Language Variation on Jamaican Radio

| University of Münster
HardboundAvailable
ISBN 9789027249203 | EUR 105.00 | USD 158.00
 
e-Book
ISBN 9789027264732 | EUR 105.00 | USD 158.00
 
This volume presents an in-depth analysis of language variation in Jamaican radio newscasts and talk shows. It explores the interaction of global and local varieties of English with regard to newscasters’ and talk show hosts’ language use and listeners’ attitudes. The book illustrates the benefits of an integrated approach to mass media: the analysis takes into account radio talk and the perception of the audience, it is context-sensitive, paying close attention to variation within and between genres, and it combines quantitative and qualitative approaches to demonstrate the complexity of language in the media. The book contributes to our understanding of the dynamics of World Englishes in the 21st century and endonormative stabilization processes in linguistically heterogeneous postcolonial speech communities, and shows how mass media both challenge and reproduce sociolinguistic stratification. This volume will be relevant for researchers interested in the fields of sociolinguistics, language attitudes, and language in the media.
[Varieties of English Around the World, G60]  2017.  xvi, 257 pp.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Abbreviations
ix
List of tables
xi
List of figures
xiii
Acknowledgements
xv–xvi
Chapter 1. Introduction to studying language on Jamaican radio: An integrated approach
1–6
Chapter 2. Language in the media
7–18
Chapter 3. Jamaican sociolinguistics
19–33
Chapter 4. Language attitudes
35–51
Chapter 5. Data and methods I: Language use
53–72
Chapter 6. Language use in Jamaican radio newscasts
73–104
Chapter 7. Language use in Jamaican radio talk shows
105–142
Chapter 8. Data and methods II: Language attitudes
143–165
Chapter 9. Attitudes toward linguistic variation on Jamaican radio
167–199
Chapter 10. Discussion and conclusion
201–230
References
231–241
Appendix I. Language use data overview
243–244
Appendix II. Excerpts overview
245–247
Appendix III. Formulae
249
Appendix IV. Jamaican Radio Survey – rating schemes and direct questions
251–253
Index
255–257
“As someone who grew up listening to Jamaican radio in the post-Independence period (1960s-70s), I find Michael Westphal’s book vivid, instructive, and very sound on this most protean form of mass media. It charts the decolonization of different varieties of Jamaica Talk across the dial, giving close structural detail and highlighting the social role of everyday speakers, elite commentators, and pioneering broadcasters of Patwa. Language Variation on Jamaican Radio is in the charts with a bullet!”
“In this trailblazing study, Westphal investigates talk on Jamaican radio, not only as a rich source of data on linguistic variation, but also as the object of evaluations rooted in varying language ideologies. The study is remarkable for its methodological breadth and its analytical rigour which combine to expose the multidimensional and layered nature of language attitudes in this domain.”
References

References

Adank, P., Smits, R. & Hout, R.
2004A comparison of vowel normalization procedures for language variation research. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 116(5): 3099–3107. Crossref link
Agha, A.
2003The social life of cultural value. Language and Communication 23(3): 231–273. Crossref link
Agheyisi, R. & Fishman, J. A.
1970Language attitude studies: A brief survey of methodological approaches. Anthropological Linguistics 12(5): 137–157.
Akers, G. A.
1981Phonological Variation in the Jamaican Continuum. Ann Arbor MI: Karoma Publishers.
Alleyne, M. C.
1985A linguistic perspective on the Caribbean. In Caribbean Contours, S. W. Mintz & S. Price (eds), 155–179. Baltimore MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Allsopp, R.
1996Dictionary of Caribbean English usage. Oxford: OUP.
2010New Register of Caribbean English Usage. Kingston: University of the West Indies Press.
Androutsopoulos, J.
2010The study of language and space in media discourse. In Language and Space, P. Auer & J. E. Schmidt (eds), 740–759. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Appadurai, A.
1996Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Baayen, R. H.
2008Analyzing Linguistic Data: A Practical Introduction to Statistics Using R. Cambridge: CUP. Crossref link
Bailey, B.
1971Jamaican Creole: Can dialect boundaries be defined? In Pidginization and Creolization of Languages, D. Hymes (ed.), 341–348. Cambridge: CUP.
2007Heteroglossia and boundaries. In Bilingualism: A Social Approach, M. Heller (ed.), 257–274. London: Macmillan Press. Crossref link
Bakhtin, M. M.
