The Foundations of Grammar

An introduction to medieval Arabic grammatical theory

| University of Bayreuth
HardboundAvailable
ISBN 9789027245281 | EUR 125.00 | USD 188.00
 
e-Book
ISBN 9789027278630 | EUR 125.00 | USD 188.00
 
The Arabic grammatical tradition is one of the great traditions in the history of linguistics, yet it is also one that is comparatively unknown to modern western linguistics. The purpose of the present book is to provide an introduction to this grammatical tradition not merely by summarizing it, but by putting it into a perspective that will make it accessible to any linguist trained in the western tradition. The reader should not by put off by the word ‘medieval’: Arabic grammatical theory shares a number of fundamental similarities with modern linguistic theory. Indeed, one might argue that one reason Arabic theory has gone unappreciated for so long is that nothing like it existed in the West at the time of its ‘discovery’ by Europeans in the 19th century, when the European orientalist tradition was formed, and that it it only with the development of a Saussurean and Bloomfieldian structural tradition that a better perspective has become possible.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Symbols and conventions
x
Preface
xi
1. Introduction
1
1.1 What the work does and does not do
1
1.2 Who were the Arabic grammarians?
6
1.3 Arabic grammatical work
15
1.4 The data
19
1.5 The descriptive technique
21
1.6 Western linguistic principles
23
1.7 Language diversity and language change
25
1.8 Organization of grammars
28
2. Structure, function, class and dependency
31
2.1 Structure and function
31
2.2 Terms for sentence, kalâm and jumla
36
2.3 Governance/dependency, cAmal
38
2.4 Six explanations for case form
57
2.5 The function of inflection
66
2.6 Uninflected words
68
2.7 Class
68
2.8 Non-dependency relations and dependency
74
2.9 Constituency in Arabic theory
75
2.10 Complementary distribution
82
2.11 Morphological structure in Arabic theory
84
2.12 The structural nature of Arabic theory
85
3. Morphology
89
3.1 The linguistic sign: Kalâm, Kalima, and Lafḍh
89
3.2 Three preliminary remarks
94
3.3 Taṣrîf
98
3.4 'Ishtiqâq “Derivation”
106
3.5 Morphemes and added sounds
109
3.6 The Taṣrîf of a root
118
3.7 Arabic morphemic theory
120
3.8 Morphology as a generative system
122
3.9 Compounding (tarkîb)
123
3.10 Summary
123
4. Word classes
125
4.1 Phonological
125
4.2 Morphological
126
4.3 Syntactic
126
4.4 Semantic
127
4.5 Problems in the criteria
128
4.6 Sub-classes
130
4.7 The circumstance (ḍharf)
131
4.8 The active participle
136
4.9 The ‘verb’ of exclamation
142
5. The ‘noun phrase‘
148
5.1 What is a noun phrase and what does it do?
148
5.2 The noun phrase components in Arabic theory
149
5.3 Noun-noun relations
152
5.4 The noun phrase as a unit
158
5.5 Summary
166
6. Transitivity
167
6.1 Types of objects
167
6.2 More objects
172
6.3 Optionality
173
6.4 Causative
175
6.5 Voice and verb derivation
179
6.6 The passive
180
7. Ellipsis
186
7.1 Contextual
186
7.2 Structural
187
7.3 Non-deletion
189
7.4 Ibn Hishâm's summary
190
7.5 Extension of function ('ittisâc)
191
7.6 The status of deletion
192
7.7 Kufan-Basran arguments
193
7.8 Not all implicit relations are due to deletion
194
7.9 Comparison with deletions in transformational grammar
195
8. Markedness in Arabic theory
199
8.1 What is markedness?
199
8.2 An aside for terminology
201
8.3 Markedness in Arabic theory: Sîbawaih
202
8.4 Examples from later grammarians
203
8.5 Two interpretations of Anbârî's markedness schema
205
8.6 Anbârî's schema exemplified
206
8.7 Sequence
215
8.8 The 'Aṣl-Farc distinction as one of markedness
218
8.9 Comparison with transformational-generative grammar
220
9. Syntax, semantics and pragmatics
227
9.1 Semantic observations
228
9.2 Syntax and semantics
231
9.3 A separate semantic level?
243
9.4 Arabic grammar and transformational theory
245
9.5 Jurjânî, language and communication
248
9.6 Jurjânî and the Arabic linguistic tradition
250
9.7 Word order
251
9.8 Epilogue
263
Notes
265
Appendix I List of Arabic linguists whose works are cited
313
Appendix II Brief summary of grammatical constructions
315
Appendix III Original Arabic quotes
327
Bibliography
345
Index of names
359
Subject index
363
Index of Arabic grammatical terms
369
Cited by

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Subjects
BIC Subject: CF – Linguistics
BISAC Subject: LAN009000 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  87000897