Lexical Semantics for Terminology

An introduction

| University of Montreal
ISBN 9789027204677 | EUR 99.00 | USD 149.00
ISBN 9789027204684 | EUR 36.00 | USD 54.00
ISBN 9789027261786 | EUR 99.00/36.00*
| USD 149.00/54.00*
Lexical Semantics for Terminology: An introduction explores the interconnections between lexical semantics and terminology. More specifically, it shows how principles borrowed from lexico-semantic frameworks and methodologies derived from them can help understand terms and describe them in resources. It also explains how lexical analysis complements perspectives primarily focused on knowledge. Topics such as term identification, meaning, polysemy, relations between terms, and equivalence are discussed thoroughly and illustrated with examples taken from various fields of knowledge.
This book is an indispensable companion for those who are interested in words and work with specialized terms, e.g. terminologists, translators, lexicographers, corpus linguists. A background in terminology or lexical semantics is not required since all notions are defined and explained. This book complements other textbooks on terminology that do not focus on lexical semantics per se.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
List of figures
List of tables
List of abbreviations
Typographical conventions
Chapter 1. Why apply lexical semantics in terminology?
Chapter 2. Terminology
Chapter 3. Lexical semantics for terminology
Chapter 4. What is a term?
Chapter 5. Concepts, meaning and polysemy
Chapter 6. Predicative terms, participants and arguments
Chapter 7. Relations between concepts and terms
Chapter 8. Discovering structures in specialized domains
Chapter 9. Equivalence in terminology
Corpus examples references
“This book is a valuable complement to other approaches to terminology. It revisits terminology from a lexico-semantic perspective and provides some new insights: the notion of ‘term’ is extended to cover open class units other than nouns, and criteria are accordingly developed for identifying and selecting terms. Polysemy of terms is also handled with reliable criteria, and relations between the multiple meanings are discussed. In addition, the new perspective has diversified relations in terminology and increases the knowledge of them.”
“This book might serve as a guide to what lexical knowledge teachers should impart to ESP learners.”


Adamska-Salaciak, A.
2010 “Examining Equivalence.” International Journal of Lexicography 23(4): 387–409. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Aguado de Cea, G., and E. Montiel-Ponsoda
2012 “Term variants in Ontologies.” In XXX Congreso Internacional de AESLA 2012 , 436–443. Universidad de Lleida, Spain.
Ahmad, K., and M. Rogers
2001 “Corpus Linguistics and Terminology Extraction.” In Handbook of Terminology Management, ed. by S. E. Wright, and G. Budin, 725–760. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Aitchison, J., D. Bawden, and A. Gilchrist
2000Thesaurus Construction and Use: A Practical Manual, 3rd edition. Chicago/London: Fitzroy Dearborn.Google Scholar
Aldestein, A., and M. T. Cabré
2002 “The Specificy of Units with Specialized Meaning: Polysemy as an Explanatory Factor.” D.E.L.T.A. 18: 1–25.Google Scholar
Alonso Campo, A.
2008 “Environmental Terminology in General Dictionaries.” In Proceedings of the XIII Euralex International Congress, ed. by E. Bernal, and J. DeCesaris, 929–935. Barcelona: Institut universitari de lingüística aplicada (IULA).Google Scholar
Alonso Ramos, M.
2004 “Elaboración del Diccionario de colocaciones del español y sus aplicaciones .” In De Lexicografía. Actes del I Simposium Internacional de Lexicografía, ed. by P. Bataner, and J. de Cesaris, 149–162. Barcelona: IULA & Edicions Petició.Google Scholar
Amsili, P.
2003 “L’antonymie en terminologie: quelques remarques.” In Terminologie et Intelligence Artificielle (TIA) , 31–40. Strasbourg, France.
Arntz, R.
1993 “Terminological Equivalence and Translation.” In Terminology: Applications in Interdisciplinary Communication, 5–20. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Apresjan, J.
1973 “Regular Polysemy.” Linguistics 142: 5–32.Google Scholar
http://​babelnet​.org/). Accessed 19 October 2017.
Barrière, C.
2002 “Investigating the Causal Relation in Informative Texts.” Terminology 7(2): 135–154. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Barrière, C., and A. Agbago
2006 “TerminoWeb: A Software Environment for Term Study in Rich Contexts.” In Proceedings of the International Conference on Terminology, Standardisation and Technology Transfer (TSTT 2006, Beijing), National Research Council of Canada.
Béjoint, H., and P. Thoiron
(eds.) 2000Le sens en terminologie. Lyon: Presses universitaires de Lyon.Google Scholar
Bergenholtz, H., and U. Kaufmann
(1997) “Terminography and Lexicography. A Critical Survey of Dictionaries from a Single Specialised Field.” Hermes 18: 91–126.Google Scholar
Bernier-Colborne, G.
2016 Aide à l’identification de relations lexicales au moyen de la sémantique distributionnelle et son application à un corpus bilingue du domaine de l’environnement . PhD thesis presented at the University of Montreal, Montreal.
Binon, J., S. Verlinde, J. Van Dyck, and A. Bertels
2000Dictionnaire d’apprentissage du français des affaires. Paris: Didier.Google Scholar
Boas, H. C.
2009 “Semantic Frames as Interlingual Representations for Multilingual Lexical Databases.” In Multilingual FrameNets in Computational Lexicography: Methods and Applications, ed. by H. C. Boas, 59–99. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bouillon, P., E. Jezek, C. Melloni, and A. Picton
2012 “Annotating Qualia Relations in Italian and French Complex Nominals.” In Language Resources and Evaluation Conference (LREC 2012), 1527–1532. Istanbul, Turkey.
Boulanger, J. C.
1995 “Présentation : images et parcours de la socioterminologie.” Meta 40(2): 194–205. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bourigault, D., and M. Slodzian
1999 “Pour une terminologie textuelle.” Terminologies nouvelles 19: 29–32.Google Scholar
Bowker, L.
1993 “Multidimensional Classification of Concepts for Terminological Purposes.” In 4th ASIS SIG/CR Classification Research Workshop , 39–56. Columbus, Ohio.
1996 “Learning from Cognitive Science: Developing a New Approach to Classification in Terminology.” In Euralex ’96 Proceedings , ed. by M. Gellerstam, J. Järborg, S. G. Malmgren, K. Norén, L. Rogström, and C. Röjder, 781–788. Gothenburg, Sweden.
Bowker, L., and J. Pearson
2002Working with Specialized Languages. A Practical Guide to Using Corpora. London: Routledge. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cabezas-García, M., and P. Faber
2017 “A Semantic Approach to the Inclusion of Complex Nominals in English Terminographic Resources.” In Computational and Corpus-Based Phraseology. EUROPHRAS 2017. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ed. by R. Mitkov, 145–159. Cham: Springer. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cabré, M. T.
1999Terminology. Theory, Methods and Applications. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2003 “Theories of Terminology: Their Description, Prescription and Explanation.” Terminology 9(2): 163–200. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Campo, A.
