, ed. by L. Dorsey. Texas: Texas A&M University Press.
Zeleny, Jeff
2008 “Obama Weighs Quick Undoing of Bush Policy.” New York Times, Nov. 10.
Zelizer, Julian
2009 “Five Turning Points of the Decade.” CNN.com, Dec. 22, Web. 10 Feb. 2015. http://​edition​.cnn​.com​/2009​/OPINION​/12​/21​/zelizer​.tough​.decade/
Žižek, Slavoj
2004 “Iraq’s False Promises.” Foreign Policy, Jan./Feb, pp. 43–49.

Government Publications

Blake, Eric S. et al.
2011 “The Deadliest, Costliest, and Most Intense United States Tropical Cyclones From 1851 to 2010 (and other Frequently Requested Hurricane Facts).” NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS NHC-6, National Hurricane Center, Web. 7 June 2014. http://​www​.nhc​.noaa​.gov​/pdf​/nws​-nhc​-6​.pdf.
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement
2011 “Report Regarding the Causes of the April 20, 2010 Macondo Well Blowout.” National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Sept. 14, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​docs​.lib​.noaa​.gov​/noaa​_documents​/DWH​_IR​/reports​/dwhfinal​.pdf.
Duelfer, Charles A.
2004 “Comprehensive Report of the Special Advisor to the Director of Central Intelligence on Iraq’s WMD.” U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, Web. 5 Nov. 2013. http://​ www​.cia​.gov​/cia​/reports​/iraq​_wmd​_2004.
Federal Emergency Management Agency
2014 “About Hurricane Katrina.” FEMA.gov, June 24, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. https://​www​.fema​.gov​/response​-recovery​/about​-hurricane​-katrina.
2006 “By the Numbers – One Year Later.” FEMA.gov, Aug. 22, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. https://​www​.fema​.gov​/news​-release​/2006​/08​/22​/numbers​-one​-year​-later.
Iraq Study Group
2006 “The Iraq Study Group Report: The Way Forward – A New Approach.” Dec. 6, Web. 5 Dec. 2013. http://​www​.usip​.org​/iraq​-study​-group​/the​-isg​-report.
Knabb, Richard D.. et al.
2005 “Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Katrina: 23–30 August 2005.” National Hurricane Center, Dec. 20, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.nhc​.noaa​.gov​/data​/tcr​/AL122005​_Katrina​.pdf.
National Bureau of Economic Research
. “The NBER’s Business Cycle Dating Procedure: Frequently Asked Questions.” NBER, Web. 31 May 2015. http://​www​.nber​.org​/cycles​/recessions​_faq​.html.
. “US Business Cycle Expansions and Contractions.” NBER, Web. 31 May 2015. http://​www​.nber​.org​/cycles​/cyclesmain​.html.
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States
2004 “The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States.” Aug. , Web. 2 Feb. 2013. http://​govinfo​.library​.unt​.edu​/911​/report​/911Report​.pdf.
National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling
2011 “Deep Water: The Gulf Oil Disaster and the Future of Offshore Drilling.” Report to the President, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.gpo​.gov​/fdsys​/pkg​/GPO​-OILCOMMISSION​/pdf​/GPO​-OILCOMMISSION​.pdf.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
1949 “The North Atlantic Treaty.” April 4. NATO, Web. 6 Mar. 2014 http://​www​.nato​.int​/cps​/en​/natolive​/official​_texts​_17120​.htm.
Obama, Barack H., and Joe Biden
2008 “Blueprint for Change: Obama and Biden’s Plan for America.” Web. 17 May 2015. https://​assets​.documentcloud​.org​/documents​/550007​/barack​-obama​-2008​-blueprint​-for​-change​.pdf.
Prados, Alfred B.
2002 “Iraq-U.S. Confrontation.” Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​fas​.org​/man​/crs​/IB94049​.pdf.
Romer, Christina, and Jared Bernstein
2009 “The Job Impact of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Plan.” Jan. 9, Web. 17 May 2015. http://​www​.ampo​.org​/assets​/library​/184​_obama​.pdf.
Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina
2006 “A Failure of Initiative: Supplementary Report and Document Annex.” House Report 109–396, March 16, Web. 19 April 2014. http://​www​.gpo​.gov​/fdsys​/pkg​/CRPT​-109hrpt396​/html​/CRPT​-109hrpt396​.htm.
The White House
2003 “National Strategy for Combating Terrorism.” Feb. 14, Web. 18, Mar. 2012. http://​georgewbush​-whitehouse​.archives​.gov​/news​/releases​/2003​/02​/20030214​-7​.html.
2003 “Press Briefing by Ari Fleischer.” White House Press Release, 24 March 2003, The White House: G. W. Bush (Archived), Web. 7 June, 2014. http://​georgewbush​-whitehouse​.archives​.gov​/news​/releases​/2003​/03​/20030324​-4​.html.
2002 “The National Security Strategy of the United States of America.” Sept., Web. 5 Jan. 2014. http://​www​.state​.gov​/documents​/organization​/63562​.pdf.
United Nations, Department of Public Information
2001 “Security Council Condemns, ‘In Strongest Terms’, Terrorist Attacks on United States; Unanimously Adopting Resolution 1368 (2001).” Release SC/7143, Security Council 4370th Meeting (PM), Web. 23 July 2014. http://​www​.un​.org​/News​/Press​/docs​/2001​/SC7143​.doc​.htm.
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
2012 “The Recession of 2007–2009.” BLS Spotlight on Statistics and the Recession of 2007–2009, Web. 16 June 2015. www​.bls​.gov​/spotlight.
U.S. Census Bureau
2005 “American Community Survey – Special Data Studies – 2005 Gulf Coast Area.” Census.gov, Web. 10 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.census​.gov​/acs​/www​/methodology​/special​_data​_studies/.
U. S. Congress
2009 “American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.” Feb. 17 2009, Pub. L. 111–5, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.gpo​.gov​/fdsys​/pkg​/BILLS​-111hr1enr​/pdf​/BILLS​-111hr1enr​.pdf.
U.S. Congress
2001 “Authorization for Use of Military Force against Terrorists.” Sept. 14, Pub. L. 107–40, S.J.Res. 23, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.gpo​.gov​/fdsys​/pkg​/PLAW​-107publ40​/pdf​/PLAW​-107publ40​.pdf.
2008 “Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (EESA).” Oct. 3, Pub. L. 110–343, Web. 18 Aug. 2014. http://​www​.gpo​.gov​/fdsys​/pkg​/PLAW​-110publ343​/html​/PLAW​-110publ343​.htm.
2002 “Freedom Promotion Act of 2002.” June 23 2002, House Resolution 3969, did not pass, Web. 7 Sept. 2014. https://​www​.govtrack​.us​/congress​/bills​/107​/hr3969​/text.
2001 “Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorist Act of 2001 (USA PATRIOT Act).” Oct. 26, Pub. L. 107–56, 115 Stat. 272, Web. 4 Aug. 2014. http://​www​.gpo​.gov​/fdsys​/pkg​/PLAW​-107publ56​/pdf​/PLAW​-107publ56​.pdf.
U.S. President
2001 “National Day of Prayer and Remembrance for the Victims Of the Terrorist Attacks on September 11, 2001.” Proclamation 7462, Web. 5. Mar. 2013. http://​georgewbush​-whitehouse​.archives​.gov​/news​/releases​/2001​/09​/20010913​-7​.html.