1981The Dialogic Imagination. Austin TX: University of Texas Press.
Baumann, R.
1992Performance. In Folklore, Cultural Performances and Popular Entertainments, R. Baumann (ed.), 41–49. Oxford: OUP.
Bayard, D., Weatherall, A., Gallois, C. & Pittam, J.
2001Pax Americana?: Accent attitudinal evaluations in New Zealand, Australia and America. Journal of Sociolinguistics 5(1): 22–49. Crossref link
Beckford-Wassink, A.
1999Historic low prestige and seeds of change: Attitudes toward Jamaican Creole. Language in Society 28(1): 57–92.
2001Theme and variation in Jamaican vowels. Language Variation and Change 13(2): 135–159.
Belgrave, K.
2008Speaking the Queen’s English: Attitudes of Barbadians to British, American and Barbadian accents. La Torre: Revista General de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, 13(49/50): 429–444.
Bell, A.
1982This isn’t the BBC: Colonialsm in New Zealand English. Applied Linguistics 3(3): 246–58. Crossref link
1983Broadcast news as a language standard. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 40: 29–42.
1984Language style as audience design. Language in Society 13(2): 145–204. Crossref link
1990Audience and referee design in New Zealand media language. In New Zealand Ways of Speaking English, A. Bell & J. Holmes (eds), 165–194. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
1991The Language of News Media. Oxford: Blackwell.
1992Hit and miss: Referee design in the dialects of New Zealand television advertisements. Language and Communication 12(3–4): 327–340. Crossref link
1995Language and the media. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 15: 23–41. Crossref link
1999Styling the other to define the self: A study in New Zealand identity making. Journal of Sociolinguistics 3(4): 523–541. Crossref link
2001Back in style: Reworking audience design. In Style and Sociolinguistic Variation, P. Eckert & J. R. Rickford (eds), 139–169. Cambridge: CUP.
2011Leaving home: De-europeanisation in a post-colonial variety of broadcast news language. In Standard Language Ideology in Contemporary Europe, Vol I: Standard Languages and Language Standards in a Changing Europe, T. Kristiansen & N. Coupland (eds), 177–198. Oslo: Novus Forlag.
(ed.) 2014Journal of Sociolinguistics, 18(2): 185–286. Crossref link
Bernaisch, T.
2012Attitudes towards English in Sri Lanka. World Englishes 31(3): 279–291. Crossref link
Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S. & Finegan, E.
1999Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Harlow: Longman.
Bickerton, D.
1975Dynamics of a Creole System. Cambridge: CUP.
Biewer, C.
2015South Pacific Englishes: A Sociolinguistic and Morphosyntactic Profile of Fiji English, Samoan English and Cook Islands English [Varieties of English Around the World 52]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Bishop, H., Coupland, N., & Garrett, P.
2005Conceptual accent evaluation: Thirty years of accent prejudice in the UK. Acta Linguistica Hafniensia 37(1): 131–154. Crossref link
Blom, J. -P. & Gumperz, J. J.
1972Social meaning in linguistic structure: Code-switching in Norway. In Directions in Sociolinguistics: The Ethnography of Communication, J. J. Gumperz & D. H. Hymes (eds), 407–434. New York NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Blommaert, J.
2005Discourse: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge: CUP. Crossref link
2010The Sociolinguistics of Globalization. Cambridge: CUP. Crossref link
Boersma, P. & Weenik, D.
2015Praat. www​.praat​.org (9 November 2015).
Bohmann, A.
2015‘Nobody canna cross it’: Language-ideological dimensions of hypercorrect speech in Jamaica. English Language and Linguistics 20(1): 129–152. Crossref link
Bourdieu, P.
1991Language and Symbolic Power. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
Bradac, J., Cargile, A. & Hallett, J.
2001Language attitudes: Retrospect, conspect, and prospect. In The New Handbook of Language and Social Ssychology, W. P. Robinson & H. Giles (eds), 137–155. New York NY: Wiley.
Bradley, D. & Bradley, M.
2001Changing attitudes to Australian English. In English in Australia [Varieties of English Around the World 26], D. Blair & P. Collins (eds), 271–285. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Bruckmaier, E. & Hackert, S.
2011Bahamian Standard English: A first approach. English World-Wide 32(2): 174–205. Crossref link
Burger, H.