2013 The Reception of Eugen Wüster’s Work and the Development of Terminology . PhD thesis presented at the University of Montreal, Montreal.
Candito M., P. Amsili, L. Barque, F. Benamara, G. Chalendar, M. Djemaa, P. Haas, R. Huyghe, Y. Mathieu, P. Muller, B. Sagot, and L. Vieu
2014 “Developing a French FrameNet: Methodology and First Results.” In Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), Reykjavik, Iceland (http://​www​.lrec​-conf​.org​/proceedings​/lrec2014​/index​.html). Accessed 18 April 2019.
Carreño, I.
2004 Analyse de la variation terminologique en corpus parallèle anglais-espagnol et de son incidence sur l’extraction de termes bilingues . Master’s thesis presented at the University of Montreal, Montreal.
Carrìère, I.
2006 Adjectifs dérivés de noms : analyse en corpus médical et modèle d’encodage terminologique . Master’s thesis presented at the University of Montreal, Montreal.
Cohen, B.
1986Lexique de cooccurrents: bourse et conjoncture économique. Montréal: Linguatech.Google Scholar
Condamines, A.
1993 “Un exemple d’utilisation de connaissances de sémantique lexicale : acquisition semi-automatique d’un vocabulaire de spécialité.” Cahiers de lexicologie 62: 25–65.Google Scholar
2005 “The Interpretation of Corpus Semantics: The Case of Terminology Construction.” Revue de linguistique appliquée 12(1): 39–52.Google Scholar
Coxhead, A.
2000 “A New Academic Word List.” TESOL Quarterly 34(2): 213–238. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Croft, W., and D. A. Cruse
2004Cognitive Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cruse, A.
1986Lexical Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
2011Meaning in Language: An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Daille, B.
2001 “Qualitative Term Extraction.” In Recent Advances in Computational Terminology, ed. by D. Bourigault, C. Jacquemin, and M. C. L’Homme, 149–166. Amsterdam/Philadephia: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2017Term Variation in Specialised Corpora: Characterisation, Automatic Discovery and Applications. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Daille, B., B. Habert, C. Jacquemin, and J. Royauté
1996 “Empirical Observation of Term Variation and Principles for their Description.” Terminology 3(2): 197–257. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dannélls, D., K. Friberg Heppin, and A. Ehrlemark
2014 “Using Language Technology Resources and Tools to Construct Swedish FrameNet.” In Proceedings of the Workshop on Lexical and Grammatical Resources for Language Processing , 8–17. Dublin, Ireland. Crossref
De Saussure, F.
1916Cours de linguistique générale. Paris: Payot.Google Scholar
Diccionario de Colocaciones del Español (http://​www​.dicesp​.com​/paginas). Accessed 4 April 2018.
Dicionário da Copa do Mundo
2018Dictionnaire fondamental de l’environnement (http://​olst​.ling​.umontreal​.ca​/cgi​-bin​/dicoenviro​/search​.cgi). Accessed 4 April 2018.Google Scholar
2018Dictionnaire fondamental de l’informatique et de l’Internet (http://​olst​.ling​.umontreal​.ca​/cgi​-bin​/dicoinfo​/search​.cgi). Accessed 4 April 2018.Google Scholar
Dicouèbe. Le DiCo en ligne
Diki-Kidiri, M.
2000 “Une approche culturelle de la terminologie.” Terminologies nouvelles 21: 27–41.Google Scholar
2007 “Éléments de terminologie culturelle.” Les cahiers du RIFAL 26: 14–25.Google Scholar
Djemma, M.
2017 Stratégie domaine par domaine pour la création d’un FrameNet du français : annotations en corpus de cadres et rôles sémantiques . PhD thesis presented at Université Paris-Diderot, Paris.
Dolbey, A., M. Ellsworh, and J. Scheffczyk
2006 “BioFrameNet: A Domain-specific FrameNet Extension with Links to Biomedical Ontologies.” In KR-MED 2006, Biomedical Ontology in Action , 87–94. Baltimore, Maryland.
Drouin, P.
2007 “Identification automatique du lexique scientifique transdisciplinaire.” Revue française de linguistique appliquée 12(2): 45–64. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Drouin, P., A. Francoeur, J. Humbley, and A. Picton
(eds.) 2017Currents Trends in Terminological Variation. Amsterdam/Philadephia: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Dubuc, R.
2002Manuel pratique de terminologie. Brossard (Québec): Linguatech.Google Scholar
Durán-Muñoz, I., and M. Bautista-Zambrana
2017 “Applying Ontologies to Terminology: Advantages and Disadvantages.” HERMES – Journal of Language and Communication in Business 51: 65–77. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dury, P.
(1999) “Étude comparative et diachronique des concepts ecosystem et écosystème.” Meta 44(3): 485–499. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2018Terminological Knowledge Base (http://​ecolexicon​.ugr​.es​/en​/index​.htm). Accessed 18 July 2018.Google Scholar
ENVO. Environmental Ontology
2015 (http://​environmentontology​.org/). Accessed 19 February 2015.Google Scholar
Estopà, R.
2001 “Les unités de signification spécialisées élargissant l’objet du travail en terminologie.” Terminology 7(2): 217–237. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Faber, P.
(ed.). 2012A Cognitive Linguistics View of Terminology and Specialized Language. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2014 “Frames as a Framework for Terminology.” In Handbook in Terminology, ed. by H. J. Kockert, and F. Steurs, 14–33. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Faber, P., P. León-Araúz, and A. Reimerink
2016 “EcoLexicon: New features and Challenges.” In GLOBALEX 2016: Lexicographic Resources for Human Language Technology in conjunction with the 10th edition of the Language Resources and Evaluation Conference , ed. by I. Kernerman, I. Kosem Trojina, S. Krek, and L. Trap-Jensen, 73–80. Portorož, Slovenia.
Faber, P., J. Verdejo, P. León Araúz, A. Reimerink, and G. Guzmán
2014 “Neural Substrates of Specialized Knowledge Representation: An fMRI study.” Revue française de linguistique appliquée 19(1): 15–32. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Felber, H.
1984Terminology Manual. Paris: Unesco and Infoterm.Google Scholar
Fellbaum, C.
(ed.) 1998WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database. Cambridge: MIT Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Fillmore, C. J.
1968 “The Case for Case.” In Universals in Linguistic Theory, ed. by E. Bach, and R. T. Harns, 1–88. New York: Holt, Rinehard & Winston.Google Scholar
1976 “Frame Semantics and the Nature of Language.” Annals New York Academy of Sciences: Conference on the Origin and Development of Language and Speech 280: 20–32. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1982 “Frame Semantics.” In Linguistics in the Morning Calm, ed. by The Linguistic Society of Korea, 111–137. Seoul: Hanshin.Google Scholar
1985 “Frames and the Semantics of Understanding.” Quaderni di Semantica 6: 222–254.Google Scholar
Fillmore, C. J., and B. T. Atkins
1992 “Toward a Frame-based Lexicon: The Semantics of RISK and its Neighbors.” In Frames, Fields and Contrasts, ed. by A. Lehrer, and E. Feder Kittay, 75–102. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Fillmore, C. J., and C. Baker
2010 “A Frames Approach to Semantic Analysis.” In The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Analysis, ed. by B. Heine, and H. Narrog, 313-339. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Fillmore, C. J., C. R. Johnson, and M. Petruck
2003 “Background to FrameNet.” International Journal of Lexicography 16(3): 235–250. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
FOLDOC, A Free Online Dictionary of Computing
foldoc​.org). Accessed 17 February 2015.
