Directional Particles in Cantonese

Form, function, and grammaticalization

| The Hong Kong Baptist University
HardboundAvailable
ISBN 9789027200280 | EUR 99.00 | USD 149.00
 
e-Book
ISBN 9789027264435 | EUR 99.00 | USD 149.00
 
This book is the first on Cantonese that deals with the grammaticalization phenomenon systematically. Focusing on a group of twelve directional particles, this book tracks their grammaticalization pathways from full-fledged directional verbs, to directional particles indicating meanings relating to tense-aspect, modality, and quantification, in the post-verbal position. Some of these particles have undergone further grammaticalization to convey speaker’s subjective as well as intersubjective stances.

This book is also unique in its diachronic component. Examples in the book are drawn from various sources including early Cantonese pedagogical texts, Cantonese films, and contemporary Cantonese corpora, with data ranging from the mid-nineteenth century to the present. This book will be a valuable resource not only for all linguists interested in the development of grammatical forms, but also for teachers and students in conversation/discourse analysis, psychology, and anthropology interested in deepening their understanding of the interaction between language structure and use.

[Studies in Chinese Language and Discourse, 9]  2018.  xvii, 239 pp.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Acknowledgments
ix–x
List of abbreviations
xi–xii
Romanization
xiii–xiv
List of tables
xv–xvi
List of diagrams
xvii
Chapter 1. Introduction and theoretical preliminaries
1–33
Chapter 2. Directional particles in Cantonese
35–57
Chapter 3. Mechanisms in grammaticalization: Semantic-pragmatic perspectives
59–86
Chapter 4. Metaphor: The fundamental mechanism
87–114
Chapter 5. Pragmatic enrichment: A context-based mechanism
115–148
Chapter 6. Subjectification: A mechanism leading to stancemarking
149–206
Chapter 7. Conclusion and future research
207–214
References
215–230
Appendix. Complete citations of examples used in the Summary Chart
231–236
Index
237–239
References