2005Mediensprache: Eine Einführung in Sprache und Kommunikationsformen der Massenmedien, 3rd edn. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref link
Carvalho, A. M.
2004I speak like the guys on TV: Palatalization and the urbanization of Uruguayan Portuguese. Language Variation and Change 16(2): 127–151. Crossref link
Cassidy, F. G. & LePage, R. B.
2002Dictionary of Jamaican English, 2nd edn. Kingston: University of the West Indies Press.
Chambers, J. K.
1998TV makes people sound the same. In Language Myths, L. Bauer & P. Trudgill (eds), 123–131. London: Penguin Books.
2002Patterns of variation including change. In The Handbook of Language Variation and Change, J. K. Chambers, P. Trudgill, & N. Schilling-Estes (eds), 349–372. Oxford: Blackwell. Crossref link
Christie, P.
1989Questions of standards and intra-regional differences in Caribbean examinations. In English across Cultures, Cultures across English: A Reader in Cross-cultural Communication, O. García & R. Otheguy (eds), 243–262. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref link
2003Language in Jamaica. Kingston: Arawak Publications.
Clopper, S.
2011Checking for reliability. In Sociophonetics: A student’s Guide, M. Di Paolo & M. Yaeger-Dror (eds), 188–197. London: Routledge.
Cohen, J.
1988Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd edn. Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Collins, B. & Mees, I. M.
2003Practical Phonetics and Phonology, 1st edn. London: Routledge.
Cormack, M. J. & Hourigan, N.
(eds) 2007Minority Language Media: Concepts, Critiques, and Case Studies. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Cotter, C.
2010News Talk: Investigating the Language of Journalism. Cambridge: CUP. Crossref link
Coupland, N.
1985Hark, hark, the lark: Social motivations for phonological style-shifting. Language and Communication 5(3): 153–171. Crossref link
2001Dialect stylization in radio talk. Language in Society 30(3): 345–375.
2007Style: Language Variation and Identity. Cambridge: CUP. Crossref link
2009aDialects, standards and social change. In Language Attitudes, Standardization and Language Change, T. Kristiansen, M. Maegaard, F. Gregersen, P. Quist, & J. N. Jørgensen (eds), 27–49. Oslo: Novus Forlag.
2009bThe mediated performance of vernaculars. Journal of English Linguistics 37(3): 284–300. Crossref link
2014Sociolinguistic change, vernacularization and broadcast British media. In Mediatization and Sociolinguistic Change, J. Androutsopoulos (ed.), 67–96. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Coupland, N. & Bishop, H.
2007Ideologised values for British accents. Journal of Sociolinguistics 11(1): 74–93. Crossref link
Cowie, C.
2007The accents of outsourcing: The meanings of “neutral” in the Indian call centre industry. World Englishes 26(3): 316–330. Crossref link
Creber, C. & Giles, H.
1983Social context and language attitudes: The role of formality-informality of the setting. Language Sciences 5: 155–162. Crossref link
DeCamp, D.
1971Towards a generative analysis of a post-creole speech continuum. In Pidginization and Creolization of Languages, D. Hymes (ed.), 349–370. Cambridge: CUP.
Deterding, D.
1997The formants of monophthong vowels in Standard Southern British English pronunciation. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 27(1–2): 47–55. Crossref link
2006Deletion of final /t/ and /d/ in BBC English: Implications for teachers in Singapore. STETS Language and Communication Review 5(1): 21–23.
Deuber, D.
2009a‘The English we speaking’: Morphological and syntactic variation in educated Jamaican speech. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 24(1): 1–52. Crossref link
2009bStandard English in the secondary school in Trinidad. In World Englishes – Problems, Properties and Prospects [Varieties of English Around the World 20], T. Hoffmann & L. Siebers (eds), 83–104. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
2011The creole continuum and individual agency. In Variation in the Caribbean: From Creole Continua to Individual Agency [Creole Language Library 37], L. Hinrichs & J. T. Farquharson (eds), 133–162. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
2013Towards endonormative standards of English in the Caribbean: A study of students’ beliefs and school curricula. Language, Culture and Curriculum 26(2): 109–127. Crossref link
2014English in the Caribbean: Variation, Style and Standards in Jamaica and Trinidad. Cambridge: CUP. Crossref link
Deuber, D. & Leung, G. -A.