Fontenelle, T.
1997Turning a Bilingual Dictionary into a Lexico-semantic Database. Tübingen: Niemeyer. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(ed.) 2003 FrameNet and Frame Semantics . Special Issue of the International Journal of Lexicography 16(3).Google Scholar
2014 “From Lexicography to Terminology: A Cline, not a Dichotomy.” In Euralex 2014. Proceedings , 25–46. Bolzano, Italy.
2016 “Traduction et interprétation face aux défis actuels.” Revue française de linguistique appliquée 21(1): 53–66. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Foy, N. F., and D. L. McGuiness
2014Ontology Development 101: A Guide to Creating Your First Ontology (https://​protegewiki​.stanford​.edu​/wiki​/Ontology101). Accessed 4 July 2018.Google Scholar
A Framed Version of DiCoEnviro
Frawley, W.
1988 “New Forms of Specialized Dictionaries.” International Journal of Lexicography 1(3): 189–213. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Freixa, J.
2006 “Causes of Denominative Variation in Terminology.” Terminology 12(1): 51–77. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gagné, A. M., and M. C. L’Homme
2016 “Opposite Relationships in Terminology.” Terminology 22(1): 30–51. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gaudin, F.
1993Pour une socioterminologie: des problèmes sémantiques aux pratiques institutionnelles. Rouen: Presses de l’Université de Rouen.Google Scholar
2003Socioterminologie: une approche sociolinguistique de la terminologie. Bruxelles: Duculot. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gaussier, É.
2001 “General Considerations on Bilingual Terminology Extraction.” In Recent Advances in Computational Terminology, ed. by D. Bourigault, C. Jacquemin, and M. C. L’Homme, 167–182. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Geerearts, D.
2010Theories of Lexical Semantics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
GEMET Thesaurus
Gentilhomme, Y.
1994 “L’éclatement du signifié dans les discours technoscientifiques.” Cahiers de lexicologie 54(1): 5–35.Google Scholar
Ghazzawi, N.
2016 Du terme prédicatif au cadre sémantique : méthodologie de compilation d’une ressource terminologique pour des termes prédicatifs arabes en informatique . PhD thesis presented at the University of Montreal, Montreal.
Le grand dictionnaire terminologique
http://​www​.granddictionnaire​.com/). Accessed 26 February 2018.
Grass, T.
1999La traduction juridique bilingue français-allemand: problématique et résolutions des ambiguïtés terminologiques. Bonn: Romanistischer Verlag.Google Scholar
Gross, G.
1994 “Classes d’objets et descriptions des verbes.” Langages 115: 15–30. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Guilbert, L.
1973 “La spécificité du terme scientifique et technique.” Langue française 17: 5–17. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Granger, S., and M. Paquot
2009 “In Search of a General Academic English: A Corpus-driven Study.” In Proceedings of the International Conference on LSP. Options and Practices of LSP Practitioners , Heraklion.
Hanks, P., and J. Pustejovksy
2005 “A Pattern Dictionary for Natural Language Processing.” Revue française de linguistique appliquée 10(2): 63–82. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Harris, Z.
1968Mathematical Structures of Language. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Hatier, S.
2016 Identification et analyse linguistique du lexique scientifique transdisciplinaire. Approche outillée sur un corpus d’articles de recherche en SHS . PhD thesis presented at Université Grenoble-Alpes, Grenoble.
Hirst, G.
2009 “Ontology and the Lexicon.” In Handbook on Ontologies, ed. by S. Staab, and R. Studer, 269–292, Heidelberg: Springer. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Humbley, J.
2007 “Vers une réception plurielle de la théorie terminologique de Wüster: une lecture commentée des avant-propos successifs du manuel Einfürhung in die allgemeine Terminologie Lehre.” Langages 168(4): 82–91. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ingrosso, F., and A. Polguère
2015 “How Terms Meet in Small-World Lexical Networks: The Case of Chemistry Terminology.” In Proceedings of the Conference Terminology and Artificial Intelligence 2015 , 167–171, Granada, Spain.
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature
2000International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 4th Edition (http://​www​.nhm​.ac​.uk​/hosted​-sites​/iczn​/code/). Accessed 28 August 2012.Google Scholar
Josselin-Leray, A.
2005 Place et rôle des terminologies dans les dictionnaires unilingues et bilingues. Étude d’un domaine de spécialité: vulcanologie . PhD thesis presented at the University Lumière Lyon-2, Lyon.
Jousse, A. L., and A. Polguère
2005Le DiCo et sa version Dicouèbe. Document descriptif et manuel d’utilisation. Université de Montréal : Département de linguistique et de traduction.Google Scholar
Kageura, K.
2002The Dynamics of Terminology: A Descriptive Theory of Term Formation and Terminological Growth. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2012The Quantitative Analysis of the Dynamics and Structure of Terminologies. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
The Multilingual Electronic Dictionary of Football Language (http://​www​.kicktionary​.de​/index​.html). Accessed 16 May 2017.
Kleiber, G.
1999Problèmes de sémantique. La polysémie en question. Villeneuve d’Ascq : Presses universitaires du Septentrion.Google Scholar
Kocourek, R.
1991La langue française de la technique et de la science. Vers une linguistique de la langue savante. Niemeyer: Oscar Brandstetter.Google Scholar
L’Homme, M. C.
2002 “Fonctions lexicales pour représenter les relations sémantiques entre termes.” Traitement automatique de la langue (TAL) 43(1): 19–41.Google Scholar
2003 “Capturing the Lexical Structure in Special Subject Fields with Verbs and Verbal Derivatives: A Model for Specialized Lexicography.” International Journal of Lexicography 16(4): 403–422. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2004a “A Lexico-semantic Approach to the Structuring of Terminology.” In Computerm 2004. Workshop help in conjunction with Coling 2004 , 7–14. University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
2004bLa terminologie: principes et techniques. Montréal: Les Presses de l’Université de Montréal. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
L’Homme, M.C.
2005 “Sur la notion de ‘terme’.” Meta 50(4): 1112-1132. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
L’Homme, M. C.