American Rhetoric, Web. 9 Sept. 2015. http://​www​.americanrhetoric​.com/.
Committee for the Liberation of Iraq (Archived), Web. 7 Nov. 2014. http://​web​.archive​.org​/web​/20030611154222​/www​.liberationiraq​.org/.
Gallup, Web. 9 Sept. 2013. http://​www​.gallup​.com.
Obama-Biden Transition Project, Web. 9 June 2015. http://​change​.gov/.
Organizing For Action: Barack Obama, Web. 15 Aug. 2014. http://​www​.barackobama​.com/.
Presidential Rhetoric, Web. 5 Oct. 2014. http://​www​.presidentialrhetoric​.com.
September 11 News, Web. 22 June 2014. http://​www​.september11news​.com/.
The American Presidency Project, Web. 12 Dec. 2014. http://​www​.presidency​.ucsb​.edu​/index​.php.
The White House: G. W. Bush (Archived), Web. 7 June 2014. http://​georgewbush​-whitehouse​.archives​.gov​/president/.
The White House: President Barack Obama (Archived), Web. 15 May 2014. https://​obamawhitehouse​.archives​.gov/.
The White House YouTube Channel, Web. 9 June 2015. https://​www​.youtube​.com​/user​/whitehouse.
Washington National Cathedral, Web. 7 Nov. 2013. http://​www​.nationalcathedral​.org/.
Wordle, Web. 18 Sept. 2014. http://​www​.wordle​.net/.