2013Investigating attitudes towards an emerging standard of English: Evaluations of newscasters’ accents in Trinidad. Multilingua 32(3): 289–319. Crossref link
Devonish, H.
1986The decay of neo-colonial official language policies: The case of the English-lexicon Creoles of the Commonwealth Caribbean. In Focus on the Caribbean [Varieties of English Around the World 8], M. Görlach & J. Holm (eds), 23–51. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
2003Caribbean Creoles. In Germanic Standardizations: Past to Present [IMPACT: Studies in Language and Society 18], A. Deumert & W. Vandenbussche (eds), 41–67. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
2007Speaking the Caribbean: Turning talk into a language in the anglophone Caribbean. In Reading the Caribbean: Approaches to Anglophone Caribbean Literature and Culture, K. Stierstorfer (ed.), 65–187. Heidelberg: Winter.
Devonish, H. & Harry, O. G.
2008Jamaican Creole and Jamaican English: Phonology. In Varieties of English, Vol II: The Americas and the Caribbean, B. Kortmann & E. W. Schneider (eds), 256–289. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Devonish, H. & Thomas, E. A. C.
2012Standards of English in the Caribbean. In Standards of English, R. Hickey (ed.), 179–197. Cambridge: CUP. Crossref link
Dyers, C. & Abongdia, J. -F.
2010An exploration of the relationship between language attitudes and ideologies in a study of Francophone students of English in Cameroon. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 31(2): 119–134. Crossref link
Eckert, P.
2003Elephants in the room. Journal of Sociolinguistics 7(3): 392–397. Crossref link
2008Variation and the indexical field. Journal of Sociolinguistics 12(4): 453–476. Crossref link
Edwards, B.
2004Edward R. Murrow and the Birth of Broadcast Journalism. New York NY: Wiley.
Fairclough, N.
1995aCritical Discourse Analysis. Boston MA: Addison Wesley.
1995bMedia Discourse. London: Edward Arnold.
Fairclough, N. & Wodak, R.
1997Critical Discourse Analysis. In Discourse as Social Interaction, T. A. van Dijk (ed.), 258–284. London: Sage.
Ferguson, C.
1959Diglossia. Word 15: 325–340. Crossref link
Ferreira, L. & Hitchcock, D. B.
2009A comparison of hierarchical methods for clustering functional data. Communications in Statistics – Simulation and Computation 38(9): 1925–1949. Crossref link
Field, A.
2009Discovering statistics using SPSS, 3rd edn. London: Sage.
Figueroa, E. & Patrick, P. L.
2002Kiss-teeth. American Speech 77(4): 383–397. Crossref link
Fishman, J. A.
1967Bilingualism with and without diglossia; diglossia with and without bilingualism. Journal of Social Issues 23(2): 29–38. Crossref link
Fuchs, R.
2013Speech Rhythm in Educated Indian English and British English. PhD dissertation, University of Muenster.
Garrett, P.
2006Attitude measurements. In Sociolinguistics / Soziolinguistik, 2nd edn, U. Ammon, N. Dittmar, K. J. Mattheier & P. Trudgill (eds), 1251–1260. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
2009Attitudes in Japan and China towards Australian, Canadian, New Zealand, UK and US Englishes. In Language Attitudes, Standardization and Language Change, T. Kristiansen, M. Maegaard, F. Gregersen, P. Quist & J. N. Jørgensen (eds), 273–295. Oslo: Novus Forlag.
2010Attitudes to Language. Cambridge: CUP. Crossref link
Garrett, P., Coupland, N. & Williams, A.
1999Evaluating dialect in discourse: Teachers’ and teenagers’ responses to young English speakers in Wales. Language in Society 28(3): 321–354. Crossref link
2003Investigating Language Attitudes: Social Meanings of Dialect, Ethnicity and Performance. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
Garrett, P., Williams, A. & Evans, B.
2005Attitudinal data from New Zealand, Australia, the USA and UK about each other’s Englishes: Recent changes or consequences of methodologies? Multilingua 24(3): 211–235. Crossref link
Giles, H.
1970Evaluative reactions to accents. Educational review 22(3): 211–227. Crossref link
Giles, H. & Powesland, P. F.
1975Speech Style and Social Evaluation. London: Academic Press.
Goffman, E.
1974Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
1981Forms of Talk: University of Pennsylvania Publications in Conduct and Communication. Philadelphia PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Gordon, E. & Abell, M.