2007 “Using Explanatory and Combinatorial Lexicology to Describe Terms.” In Selected Lexical and Grammatical Topics in the Meaning-Text Theory. In Honour of Igor Mel’cuk, ed. by L. Wanner, 163–198. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2012 “Using ECL (Explanatory Combinatorial Lexicology) to Discover the Lexical Structure of Specialized Subject Fields.” In Words, Meanings and other Interesting Things. A Festschrift n Honour of the 80th Anniversary of Professor Igor Alexandrovic Mel’cuk, ed. by J. Apresjan, et al., 378–390. Moscow: RCK.Google Scholar
2015a “Terminologies and Taxonomies.” In The Handbook of the Word, ed. by J. Taylor, 334–349. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
2015b “Predicative Lexical Units in Terminology.” In Recent Advances in Language Production, Cognition and the Lexicon, ed. by N. Gala, R. Rapp, and G. Bel-Enguix, 75–93. Berlin: Springer. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2018 “Maintaining the Balance between Knowledge and the Lexicon in Terminology: A Methodology based on Frame Semantics.” In Medical Lexicography and Terminology. Special issue of Lexicography, ed. by P. Peters, J. G. Yongwei, and J. Ding, 4(1): 3–21.Google Scholar
L’Homme, M. C., and G. Bernier-Colborne
2012 “Terms as Labels for Concepts, Terms as Lexical Units: A Comparative Analysis in Ontologies and Specialized Dictionaries.” Applied Ontology 7(4): 387–400.. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
L’Homme, M. C., and A. Polguère
2008 “Mettre en bons termes les dictionnaires spécialisés et les dictionnaires de langue générale.” In Lexicographie et terminologie : histoire de mots. Hommage à Henri Béjoint, ed. by F. Maniez, and P. Dury, 191–206. Lyon: Presses de l’Université de Lyon.Google Scholar
L’Homme, M. C., B. Robichaud, and N. Prévil
2018 “Browsing the Terminological Structure of a Specialized Domain: A Method Based on Lexical Functions and their Classification.” Language Resources and Evaluation, LREC 2018 , Myazaki, Japan (http://​www​.lrec​-conf​.org​/proceedings​/lrec2018​/summaries​/840​.html). Accessed 18 April 2019.
L’Homme, M. C., and A. San Martín
2016 “Définition terminologique : systématisation de règles de rédaction dans les domaines de l’informatique et de l’environnement.” Cahiers de lexicologie 109: 147–174.Google Scholar
Le Serrec, A.
2008 Étude sur l’équivalence de termes extraits automatiquement d’un corpus parallèle : contribution à l’extraction terminologique bilingue . Master’s thesis presented at the University of Montreal, Montreal.
Le Serrec, A., M. C. L’Homme, P. Drouin, and O. Kraif
2010 “Automating the Compilation of Specialized Dictionaries: Use and Analysis of Term Extraction and Lexical Alignment.” Terminology 16(1): 77–106. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Legal Dictionary, Law​.com
dictionary​.law​.com). Accessed 29 July 2015.
Lehrberger, J.
2003 “Automatic Translation and the Concept of Sublanguage.” In Readings in Machine Translation, ed. by S. Nirenburg, H. Somers, and Y. Wilks, 207–220. Boston: Massachussetts Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
León Araúz, P.
2009 Representación multidimensional del conocimiento especializado: el uso de marcos desde la macroestructura hasta la microestructura . PhD thesis presented at the, University of Granada, Granada.
León Araúz, P., P. Faber, and S. Montero Martínez
2012 “Specialized Language Semantics.” In A Cognitive Linguistics View of Terminology and Specialized Language, ed. by P. Faber, 97–175. Berlin: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
León Araúz, P., and A. Reimerink
2010 “Knowledge Extraction and Multidimensionality in the Environmental Domain.” In Proceedings of the Terminology and Knowledge Engineering (TKE) Conference. Dublin: Dublin City University (http://​lexicon​.ugr​.es​/pdf​/leonreimerink2010​.pdf). Accessed 18 April 2019.Google Scholar
Lerat, P.
2002a “Vocabulaire juridique et schémas d’arguments juridiques.” Meta 47(2): 155–162. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2002b “Qu’est-ce que le verbe spécialisé ? Le cas du droit.” Cahiers de Lexicologie 80: 201–211.Google Scholar
Longman Dictionaries
2008Longman American Defining Vocabulary. (http://​www​.webcitation​.org​/6O48nGWbq). Accessed 14 February 2014.Google Scholar
Lorente, M.
2007 “Les unitats lèxiques verbals dels textos especialitzats. Redefinició d’una proposta de classificació.” In Estudis de lingüístics i de lingüística aplicada en honor de M. Teresa Cabré Catellví. Volum II: De deixebles (Sèrie Monografies 11–12), ed. by M. Lorente, et al., 365–380. Barcelona: Institut Universitari de Lingüística Aplicada de la Universitat Pompeu Fabra.Google Scholar
Lyons, J.
1977Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Malm, P., S. Mumtaz Virk, L. Borin, and A. Savera
2018 “LingFN. Towards a FrameNet for the Linguistics Domain.” In International FrameNet Workshop. 2018. Multilingual FrameNets and Constructions. Proceedings. Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018), ed. by T. Timponi Torrent, L. Borin, and C. Baker, 37–43. Miyazaki, Japan.
Maniez, F.
2015 “The Use of Denominal Adjectives in Terminology.” In Terminología y comunicación científica y social, ed. by M. Roldán Vendrell, 43–66. Granada: Comares.Google Scholar
Marcel, E.
2000 “Quelques modalités d’application de la fonction lexicale Gener en botanique.” Cahiers de lexicologie 76(1): 91–110.Google Scholar
Marshman E.
2006 Lexical Knowledge Patterns for Semi-automatic Extraction of Cause-effect and Association Relations from Medical Texts: A Comparative Study of English and French . PhD thesis presented at the University of Montreal, Montreal.
Mel’čuk, I. A.
2004 “Actants in Semantics and Syntax I: Actants in Semantics.” Linguistics 42(1): 1–66. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2013Semantics. From Meaning to Text, Vol 2. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mel’čuk. I. et al.
1984–1999Dictionnaire explicatif et combinatoire. Montréal : Presses de l’Université de Montréal.Google Scholar
Mel’čuk. I., A. Clas, and A. Polguère
1995Introduction à la lexicologie explicative et combinatoire. Duculot: Louvain-la-Neuve.Google Scholar
Mel’čuk, I., and J. Milicevic
2014Introduction à la linguistique, Vol. 1. Paris: Hermann.Google Scholar
Mel’čuk, I., and A. Polguère
2007Lexique actif du français. L’apprentissage du vocabulaire fondé sur 20 000 dérivations sémantiques et collocations du français. Bruxelles: De Boeck.Google Scholar
Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
Meyer, I., D. Skuce, L. Bowker, and K. Eck
1992 “Towards a New Generation of Terminological Resources: An Experiment in Building a Terminological Knowledge Base.” In Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computational Linguistics , 956–957, Nantes, France. Crossref
Meyer, I., and K. Mackintosh
1996 “The Corpus from a Terminographer’s Viewpoint.” International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 1(2): 257–268 CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2000 “When Terms Move into our Everyday Lives: An Overview of De-terminologization.” Terminology 6(1): 111–138. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Murphy, M. L.