Bush, George W.
2000 “Speech in Florence.” South Carolina, Jan. 11.
2001a “Remarks at Emma Booker Elementary School.” Sarasota, Florida, Sept. 11.
2001b “9/11 Remarks at Barksdale Air Force Base.” Louisiana, Sept. 11.
2001c “Address to the Nation.” Oval Office, White House, Washington D.C., Sept. 11.
2001d “Speech at the National Day of Prayer and Remembrance Ceremony.” National Cathedral, Washington D.C., Sept. 14.
2001e “Bullhorn Address to Ground Zero Rescue Workers.” Ground Zero, New York City, Sept. 14.
2001f “Statement during a Call with Several World Leaders.” Camp David, Maryland, Sept. 15.
2001g “Remarks in a Meeting with the National Security Team and an Exchange with Reporters at Camp David.” Maryland, Sept. 15.
2001h “Radio Address of the President to the Nation.” Camp David, Maryland, Sept. 15.
2001i “Remarks by the President Upon Arrival.” South Lawn, White House, Washington D.C., Sept. 16.
2001j “Statement on Bringing down Osama Bin Laden.” Pentagon, Washington D.C., Sept. 17.
2001k “Address to a Joint Session of Congress Following 9/11 Attacks.” ­Washington D.C., Sept. 20.
2001l “Speech at O’Hare Airport.” Chicago, Illinois, Sept. 27.
2001m “The President’s Statement from the White House’s Office of the Press Secretary.” Treaty Room, Washington D.C., Oct. 7.
2001n “Press Conference with President G. W. Bush.” White House, Washington D.C., Oct. 11.
2001o “President Discusses War on Terrorism.” World Congress Center, Atlanta, Georgia, Nov. 8.
2002a “State of the Union Address 2002.” U.S. Congress, Washington D.C., Jan. 29.
2002b “Speech at the Graduation Exercise of the United States Military ­Academy.” West Point, New York, June 1.
2002c “Speech to the UN General Assembly.” New York City, Sept. 12.
2002d “Remarks on the Iraqi Threat at the Cincinnati Museum Center.” Ohio, Oct. 7.
2003 “Presidential Address to the Nation.” Oval Office, White House, March 19.
2005c “Remarks on Hurricane Relief Efforts.” Oval Office, White House, Washington D.C., Sept. 1.
2005d “President Tours Biloxi, Mississippi Hurricane Damaged Neighborhoods.” Biloxi, Mississippi, Sept. 2.
2005e “Briefing on the Hurricane from the Mobile Regional Airport in ­Alabama.” Sept. 2.
2005f “Remarks on Hurricane Recovery Efforts at Louis Armstrong New Orleans.” International Airport in Kenner, Louisiana, Sept. 2.
2005h “Address to the Nation on Hurricane Katrina.” New Orleans, Louisiana, Sept. 15.
2005i “Speech before the Republican Jewish Coalition.” Washington D.C., Sept. 21.
2006a “White House Press Conference.” Washington D.C., Aug. 21.
2006b “Status of the Nation and the War: The President’s News Conference.” White House, Washington D.C., Dec. 20.
2008a “Speech at the Economic Club of New York.” New York Hilton Hotel, New York, Mar. 14.
2008b “President Bush Discusses Economy.” Oval Colonnade, Washington, D.C., Sept. 18.
2008c “Address on the Economy.” Rose Garden, White House, Washington, D.C., Sept. 19.
2008d “The President’s Radio Address.” Cabinet Room, White House, Washington D.C., Sept. 20.
2008e “The President’s News Conference With President Alvaro Uribe Velez of Colombia.” Rose Garden, White House, Washington D.C., Sept. 20.
2008f“Primetime Address to the Nation.” East Room, White House, Washington D.C., Sept. 24.
Bush, George, and Vaclav Havel
2002 “Press Conference by US President George W. Bush and Vaclav Havel.” President of the Czech Republic, NATO Summit, Prague, Nov. 20. Web. 15 Aug. 2015 http://​www​.nato​.int​/docu​/speech​/2002​/s021120b​.htm
Clinton, William J. B.
1995 “Oklahoma Bombing Memorial Prayer Service Address.” Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, April 23.