1990‘This objectionable colonial dialect’: Historical and contemporary attitudes to New Zealand speech. In New Zealand Ways of Speaking English, A. Bell & J. Holmes (eds), 21–48. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Gordon, N. S.
2008Media and the Politics of Culture: The Case of Television Privatization and Media Globalization in Jamaica (1990–2007). Boca Raton FL: Universal Publishers.
Grondelaers, S. & van Hout, R.
2010Do speech evaluation scales in a speaker evaluation experiment trigger conscious or unconscious attitudes? University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 16(2): 93–102.
Hall, R. A.
1962The life-cycle of pidgin languages. Lingua 11(1): 151–156. Crossref link
Hall, S.
1980Encoding/Decoding. In Culture, Media, Language, S. Hall, D. Hobson, A. Lowe & P. Willis (eds), 128–138. London: Hutchinson.
Haugen, E.
1966Dialect, language, nation. American Anthropologist 68(4): 922–935. Crossref link
Heath, S.B.
1977Social history. In Bilingual Education: Current Perspectives. Vol. 1: Social Science, 53–72. Arlington VA: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Heritage, J.
1985Analyzing news interviews: Aspects of the production of talk for an overhearing audience. In Handbook of Discourse Analysis: Discourse and Dialogue, T. A. van Dijk (ed.), 95–117. London: Academic Press.
Hinrichs, L.
2006Codeswitching on the Web: English and Jamaican Creole in e-Mail Communication [Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 147]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
2011The sociolinguistics of diaspora: Language in the Jamaican Canadian community. In Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Symposium about Language and Society.
Hiraga, Y.
2005British attitudes towards six varieties of English in the USA and Britain. World Englishes 24(3): 289–308. Crossref link
Holm, J. A.
1994English in the Caribbean. In The Cambridge History of the English Language, Vol. v: English in Britain and Overseas, R. Burchfield (ed.), 328–381. Cambridge: CUP. Crossref link
Hutchby, I.
2006Media Talk: Conversation Analysis and the Study of Broadcasting. New York NY: Open University Press.
IBM
2012IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows. Armonk: IBM Corp.
IRIE FM Grove Broadcasting Company Ltd.
Irvine, A.
2004A good command of the English language: Phonological variation in the Jamaican acrolect. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 19(1): 41–76. Crossref link
2008Contrast and convergence in Standard Jamaican English: The phonological architecture of the standard in an ideologically bidialectal community. World Englishes 27(1): 9–25. Crossref link
Jaffe, A.
2007Corscian on the airwaves: Media discourse, practice and audience in a context of minority language shift and revitalization. In Language in the Media: Representations, Identities, Ideologies, S. A. Johnson & A. Ensslin (eds), 149–172. London: Continuum.
Jamaica Information Service
. http://​jis​.gov​.jm/ (27 February 2015).
Jamaican Language Unit
Jantos, S.
2009Agreement in Educated Jamaican English: A Corpus Investigation of ICE-Jamaica. PhD dissertation, University of Freiburg.
Johnson, S. & Milani, T. M.
(eds) 2010Language Ideologies and Media Discourse: Texts, Practices, Politics. London: Continuum.
Johnstone, B.
2011Dialect enregisterment in performance. Journal of Sociolinguistics 15(5): 657–679. Crossref link
Kioko, A. N. & Muthwii, M. J.
2003English variety for the public domain in Kenya: Speakers’ attitudes and views. Language, Culture and Curriculum 16(2): 130–145. Crossref link
Kretsedemas, P. A.
1997Discussing Development in Jamaica: Talk Radio, Public Discourse, and the Politics of the Poor. PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota.
Kretzschmar, W. A.
2008Standard American English pronunciation. In Varieties of English, Vol. ii: The Americas and the Caribbean, B. Kortmann & E. W. Schneider (eds), 37–51. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Kristiansen, T.
2001Two standards: One for the media and one for the school. Language Awareness 10(1): 9–24. Crossref link
2009aThe macro-level social meanings of late-modern Danish accents. Acta Linguistica Hafniensia 41(1): 167–192. Crossref link
2009bThe nature and role of language standardisation and standard languages in late modernity. http://​dgcss​.hum​.ku​.dk​/exploratoryworkshops​/proposal/ (22 February 2013).
Kristiansen, T. & Coupland, N.