2003Semantic Relations in the Lexicon: Antonymy, Synonymy and other Paradigms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Navigli, R., and S. Ponzetto
2012 “BabelNet: The Automatic Construction, Evaluation and Application of a Wide-coverage Multilingual Semantic Network.” Artificial Intelligence 193: 217–250. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Nuopponen, A.
1994 “Wüster Revisited: On Causal Concept Relationships and Causal Concept Systems.” In Applications and Implications of Current LSP Research, Proceedings of the 9th European Symposium on LSP, Vol. II, 532–539. Bergen: Fagbokforlaget.Google Scholar
2014 “Tangled Web of Concept Relations. Concept relations for ISO 1087-1 and ISO 704.” In Terminology and Knowledge Engineering 2014. Berlin, Germany.
Ohara, K.
2009 “Frame-based Contrastive Lexical Semantics in Japanese FrameNet: The Case of Risk and Kakeru .“ In Multilingual FrameNets in Computational Lexicography, ed. by H. C. Boas, 163–182. New York/Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter.Google Scholar
Palmer, F. R.
1976Semantics. A New Outline. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Pavel, S., and D. Nolet
2001Handbook of Terminology. Ottawa: Public Works and Government Services Canada. Translation Bureau.Google Scholar
Pecman, M.
2018Langue et construction de connaisSENSes : énergie lexico-discursive et potentiel sémiotique des sciences. Paris: L’Harmattan.Google Scholar
Pedersen, B. S., S. Nimb, A. Søgaard, M. Hartmann, and S. Olsen
2018 “A Danish FrameNet Lexicon and an Annotated Corpus Used for Training and Evaluating a Semantic Frame Classifier.” In Language Resources and Evaluation, LREC 2018 , Myazaki, Japan (http://​www​.lrec​-conf​.org​/proceedings​/lrec2018​/summaries​/586​.html). Accessed 18 April 2019.
Petit, G.
2000 “L’introuvable identité du terme technique.” Revue française de linguistique appliquée 6(2): 63–79. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Phal, A.
1971Vocabulaire général d’orientation scientifique. Paris: CRÉDIF.Google Scholar
Picht, H., and J. Draskau
1985Terminology: An Introduction. Guilford: University of Surrey.Google Scholar
Pimentel, J.
2013 “Methodological Bases for Assigning Terminological Equivalents. A Contribution.” Terminology 19(2): 237–257. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pitkänen-Heikkilä, P.
2015 “Adjectives as Terms.” Terminology 21(1): 76–101. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Polguère, A.
2012 “Propriétés sémantiques et combinatoires des quasi-prédicats sémantiques.” Scolia 26: 131–152.Google Scholar
2014 “From Writing Dictionaries to Weaving Lexical Networks.” International Journal of Lexicography 27(4): 396–418. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2016Lexicologie et sémantique lexicale : notions fondamentales. Montréal: Presses de l’Université de Montréal. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Polguère, A., and D. Sikora
(eds.) 2016La definition, special issue of Cahiers de lexicologie 109(2).Google Scholar
PropBank. The Proposition Bank
http://​propbank​.github​.io/). Accessed 20 July 2018.
Pustejovsky, J.
1995The Generative Lexicon. Boston, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Riemer, N.
2015Word Meanings.” In The Handbook of the Word, ed. by J. Taylor, 305–319. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Rey, A.
1976Terminologie : noms et notions, coll. Que sais-je. Paris: Presses universitaires de France.Google Scholar
Robichaud, B.
2012 “Logic Based Methods for Terminological Assessment.” In Proceedings of the Eight International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’12), ed. by N. Calzolari et al., 94–98. Istanbul, Turkey.
Roche, C.
2012 “Ontoterminology: How to Unify Terminology and Ontology into a Single Paradigm.” In Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2012). Proceedings , 2626–2630. Istanbul, Turkey.
Rondeau, G.
1981Introduction à la terminologie. Montréal: Centre éducatif et culturel.Google Scholar
1984Introduction à la terminologie. Chicoutimi: Gaëtan Morin éditeur.Google Scholar
Rosario, B., and M. Hearst
2001 “Classifying the Semantic Relations in Noun Compounds via a Domain-specific Lexical Hierarchy.” In Proceedings of the 2001 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-01), 82–90. Cornell: Cornell University.Google Scholar
Rosch, E.
1978 “Principles of Categorization.” In Cognition and Categorization, ed. by E. Rosch, and P. Lloyd, 27–48. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Ruppenhofer, J, M. Ellsworth, M. Petruck, C. Johnson, C. Baker, and J. Scheffczyk
2016FrameNet II: Extended Theory and Practice (https://​framenet​.icsi​.berkeley​.edu​/fndrupal​/index​.php​?q​=the​_book). Accessed 27 January 2017.Google Scholar
Sager, J. C.
1990A Practical Course in Terminology Processing. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1994 “Reflections on Terminological Translation Equivalents.” Lebende Sprachen 39(2): 55–57. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1998 “Search of a Foundation towards a Theory of the Term.” Terminology 5(1): 41–57. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2000Essays on Definition. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
San Martín, A.
2016 La representación de la variación contextual mediante definiciones terminológicas flexible , PhD thesis presented at the University of Granada, Granada.
San Martín, A., and M. C. L’Homme
2014 “Definition Patterns for Predicative Terms in Specialized Dictionaries.” In Language Resources and Evaluation, LREC 2014 , Reykjavik, Iceland (http://​www​.lrec​-conf​.org​/proceedings​/lrec2014​/index​.html). Accessed 10 May 2018.
Schmidt, T.
2009 “The Kicktionary – A Multilingual Lexical Resource of Football Language.” In Multilingual FrameNets in Computational Lexicography. Methods and Applications, ed. by H. C. Boas, 101–134. Berlin/NewYork: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Seppälä, S., A. Ruttenberg, Y. Schreiber, and B. Smith
2016 “Definitions in Ontologies.” Cahiers de lexicologie 109(2), 173–205.Google Scholar
Snow, G.
1989 “La “refrancisation” de la common law: entreprise néologique.” In Biennale de la langue française (1989). Exprimer la modernité en français, 387–389. Montréal : Office de la langue française.Google Scholar
2010 “La common law de A à Z, une ressource de plus pour les langagiers.” L’Actualité langagière 7(4): 7–10.Google Scholar
Staab, S., and R. Studer
(eds.) 2009Handbook on Ontologies, 2nd Edition. Heidelberg: Springer. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Structural Informatics Group
2018Foundational Model of Anatomy (http://​si​.washington​.edu​/projects​/fma). Accessed 31 May 2018.Google Scholar
Studer, R., R. Benjamins, and D. Fensel
1998 “Knowledge Engineering: Principles and Methods.” Data & Knowledge Engineering 25(1–2): 161–198. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Subirats Rüggeberg, C.
2009 “Spanish FrameNet: An On-line Lexical Resource for Spanish.” In Multilingual FrameNets in Computational Lexicography. Methods and Applications, ed. by H. Boas, 135–162. New York/ Berlín: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Taylor, J.