Eisenhower, Dwight D.
1944“Order of the Day” (Statement Given Prior to the Invasion/ ‘D-Day Speech’). England, June 6.
Kennedy, John F.
1959 “Speech at the United Negro College Fund Fundraiser.” Indianapolis, Indiana, April 12.
1961a “First Inaugural Address.” U.S. Capitol, Washington D.C., Jan. 20.
1961b “Speech before a Joint Session of Congress.” Washington D.C., May 25.
1962 “Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation, Radio and Television Address.” Washington D.C., Oct. 22.
1963 “Remarks at the 11th Annual Presidential Prayer Breakfast.” Mayflower Hotel, Washington D.C., Feb. 7.
Kennedy, Robert F.
1968 “A Time of Shame and Sorrow.” City Club of Cleveland, Ohio, April 5.
King, Martin Luther Jr
1963 “Normalcy, Never Again” (‘I Have A Dream Speech’). on the steps at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C., Aug. 28.
Lincoln, Abraham
1861a “First Inaugural Address.” U.S. Capitol, Washington D.C., Mar. 4.
1861b “State of the Union Address” (First Annual Message), U.S. Capitol, Washington D.C., Dec. 4.
1863 “Gettysburg Address.” Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, Nov. 19.
Obama, Barack H.
2008 “Senate Floor Speech in Support of the Wall Street Bailout Bill.” U.S. Senate, Washington D.C., Oct. 1.
2009a “First Presidential Inaugural Address.” U.S. Capitol, Washington D.C., Jan. 20.
2009b “First Weekly Address to the Nation.” Briefing Room, White House, Washington D.C., Jan. 24.
2009c “Push for a Stimulus: Primetime Press Conference.” East Room, White House, Washington D.C., Feb. 9.
2009d “Weekly Address to the Nation.” Briefing Room, White House, Washington D.C., Feb. 14.
2009e “Remarks Upon Signing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.” Denver, Colorado, Feb. 17.
2009f “Address to a Joint Session of Congress.” Washington D.C., Feb. 24.
2010a “Remarks by the President on Energy Security at Andrews Air Force Base.” Morningside, Maryland, March 31.
2010b “Remarks by the President.” Rose Garden, White House, Washington D.C., April 29.
2010c “Remarks by the President on the Oil Spill.” Venice, Louisiana, May 2.
2010d “Remarks by the President on the Ongoing Oil Spill Response.” Rose Garden, White House, Washington D.C., May 14.
2010e “Remarks by the President on the Gulf Oil Spill.” White House, ­Washington D.C., May 27.
2010f “Remarks by the President After Briefing on BP Oil Spill.” U.S. Coast Guard Station Grande Isle Grande Isle, Louisiana, May 28.
2010g “Remarks by the President to the Nation on the BP Oil Spill.” Oval Office, White House, Washington D.C., June 15.
2014 “Remarks by the President at Hurricane Preparedness Briefing.” FEMA Headquarters, Washington D.C., May 30.
Reagan, Ronald
1983 “Remarks at the Annual Convention of the National Association of Evangelicals in Orlando.” Florida, March 8.
1986 “Speech after the Explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger.” Oval Office, White House, Washington D.C., Jan. 28.
1989 “Farewell Address to the Nation.” Oval Office, White House, Washington D.C., Jan. 11.
Roosevelt, Franklin D.
1933a “First Inaugural Address.” U.S. Capitol, Washington D.C., March 4.
1933b “Radio Broadcast, First Fireside Chat.” Washington D.C., March 12.
1936 “Fireside Chat Radio Broadcast on the Drought and the Dust Bowl.” Washington, D.C., Sept. 6.
1940 “The Great Arsenal of Democracy.” Radio Broadcast, Washington D.C., Dec. 29.
1941a “State of the Union Address 1941.” U.S. Capitol, Washington D.C., Jan. 6.
1941b “Speech to Congress after the Pearl Harbor Attack.” Washington D.C., Dec. 8.
1944 “D-Day Prayer.” Washington D.C., June 6.