(eds) 2011Standard Language Ideology in Contemporary Europe, Vol I: Standard Languages and Language Standards in a Changing Europe. Oslo: Novus Forlag.
Kroskrity, P. V.
2010Language ideologies – Evolving perspectives. In Society and Language Use [Handbook of Pragmatics Highlights 7], J. Jaspers, J. Verschueren, & J. -O. Östman (eds), 192–211. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Kuo, E.
1984Television and language planning in Singapore. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 48: 49–64.
Labov, W.
1972Sociolinguistic Patterns, Vol. iv: Conduct and Communication. Philadelphia PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
1984Field methods of the project on linguistic change and variation. In Language in Use: Readings in Sociolinguistics, J. Baugh & J. Sherzer (eds), 28–54. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall.
2001Principles of Linguistic Change, II: Social Factors. Oxford: Blackwell.
1966, 2006The Social Stratification of English in New York City, 2nd edn. Cambridge: CUP.
Lacoste, V.
2012Phonological Variation in Rural Jamaican Schools [Creole Language Library 42]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Lalla, B. & D’Costa, J.
1990Language in Exile: Three Hundred Years of Jamaican Creole. Tuscaloosa AL: University of Alabama Press.
Lambert, W. E., Hodgson, R. C., Gardner, R. C. & Fillenbaum, S.
1960Evaluational reactions to spoken languages. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 60(1): 44–51. Crossref link
Leitner, G.
1984Australian English or English in Australia: Linguistic identity or dependence in boradcast language. English World-Wide 5(1): 55–85. Crossref link
LePage, R. B. & Tabouret-Keller, A.
1985Acts of Identity: Creole-based Approaches to Language and Ethnicity. Cambridge: CUP.
Lippi-Green, R.
1994Accent, standard language ideology, and discriminatory pretext in the courts. Language in Society 23(2): 163–198. Crossref link
2012English with an Accent: Language, Ideology and Discrimination in the United States, 2nd edn. London: Routledge.
Livingstone, S. & Lunt, P.
2001Language and the media: An emerging field for social psychology. In The New Handbook of Language and Social Psychology, W. P. Robinson & H. Giles (eds), 585–600. New York NY: Wiley.
Lobanov, B. M.
1971Classification of Russian vowels spoken by different speakers. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 49(2): 606–608. Crossref link
Luk, J. C. M.
1998Hong Kong students’ awareness of and reactions to accent differences. Multilingua 17(1): 93–106. Crossref link
Mair, C.
2002Creolisms in an emerging standard: Written English in Jamaica. English World-Wide 23(1): 31–58. Crossref link
2006Twentieth-Century English: History, Variation and Standardization. Cambridge: CUP. Crossref link
2013The World System of Englishes: Accounting for the transnational importance of mobile and mediated vernaculars. English World-Wide 34(3): 253–278. Crossref link
Mattheier, K.
1997Über Destandardisierung, Umstandardisierung und Standardisierung in modernen europäischen Nationalsprachen. In Standardisierung und Destandardisierung europäischer Nationalsprachen, K. Mattheier & E. Radtke (eds), 1–9. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
McKay, S.
2011Language and the media. In The Cambridge Handbook of Sociolinguistics, R. Mesthrie (ed.), 396–412. Cambridge: CUP. Crossref link
McKenzie, R. M.
2010The Social Psychology of English as a Global Language: Attitudes, Awareness and Identity in the Japanese Context. London: Springer. Crossref link
McQuail, D.
2000McQuail’s Mass Communication Theory, 4th edn. London: Sage.
Media Technology Institute
. http://​mti​.edu​.jm/ (9 March 2012).
Milroy, J.
2001Language ideologies and the consequences of standardization. Journal of Sociolinguistics 5(4): 530–555. Crossref link
MockYen, A.
2003Rewind: My Recollections of Radio and Broadcasting in Jamaica. Kingston: Arawak Publications.
Mühleisen, S.
2001Is ‘Bad English’ dying out?: A diachronic comparative study of attitudes towards Creole versus Standard English in Trinidad. PhiN 15: 43–78.
2002Creole Discourse: Exploring Prestige Formation and Change across Caribbean English-lexicon Creoles [Creole Language Library 24]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Myers-Scotton, C.
1993Common and uncommon ground: Social and strucutral factors in codeswitching. Language in Society 22(4): 475–503. Crossref link
Nelson, G.