(ed.) 2015The Handbook of the Word. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Temmerman, R.
2000Towards New Ways of Terminological Description: The Sociocognitive Approach. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Torrent, T. T., and M. Ellsworth
2013 “Behind the Labels: Criteria for Defining Analytical Categories in FrameNet Brasil.” Revista Veredas 17(1): 44–65.Google Scholar
Tutin, A.
2007 “Autour du lexique et de la phraséologie des écrits scientifiques.” Revue française de linguistique appliquée 12(2): 5–14. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Van Campenhoudt, M.
1996 “Réseau notionnel, intelligence artificielle et équivalence en terminologie multilingue : essai de modélisation.” In Lexicomatique et dictionnairiques, IVes journées scientifiques du réseau thématique Lexicologie, terminologie, traduction, ed. by A. Clas, P. Thoiron, and H. Béjoint, 281–306. Montréal, AUPELF-UREF et Beyrouth: F.M.A.Google Scholar
Van Valin, R.
2005Exploring the Syntax-Semantics Interface. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Vendler, Z.
1967Linguistics in Philosophy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
VerbNet. A Class-based Verb Lexicon
Vézina, R., X. Darras, J. Bédard, and M. Lapointe-Giguère
2009La rédaction de définitions terminologiques. Montréal: Office québécois de la langue française.Google Scholar
Wandji, O., M. C. L’Homme, and N. Grabar
2013 “Discovery of Semantic Frames for a Contrastive Study of Verbs in Medical Corpora.” Terminology and Artificial Intelligence, TIA 2013, Paris.
Wanner, L.
1996Lexical Functions in Lexicography and Natural Language Processing. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
http://​www​.webopedia​.com/). Accessed 29 July 2015.
Wierzbicka, A.
1985Lexicography and Conceptual Analysis. Ann Arbor: Karoma.Google Scholar
Winston, M. E., R. Chaffin, and D. Herrman
1987 “A Taxonomy of Part-Whole Relationships.” Cognitive Science 11(4): 417–444. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wittgenstein, L.
1956[1972]Philosophical Investigations, translated by G. G. M. Anscombre. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
WordNet. A Lexical Database for English
http://​wordnet​.princeton​.edu/). Accessed 3 August 2015.
Wüster, E.
1968The Machine Tool Dictionary. An Interlingual Dictionary of Basics Concepts. London: Technical Press.Google Scholar
1979Einführung in die allgemeine Terminologielehre und terminologische Lexikographie. Wien: Springer.Google Scholar
You, L., and K. Liu
2005 “Building Chinese FrameNet.” In 2005 International Conference on Natural Language Processing and Knowledge Engineering. Proceedings , Wuhan, China (https://​ieeexplore​.ieee​.org​/document​/1598752). Accessed 19 April 2019.

Corpus examples references

Axsen, J., C. Yang, R. W. McCarthy, A. F. Burke, K. S. Kurani, and T. S. Turrentine
2011 “The Plug-in Electric Vehicle Pathway.” In Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways: A Research Summary for Decision Makers (file://​​/C:​/Documents%20and%20Settings​/p1005591​/Mes%20documents​/Downloads​/2011​-UCD​-ITS​-RP​-11​-67​.pdf). Accessed 21 March 2014.Google Scholar
A Beginner’s Guide to HTML
Benson, S., and R. Nagel
2004Endangered Species, 2nd Edition. Farmington Hills: Thomson Gale (http://​www​.about​-the​-web​.com/). Accessed 15 August 2017.Google Scholar
Bjork, I., C. Connors, T. Welch, D. Shaw, and W. Hewitt
2011 Encouraging Renewable Energy Development. A Handbook for International Energy Regulators, National Association of Regulatory Utility Commisioners (https://​www​.naruc​.org​/international​/what​-we​-do​/clean​-energy​/regulating​-clean​-energy​-handbook/). Accessed 26 September 2019.
Brain, M.
How Computers Programs Work.” Howstuffworks (http://​www​.howstuffworks​.com​/program​.htm). Accessed 2 November 2001.
How Microprocessors Work.” Howstuffworks (http://​www​.howstuffworks​.com​/microprocessor​.htm). Accessed 2 November 2001.
Brown, G.
How Sound Cards Work.” Howstuffworks (http://​www​.howstuffworks​.com​/sound​-card​.htm). Accessed 1 November 2001.
Cabral, J. P. S.
2010 “Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens ans Water.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 7: 3657–3703 (https://​www​.ncbi​.nlm​.nih​.gov​/pmc​/articles​/PMC2996186/). Accessed 12 May 2017. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
California Ocean Protection Council and California Ocean Science Trust
2011Plastic Debris in the California Marine Ecosystem (http://​dornsife​.usc​.edu​/assets​/sites​/291​/docs​/Plastic​_Report​_lowres​.pdf). Accessed 12 May 2017.Google Scholar
Campbell, L.
1995 “Endangered and Threatened Animals of Texas: Their Life History and Management.” Texas Parks and Wildlife (http://​agris​.fao​.org​/agris​-search​/search​.do​?recordID​=US9631480). Accessed 28 February 2017.Google Scholar
Castro, A.
Yet Another Computer Users Guide (http://​www​.geocities​.com​/compguide111​/index​.htm). Accessed 22 December 2001.
Cohen, L.
A Basic Guide to the Internet (http://​library​.albany​.edu​/internet​/internet​.html). Accessed 5 August 2004.
Comer, D. E.
Questions and Answers on Networking and Internets (http://​www​.netbook​.cs​.purdue​.edu​/othrpags​/qanda​.htm). Accessed 16 August 2004.
Computers for Beginners
http://​tmbzone​.com​/index​.htm). Accessed 4 August 2004.
Cooke, S. J.
2008 “Biotelemetry and Biologging in Endangered Species Research and Animal Conservation: Relevance to Regional, National and IUCN Red List Threat Assessments.” Endangered Species Research 4: 165–185 (https://​www​.fecpl​.ca​/wp​-content​/uploads​/2013​/06​/Cooke​_ESR​_Review​.pdf). Accessed 27 June 2019. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Curtin, M.
Introduction to Network Security (http://​www​.interhack​.net​/pubs​/network​-security/). Accessed 16 August 2004.
Dobson, A. P., J. P. Rodriguez, W. M. Roberts, and D. S. Wilcove
1997 “Geographic Distribution of Endangered Species in the United States.” Science 275(5299): 550–553 (https://​science​.sciencemag​.org​/content​/275​/5299​/550). Accessed 26 June 2019. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dvorak, J.
(ed.) 1993The PC Magazine. Computer Buyer’s Guide. Emeryville, CA: Ziff-Davis Press.Google Scholar
Endangered Wildlife Trust
2010Annual Conservation Report of the Endangered Wildlife Trust (https://​www​.ewt​.org​.za​/conreport​.html). Accessed 27 June 2017.Google Scholar
Environment Canada
A Quality Environment: How the EU is Contributing (http://​ec​.europa​.eu​/publications​/booklets​/move​/55​/en​.doc). Accessed 6 January 2007.
