“Plaza ‘góó and before he can respond…”
Language ideology, bilingual Navajo, and Navajo poetry
This article suggests that much of the use of the Navajo language in contemporary Navajo written poetry, especially English dominant poetry, serves as an icon of proper Navajo usage. It is a purist view of the Navajo language. Navajo poetry is implicated, even if tacitly, in a discourse of linguistic purism that is tied to an oppositional linguistic ideology that sees Navajo and English as discrete and distinct “objects.” Navajo poetry erases the contemporary sociolinguistic diversity - including bilingual Navajo - on the Navajo Nation. And in so doing, it closes off parts of Navajo sociolinguistic realities and in its stead creates an imagined Navajo language community.
Keywords: Erasure, Navajo, Linguistic ideology, Poetry, Bilingual Navajo
Available under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC) 4.0 license.
Published online: 01 September 2008
(1998) Stereotypes and registers of honorific language. Language in Society 27: 151-193. BoP
Bartelt, H. Guillermo
Benally, AnCita, and Denis Viri
(2007) Sociolinguistics and discourse analysis: Orders of indexicality and polycentricity. Journal of Multicultural Discourses 2.2: 115-130. BoP
(1992) Linguistic ideologies and the naturalization of discourse. Pragmatics 2.3: 387- 404. BoP
Chee, Melvatha; Evan Ashworth, Susan Buescher, and Brittany Kubacki
Denetdale, Jennifer Nez
n.d.) Diglot Favorites Navajo and English. Colorado Springs, CO: Listen Press.
Fast, Robin Riley
(2001) Triadic directives in Navajo language socialization. Language in Society 30: 249- 263. BoP
(2007) Increments in Navajo conversation. Pragmatics 17.4: 637-646. BoP
Foster, Susan; Gloria Singer, Lucy Benally, Theresa Boone, and Ann Beck
Gal, Susan, and Judith Irvine
Hirschfelder, Arlene, and Beverly Singer
(2002) Language Shift among the Navajos. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. BoP
Irvine, Judith, and Susan Gal
Klain, Bennie, and Leighton Peterson
(1992b) Arizona Tewa Kiva speech as a manifestation of linguistic ideology. Pragmatics 2.3: 297-309. BoP
(1992) When Literacy Empowers: Navajo Language in Print. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. BoP
Meek, Barbra, and Jacqueline Messing
(2006) Bible translation and medicine man talk: Missionaries, indexicality, and the “Language Expert” on the San Carlos Apache Reservation. Language in Society 35.4: 529-557. BoP
(1921) Language. New York: Harcourt, Brace. BoP
(2004) Bilingual Navajo: Mixed codes, bilingualism, and language maintenance. Ph.D. dissertation. Columbus: Ohio State University.
(2002) Speech Play and Verbal Art. Austin: University of Texas Press. BoP
Watch Tower Website
(2006) Jiihóvah Yádahalne’í Bibee Bóhólníihii bi. Web Site. http://www.watchtower.org/nv/index.html (last accessed on 4/8/08)
n.d.) “Tséyi’ first, because Navajo language was here before contact:” Intercultural performances, metasemiotic stereotypes and the dynamics of place. MS author’s possession.
(2007) More local chapters using Navajo names. Farmington Daily Times. [http://www.daily-times.com/news/ci_5963257]
Cited by 7 other publications
Cisternas Irarrázabal, César & Aldo Olate Vinet
Peterson, Leighton C. & Anthony K. Webster
Webster, Anthony K.
Webster, Anthony K.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 15 january 2022. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.