2002International Corpus of English: Markup Manual for Spoken Texts. ice​-corpora​.net​/ice​/spoken​.doc (11 December 2014).
Newstalk93FM
Niedzielski, N. & Preston, D.
2009Folk linguistics. In The New Sociolinguistics Reader, N. Coupland & A. Jaworski (eds), 356–373. London: Macmillan Press. Crossref link
Oppenheim, B.
1982An exericse in attitude measurement. In Social Psychology: A Practical Manual, G. M. Breakwell, H. Foot, & R. Gilmour (eds), 38–52. London: Macmillan Press. Crossref link
Patrick, P. L.
1997Style and register in Jamaican Patwa. In Englishes around the World, Vol. II: Caribbean, Africa, Asia, Australasia [Varieties of English Around the World 19], E. W. Schneider (ed.), 41–55. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
1999Urban Jamaican Creole: Variation in the Mesolect [Varieties of English Around the World 17]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
2008Jamaican Creole: Morphology and syntax. In Varieties of English, Vol. II: The Americas and the Caribbean, B. Kortmann & E. W. Schneider (eds), 609–644. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Pollard, V.
2000Dread Talk: The Language of Rastafari. Barbados: Canoe Press.
Price, J.
2008New news old news: A sociophonetic study of spoken Australian English in news broadcast speech. Arbeiten aus Anglistik und Amerikanistik 33(2): 285–310.
Rickford, J. R.
1985Standard and non-standard language attitudes in a creole continuum. In Language of Inequality, N. Wolfson & J. Manes (eds), 145–160. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref link
1987Dimensions of a Creole Continuum. Stanford CA: Stanford University Press.
Rickford, J. R.
2002Implicational Scales. In The Handbook of Language Variation and Change, J. K. Chambers, P. Trudgill, & N. Schilling-Estes (eds), 142–167. Oxford: Blackwell. Crossref link
Rickford, J. R., & Traugott, E.
1985Symbol of powerlessness and degeneracy, or symbol of solidarity and truth?: Paradoxical attitudes toward Pidgins and Creoles. In The English Language Today, S. Greenbaum (ed.), 252–261. Oxford: Pergamon.
RJR Communications Group
Rosenfelder, I.
2009Sociophonetic Variation in Educated Jamaican English. An Analysis of the Spoken Component of ICE-Jamaica. PhD dissertation, University of Freiburg.
Sand, A.
1999Linguistic Variation in Jamaica: A Corpus-based Study of Radio and Newspaper Usage. Tübingen: Gunter Narr.
2011Language attitudes and linguistic awareness in Jamaican English. In Variation in the Caribbean: From Creole Continua to Individual Agency [Creole Language Library 37], L. Hinrichs & J. T. Farquharson (eds), 163–188. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Sarnoff, I.
1970Social attitudes and the resolution of motivational conflict. In Attitudes, M. Jahoda & N. Warren (eds), 279–284. London: Penguin.
Scannell, P.
(ed.) 1991Broadcast Talk. London: Sage.
Schneider, E. W.
2007Postcolonial English: Varieties around the world. Cambridge: CUP. Crossref link
Schwyter, R. J.
2008Setting a standard: Early BBC language policy and the advisory committee on spoken English. Arbeiten aus Anglistik und Amerikanistik 33(2): 217–250.
Selting, M.
1985Levels of style-shifting: Exemplified in the interaction strategies of a moderator in a listeners particiaption program. Journal of Pragmatics 9(2–3): 179–197. Crossref link
Shields, K.
1989Standard English in Jamaica: A case of competing models. English World-Wide 10(1): 41–53. Crossref link
Shields-Brodber, K.
1992Dynamism and assertiveness in the public voice: Turn-taking and code-switching in radio talk shows in Jamaica. Pragmatics 2(4): 487–504. Crossref link
1995The media and the demise of Standard English in Jamaica: Or where have our trusty English models gone? Journal of English Teachers (Jamaica, Nov): 25–28.
1997Requiem for English in an “English-speaking” community. In Englishes around the World, Vol. II: Caribbean, Africa, Asia, Australasia [Varieties of English Around the World 19], E. W. Schneider (ed.), 57–67. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Skutnabb-Kangas, T., & Phillipson, R.
2007Language ecology. In Handbook of Pragmatics, Vol XI, J. -O. Östman & J. Verschueren (eds), 1–24. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Soukup, B.