Field, S.
Introduction to STL, Standard Template Library (http://​www​.linuxgazette​.com​/issue34​/field​.html ). Accessed 16 August 2004.
Freedman, B., and D. E. McAllister
2015 “Endangered Animals.” The Canadian Encyclopedia (http://​www​.thecanadianencyclopedia​.ca​/en​/article​/endangered​-animals/). Accessed 29 February 2016.Google Scholar
Gouvernement du Canada, Centre de recherches pour le développement international
Case study: Brazil-Mercury contamination in the Amazon.”
Gouvernement du Québec
2012 “Transportation Electrification Strategy.” Priorité Emploi (http://​www​.mce​.gouv​.qc​.ca​/publications​/electrification​-transports​/strategie​-electrification​-en​.pdf). Accessed 21 March 2014.Google Scholar
Hardesty, B. D., T. P. Good, and C. Wilcox
2015 “Novel Methods, New results and Science-based Solutions to Tackle Marine Debris Impacts on Wildlife.” Ocean and Coastal management 115 (http://​www​.sciencedirect​.com​/science​/article​/pii​/S0964569115000897). Accessed 12 May 2017. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hruska, J.
Computer Virus Prevention: A Primer (http://​www​.sophos​.com​/virusinfo​/whitepapers​/prevention​.html). Accessed 13 October 2001.
Initiation au dépannage informatique
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
2006aAn Assessment of Vulnerability. (http://​www​.grida​.no​/climate​/ipcc​/spmpdf​/region​-e​.pdf) Accessed 7 October 2006.Google Scholar
2006bClimate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis (Summary for policymakers and technical summary) (http://​www​.grida​.no​/climate​/ipcc​_tar​/wg1​/pdf​/WG1​_TAR​-FRONT​.PDF). Accessed 7 October 2006.Google Scholar
2006cClimate Change and Biodiversity. (http://​www​.ipcc​.ch​/pub​/tpbiodiv​.pdf). Accessed 7 October 2006.Google Scholar
2006dEmissions Scenarios (http://​www​.grida​.no​/climate​/ipcc​/spmpdf​/sres​-e​.pdf). Accessed 7 October 2006.Google Scholar
2006eLand Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry (http://​www​.grida​.no​/climate​/ipcc​/spmpdf​/srl​-e​.pdf). Accessed 7 October 2006.Google Scholar
2006fSafeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System: Issues Related to Hydrofluorocarbons and Perfluorocarbons (http://​arch​.rivm​.nl​/env​/int​/ipcc​/pages​_media​/SROC​-final​/srocspmts​_en​.pdf). Accessed 7 October 2006.Google Scholar
An Internet Guide to Newcomers to the World Wide Web
Introduction to Computers
Ivar do Sul, J. A., and Costa, M. F.
2014 “The Present and Future of Microplastic Pollution in the Marine Environment.” Environmental Pollution 185: 352–364 (http://​www​.sciencedirect​.com​/science​/article​/pii​/S0269749113005642). Accessed 18 May 2017. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Joshi, R. P., and A. P. Deshmukh
2006 “Hybrid Electric Vehicles: The Next Generation Automobile Revolution.” Electric and Hybrid Vehicles ICEHV (http://​ieeexplore​.ieee​.org​/stamp​/stamp​.jsp​?tp​=&arnumber​=4156562). Accessed 2 April 2014.Google Scholar
Le Treut, J., G. Le Treut, and H. Le Treut
2005Climate Change. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.Google Scholar
Levesque, A., and J. A. Tremblay
2008Rapport sur la situation de la chauve-souris rousse (Lasiurus borealis) au Québec (ftp://​ftp​.mrn​.gouv​.qc​.ca​/Public​/Bibliointer​/Mono​/2010​/02​/0998042​.pdf). Accessed 19 November 2015.Google Scholar
Lindenmayer, D. B. et al.
2011 “How to Make a Common Species Rare: A Case against Conservation Complacency.” Conservation Biology 144(5): 1663–1672. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Linux Directory
A Beginner’s Guide to Linux! (http://​www​.linux​-directory​.com​/newbie/). Accessed 4 August 2004.
Meza-Parral, Y., and E. Pineda
2015 “Amphibian Diversity and Threatened Species in a Severely Transformed Neotropical Region in Mexico.” PLoS One 10(3). CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mississippi Museum of Natural Science
2014Endangered Species of Mississippi (https://​www​.mdwfp​.com​/media​/279708​/endangered​_species​_of​_mississippi​.pdf). Accessed 10 February 2017.Google Scholar
Morrison, M.
Integrating Web Sites and Databases, Thomson Learning (http://​www​.course​.com​/techtrends​/morrison​_102000​.cfm). Accessed 13 October 2001.
Müller, S., and J. Buchdahl
2000Encyclopedia of the Atmospheric Environment (http://​www​.ace​.mmu​.ac​.uk​/eae​/english​.html). Accessed 07 January 2007.Google Scholar
National Ocean Service
2007 “Welcome to Nonpoint Source Pollution.” NOS Education Discovery Kits (http://​oceanservice​.noaa​.gov​/education​/tutorial​_pollution​/lessons​/pollution​_tutorial​.pdf). Accessed 10 May 2017.Google Scholar
Ontario Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure
2010Waterpower: An Overview (http://​www​.ontla​.on​.ca​/library​/repository​/mon​/24001​/298188​.pdf). Accessed 28 November 2019.Google Scholar
Paria, S.
2008 “Surfactant-enhanced Remediation of Organic Contaminated Soil and Water.” Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 138(1): 24–58 (http://​www​.sciencedirect​.com​/science​/article​/pii​/S0001868607001820). Accessed 15 May 2017. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Parkanski, K.
How To Set Up Debian Linux Internet Servers (http://​www​.aboutdebian​.com​/internet​.htm). Accessed 16 August 2004.
Patz, J. T.
Canon Launches BJC Trio (http://​www​.winmag​.com ). Accessed 14 October 1997.
Penn State College of Agricultural Science
Provost, G.
How Caching Works.” Howstuffworks (http://​www​.howstuffworks​.com​/cache​.htm). Accessed 5 January 2002.
Rehan, T. M.
1991 “Environmental Impact of Heavy Metal Pollution in Natural Aquatic Systems.” PhD thesis presented at the University of West London (http://​bura​.brunel​.ac​.uk​/bitstream​/2438​/5503​/1​/FulltextThesis​.pdf). Accessed 12 May 2017.
Risley, D.
PC 101, PC Mechanic (http://​www​.pcmech​.com​/show​/internal​/138/). Accessed 2 November 2001.
Rose, G.
2011 “E-bikes and Urban Transportation: Emerging Issues and Unresolved Questions.” Transportation (http://​web​.a​.ebscohost​.com​/ehost​/pdfviewer​/pdfviewer​?vid​=18​&sid​=3504d4b6​-38c6​-4f31​-a52f​-713a2712ba6f%40sessionmgr4001​&hid​=4209). Accessed 24 March 2014.Google Scholar
Savariar, V.