Danforth, Samuel
1670 “A Brief Recognition of New-Englands Errand into the Wilderness.” An Online Electronic Text Edition, Faculty Publications, UNL Libraries, Web. 27 Aug. 2014. http://​digitalcommons​.unl​.edu​/libraryscience​/35.
1968 “An Exhortation to All: To Use Utmost Endeavours to Obtain a Visit of the God of Hosts, for the Preservation of Religion, and the Church, Upon Earth: In a Sermon Preached Before His Excellency the Governour, the Honourable Council and Representatives of the Province of the Massachusetts-Bay in N.E. On May 26, 1714. Being the Anniversary Day of the Election of Councellors of the Said Province.” Printed by B. Green: sold by Samuel Gerrish, at his shop on the north side of the town-house, Boston, 1714. In A. Plumstead (ed.): The Wall and the Garden: Selected Massachusetts Election Sermons, 1670–1775, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
Edwards, Jonathan
1741 “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. A Sermon Preached at Enfield, July 8th, 1741.” In Electronic Texts in American Studies, ed. by R. Smolinski, Paper 54. Lincoln: Libraries at University of Nebraska, Web. 23 July 2014. http://​digitalcommons​.unl​.edu​/cgi​/viewcontent​.cgi​?article​=1053​&context​=etas.
Mather, Increase
1676 “A Brief History of the War with the Indians in New England.” In Papers of Increase Mather: An Inventory, Harvard University Archives, Web. 22 July 2014. http://​oasis​.lib​.harvard​.edu/​/oasis​/deliver​/deepLink​?_collection​=oasis​&uniqueId​=hua28004.
. “Renewal of Covenant the Great Duty Incumbent on or Distressed Churches a Sermon Concerning Renewing of Covenant with God in Christ Preached at Dorchester in New England the 21 Day of the 1 Month 1677 Being a Day of Humiliation There on that Occasion.” Printed by John Foster for Henry Phillips, and are to be sold at his shop in the west end of the Town-House in Boston, 1677. Evans Early American Imprint Collection, Web. 22 July 2014. http://​quod​.lib​.umich​.edu​/e​/evans​/N00180​.0001​.001​?rgn​=main;view​=fulltext.
1673 “The Day of Trouble Is Near. Two Sermons Wherein is Shewed, What Are the Signs of a Day of Trouble Being Near. And Particularly, What Reason There Is for New-England to Expect a Day of Trouble. Also What Is to Be Done, That We May Escape These Things Which Shall Come to Pass.” Evans Early American Imprint Collection, Web. 22 July 2014. http://​quod​.lib​.umich​.edu​/cgi​/t​/text​/text​-idx​?c​=evans;idno​=N00137​.0001​.001.
Wigglesworth, Michael
1662 “God’s Controversy with New-England.” In Electronic Texts in American Studies, ed. by R. Smolinski. Lincoln: Libraries at University of Nebraska, Paper 36, Web. 16 Aug. 2015. http://​digitalcommons​.unl​.edu​/etas​/36.
Winthrop, John
1995 “A Model of Christian Charity.” In The Norton Anthology of American Literature (Shorter 4th ed.), ed. by N. Baym, 101–112. New York: Norton.
Cited by

Cited by other publications

Gilmore, Jason, Charles M. Rowling, Jason A. Edwards & Nicole T. Allen
2020. Exceptional “We” or Exceptional “Me”? Donald Trump, American Exceptionalism, and the Remaking of the Modern Jeremiad. Presidential Studies Quarterly Crossref logo

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 30 june 2020. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.


Communication Studies

Communication Studies
BIC Subject: CFG – Semantics, Pragmatics, Discourse Analysis
BISAC Subject: LAN009030 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / Pragmatics
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  2017056556