2009Dialect use as Interaction Strategy: A Sociolinguistic Study of Contextualization, Speech Perception, and Language Attitudes in Austria. Wien: Braumüller.
Spitulnik, D.
1992Radio time sharing and the negotiation of linguistic pluralism in Zambia. Pragmatics 2(3): 335–354. Crossref link
1997The social circulation of media discourse and the mediation of communities. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 6(2): 161–187. Crossref link
2000Media. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 9(1–2): 148–151.
Stewart, W.
1965Urban Negro speech: Sociolinguistic factors affecting English teaching. In Social Dialects and Language Learning, R. Shuy, A. Davis & R. Hogan (eds), 10–18. Champaign IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Stuart-Smith, J., Pryce, G., Timmins, C., & Gunter, B.
2013Television can also be a factor in language change: Evidence from an urban dialect. Language 89(3): 501–536. Crossref link
Tan, P. K. W., & Tan, D. K. H.
2008Attitudes towards non-standard English in Singapore. World Englishes 27(3–4): 465–479. Crossref link
The Caribbean Institute of Media and Communication
Thomas, E. R.
2008Rural Southern white accents. In Varieties of English, Vol. I: The Americas and the Caribbean, B. Kortmann & E. W. Schneider (eds), 87–114. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Thomas, E. R. & Kendall, T.
2007NORM: The Vowel Normalization and Plotting Suite. http://​ncslaap​.lib​.ncsu​.edu​/tools​/norm/ (8 December 2014).
Thornborrow, J.
2001Authenticating talk: Building public identities in audience participation broadcasting. Discourse Studies 3(4): 459–479. Crossref link
Thornborrow, J. & Fitzgerald, R.
2004Storying the news through category, action, and reason. The Communication Review 7(4): 345–352. Crossref link
Tolson, A.
2001“Authentic” talk in broadcast news: The construction of community. The Communication Review 4(4): 463–480. Crossref link
2006Media Talk: Spoken Discourse on TV and Radio. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Trudgill, P.
1979The social differentiation of English in Norwich. Cambridge: CUP.
1986Dialects in Contact. Oxford: Blackwell.
University of the West Indies (UWI)
Upton, C.
2008Received Pronunciation. In Varieties of English, Vol. I: The British Isles, B. Kortmann, C. Upton & E. W. Schneider (eds), 237–252. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
van Leeuwen, T.
2001What is authenticity? Discourse Studies 3(4): 392–397. Crossref link
Wells, J. C.
1982Accents of English. Cambridge: CUP. Crossref link
2006English Intonation: An Introduction. Cambridge: CUP.
2008Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd edn. Harlow: Longman.
Westphal, M.
2010A History of Jamaican Creole in the Jamaican Broadcasting Media. MA thesis, University of Freiburg. http://​www​.g​-a​-p​-s​.de​/pdf​/Arbeit​-Westphal​.pdf (7 October 2015).
2015Linguistic decolonization in Jamaican radio. ZAA 63(2): 179–197.
Wilson, G.
2014The Sociolinguistics of Singing: Dialect and Style in Classical Choral Singing in Trinidad. Münster: MV Wissenschaft.
Winford, D.
1976Teacher attitudes toward language variation in a Creole community. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 8: 45–75.
1985The concept of “Diglossia” in Caribbean Creole situations. Language in Society 14(3): 345–356. Crossref link
1997Re-examining Caribbean English creole continua. World Englishes 16(2): 233–279. Crossref link
Woolard, K. A. & Schieffelin, B. B.
1994Language ideology. Annual Review of Anthropology 23(1): 55–82. Crossref link
Youssef, V.
2004‘Is English we speaking’: Trinbagonian in the twenty-first century. English Today 20(4): 42–49. Crossref link
Zhang, Q.
2009Hong Kong people’s attitudes towards varieties of English. Newcastle Working Papers in Linguistics 15: 151–173.
Sound files

Chapter 5. Data and methods I

audio

Chapter 6. Language use in Jamaican radio newscasts

audio

Chapter 7. Language use in Jamaican radio talk shows

audio

Chapter 8. Data and methods II

audio

Subjects
BIC Subject: CFB – Sociolinguistics
BISAC Subject: LAN009050 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / Sociolinguistics
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  2017041472