2014 “Environmental Health Monitoring: A Pragmatic Approach.” International Journal of Waste Resources 4(4) (https://​www​.omicsonline​.com​/open​-access​/environmental​-health​-monitoring​-a​-pragmatic​-approach​-2252​-5211​-4​-164​.pdf). Accessed 12 May 2017.Google Scholar
Schwartz, P., and D. Randall
2003 Le scénario d’un brusque changement de climat et ses implications pour la sécurité nationale des Etats-Unis (http://​paxhumana​.info​/article​.php3​?id​_article​=427). Accessed 7 January 2007.
Shah, A., S. Shahzad, A. Munir, M. N. Nadagouda, G. S. Khan, D. F. Shams, D. D. Dionysiou, and U. A. Rana
2016 “Micelles as Soils and Water Decontamination Agents.” Chemical Reviews 116(10): 6042–6072 (http://​pubs​.acs​.org​/doi​/full​/10​.1021​/acs​.chemrev​.6b00132). Accessed 9 May 2017. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
St-Pierre, A.
1988Le micro-ordinateur: introduction à MS/PC-DOS, LOTUS 1-2-3, dBASE III PLUS. Boucherville: Éditions G. Vermette Inc.Google Scholar
Stohlgren, T. J., and K. Sunil
2013 “Endangered Plants.” Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 3: 205–215. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Swackhamer, D. L., H. W. Paerl, S. J. Eisenreich, J. Hurley, K. C. Hornbuckle, M. McLachlan, D. Mount, D. Muir, and D. Schindler
2004 “Impacts of Atmospheric Pollutant on Aquatic EcosystemsIssues in Ecology 12 (https://​www​.esa​.org​/esa​/wp​-content​/uploads​/2013​/03​/issue12​.pdf). Accessed 12 May 2017.Google Scholar
Tate, E. D., M. O. Harpster, and P. J. Savagian
2008 “The Electrification of the Automobile: From Conventional Hybrid, to Plug-in Hybrids, to Extended-Range Electric Vehicles.” Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Powertrain (http://​www​.media​.gm​.com​/content​/dam​/Media​/microsites​/product​/volt​/docs​/paper​.pdf). Accessed 4 April 2014.Google Scholar
Tsariounov, A.
Application note: Using LTT for System Analysis on Debian TE (http://​devresource​.hp​.com​/drc​/technical​_papers​/linuxltt​.jsp [debian.txt] 5 195 mots). Accessed 4 August 2004.
Tyson, J.
How PCs Work.” Howstuffworks (http://​www​.howstuffworks​.com​/pc​.htm). Accessed 2 November 2001.
2012Gorilles de Grauer et Chimpanzés de l’Est de la République Démocratique du Congo (https://​portals​.iucn​.org​/library​/efiles​/documents​/2012​-080​-Fr​.pdf). Accessed 24 November 2015.Google Scholar
2005The New Courrier. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (http://​unesdoc​.unesco​.org​/images​/0014​/001420​/142021e​.pdf#142040). Accessed 6 January 2007.Google Scholar
2006 “A World of Science.” Natural Sciences Quarterly Newsletter 4(1) (http://​unesdoc​.unesco​.org​/images​/0014​/001432​/143225e​.pdf). Accessed 7 October 2006.Google Scholar
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
2008Endangered Species Bulletin 33(3) (https://​www​.fws​.gov​/endangered​/news​/pdf​/bulletin​_fall2008​.pdf). Accessed 15 June 2017.Google Scholar
Utah State University Extension Service Department of Fisheries and Wildlife
1998Endangered and Threatened Animals of Utah (http://​www​.berrymaninstitute​.org​/files​/uploads​/pdf​/endgspec​.pdf). Accessed 10 February 2017.Google Scholar
Whelton, A. J., I. McMillan, M. Connell, M. C. Kelley, J. P. Gill, K. D. White, and C. Novy
2015 “Residential Tap Water Contamination Following the Freedom Industries Chemical Spill: Perceptions, Water Quality, and Health Impacts.” Environmental Science and Technology 49: 813–823 (http://​pubs​.acs​.org​/doi​/full​/10​.1021​/es5040969). Accessed 9 May 2017. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Why does a PC Crash?.” Henderson Computers (http://​www​.hsncomp​.co​.nz​/articles​/ArticlesPCCrash​.html). Accessed 21 December 2001.
Wildlife Services
2001 “Effects of Wildlife Services on Predator Populations.” APHIS (https://​www​.aphis​.usda​.gov​/wildlife​_damage​/nwrc​/downloads​/effects​_on​_predators​.pdf). Accessed 2 May 2017.Google Scholar
Wołek, M., and O. Wyszomirski
2013 “The Trolleybus as an Urban Means of Transport in the Light of the Trolley Project.” European Union (http://​www​.zkmgdynia​.pl​/admin​/_​_pliki​__​/TROLLEY​_ebook​_2013​_.pdf). Accessed 14 April 2014.Google Scholar
World Alliance for the Decentralised Energy Association (WADE Thai)
2013Handbook on Smart/Intelligent Grid Systems Development and Deployment (http://​wadethai​.org​/docs​/SMART​_THAI​_Handbook​.pdf). Accessed 26 September 2019.
Yarsan, E., and M. Yipel
2013 “The Important Terms of Marine Pollution ‘Biomarkers and Biomonitoring, Bioaccumulation, Bioconcentration, Biomagnification’.” Journal of Molecular Biomarkers and Diagnosis (https://​www​.omicsonline​.org​/the​-important​-terms​-of​-marine​-pollution​-biomarkers​-and​-biomonitoring​-bioaccumulation​-bioconcentration​-biomagnification​-2155​-9929​.S1​-003​.php​?aid​=11682). Accessed 12 May 2017. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Yukon Department of Environment
http://​www​.env​.gov​.yk​.ca/). Accessed 27 June 2019.
Cited by

Cited by 4 other publications

No author info given
2021.  In The Corporate Terminologist [Terminology and Lexicography Research and Practice, 21], Crossref logo
Busch, Andre
2021. Terminologiemanagement: erfolgreicher Wissenstransfer durch Concept-Maps und die Überlegungen in DGI-AKTS. Information - Wissenschaft & Praxis 72:4  pp. 185 ff. Crossref logo
Malyuga, Elena N., Valentina E. Yermishina, A. Zheltenkov & A. Mottaeva
2021. The expressive function of colloquialisms in professional discourse: The linguopragmatic aspect. E3S Web of Conferences 284  pp. 08012 ff. Crossref logo
Ortego-Antón, María Teresa
2021. e-DriMe. Terminology. International Journal of Theoretical and Applied Issues in Specialized Communication Crossref logo

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 17 july 2021. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.

Subjects & Metadata



Terminology & Lexicography

BIC Subject: CFM – Lexicography
BISAC Subject: LAN029000 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Lexicography
ONIX Metadata
ONIX 2.1
ONIX 3.0
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  2019040102 | Marc record