References

Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y. and R.M.W. Dixon
2006Serial Verb Constructions: A Cross-linguistic Typology. Oxford University Press.
Aldridge, Edith
2009 “The old Chinese determiner zhe .” In Historical Syntax and Linguistic Theory, ed. by Paola Crisma and Giuseppe Longobardi, 233–249. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
Ansaldo, Umberto
1999Comparative Constructions in Sinitic: Areal Typology and Patterns of Grammaticalization. PhD dissertation. Stockholm University.
Athanasiadou, Angeliki, Costas Canakis and Bert Cornillie
2006Subjectification: Various Paths to Subjectivity. Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref link
Au-yeung, Ben
2007 “Cantonese classifier di and genericity.” In Studies in Cantonese Linguistics II, ed. by Joanna Ut-Seong Sio and Sze-wing Tang, 1–16. The Linguistic Society of Hong Kong.
Bai, Yuanru
1998廣州方言詞典 [A Dictioanry of the Guangzhou Dialect]. Nanjing Shi: Jiangsu Jiaoyu Chubanshe.
Ball, D. J.
1883Cantonese Made Easy. Hong Kong: China Mail Office. 86 pages.
1912How to Speak Cantonese: fifty conversations in Cantonese colloquial. Hong Kong: Kelly & Walsh Limited. (Fourth Edition) 229 pages.
1894Readings in Cantonese Colloquial. Hong Kong: Kelly and Walsh Limited. 171 pages.
Benveniste, Emile
1971 “Subjectivity in language.” In Problems in General Linguistics, trans. by Mary Elizabeth Meek, 223–230. Coral Gables, Fla.: University of Miami Press (originally published as ‘De la subjectivité dans le langage’. In Problémés de Linguistique Générale. Paris: Gallimard 1958, 258–266).
Bridgeman, E. C.
1841Chinese Chrestomathy in the Canton Dialect. Macau: East India Company’s Press. 693 pages.
Bisang, Walter
1992Das Verb in Chinesischen, Hmong, Vietnamesischen, Thai und Khmer: Vergleichende Grammatik im Rahmen der Verbserialisierung, der Grammatikalisierung und der Attraktorpositionen [Verb serialization, grammaticalization and attractor positions in Chinese, Hmong, Vietnamese, Thai and Khmer]. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag.
1998 “Grammaticalization and language contact, constructions and positions.” In The Limits of Grammaticalization, ed. by Anna G. Ramat and Paul J. Hopper, 13–58. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Crossref link
2010 “Grammaticalization in Chinese: a construction-based account.” In Gradience, Gradualness and Grammaticalization, ed. by Elizabeth C. Traugott and Graeme Trousdale, 245–279. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Crossref link
Bonney, S. W.
1853Phrases in the Canton Colloquial Dialect. Canton. (name of publisher not available) 98 pages.
Bréal, Michel
1964[1900] Semantics: Studies in the Science of Meaning. Trans. by Mrs. Henry Cust. New York: Dover.
Brinton, Laurel J.
1996Pragmatic Markers in English: Grammaticalization and Discourse Functions. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref link
Brinton, Laurel J. and Elizabeth C. Traugott
2005Lexicalization and Language Change. Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Brown, Penelope and Stephen C. Levinson
1987Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge University Press.
Brugman, Claudia M.
1981The Story of Over: Polysemy, Semantics, and the Structure of the Lexicon. M.A. Thesis. University of California, Berkeley.
1988Outstanding Dissertations in Linguistics – The Story of Over: Polysemy, Semantics, and the Structure of the Lexicon. New York: Garland.
Bybee, Joan L. and Östen Dahl
1989 “The creation of tense and aspect systems in the languages of the world.” Studies in Language 13 (1): 51–103. Crossref link
Bybee, Joan L., Revere Perkins and William Pagliuca
1991 “Back to the future.” In Approaches to Grammaticalization Vol. II, ed. by Elizabeth C. Traugott and Bernd Heine, 17–58. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Crossref link
1994The Evolution of Grammar: Tense, Aspect and Modality in the Language of the World. The University of Chicago Press.
Bybee, Joan L. and William Pagliuca
1985 “Cross-linguistics comparison and the development of grammatical meaning.” In Historical Semantics and Historical Word Formation, ed. by Jacek Fisiak, 59–83. Berlin: Mouton Publishers. Crossref link
1987 “The evolution of future meaning.” In Papers from the VII International Conference on Historical Linguistics, ed. by Anna G. Ramat, Onofrio Carruba and Giuliano. Bernini, 109–122. Amsterdam: Benjamins. Crossref link
Campbell, Lyle
2001 “What’s wrong with grammaticalization?Language Sciences 23: 112–161.
Campbell, Lyle and Richard Janda
2001 “Introduction: conceptions of grammaticalization and their problems.” Language Sciences 23: 93–112. Crossref link
Carey, Kathleen
1995 “Subjectification and the English perfect.” In Subjectivity and Subjectivisation in Language, ed. by Dieter Stein and Susan Wright, 83–102. Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Chan, Shuenti, Mikyong Shin and Waiming Tsui
2002 “A Study of ge2 in go2ge2je5 ‘That Such Thing’.” Paper presented at the Annual Research Forum, the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong, December. Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.
Chang, Miaohsia
1998 “The discourse functions of Taiwanese kong in relation to its grammaticalization.” In Selected Papers from the Second International Symposium on Languages in Taiwan, ed. by Shuanfan Huang, 111–127. Taipei: Crane Publishing Company.
Chao, Yuenren
1947Cantonese Primer. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.Crossref link
1968aA Grammar of Spoken Chinese. Berkeley: University of California Press.
1968bLanguage and Symbolic System. Cambridge University Press.
Chappell, Hilary
2001 “Synchrony and diachrony of Sinitic languages: a brief history of Chinese dialects.” In Sinitic Grammar: Synchronic and Diachronic Perpsectives, ed. by Hillary Chappell, 3–28. Oxford University Press.
Chen, Weirong and Foongha Yap
. forthcoming. “Pathways to adversity and speaker-affectedness: on the emergence of unaccusative ‘give’ constructions in Chinese.” Linguistics.
Cheng, Tingau
1997香港粵語詞典 [Hong Kong Cantonese Dictionary]. Nanjing: Jiangsu Jiaoyu Chubanshe.
Cheung, Hungnin
2007a [1972] A Grammar of Cantonese as Spoken in Hong Kong (revised edition). Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.
2007b “Early Cantonese: a digitized corpus.” Plenary paper presented at the Annual Research Forum, the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong, December. Hong Kong Baptist University.
Chin, Chion A.
2011 “Grammaticalization of the Cantonese Double Object Verb [pei(35)] (sic) in Typological and Areal Perspectives.” Language and Linguistics 12 (3): 529–563.
Chor, Winnie
2004A Semantic and Pragmatic Analysis of Verbal Particles in Cantonese. MPhil thesis. The University of Hong Kong.Crossref link
2007 “HEI – as a completive particle in Cantonese.” In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Yue Dialects, ed. by Hungnin Cheung; Songhing Cheung, and Hungkan Chan, 335–346. Beijing: China Social Sciences Press.
2010 “Inclusion of the outsider – grammaticalization of the verbal particle maai4 in Cantonese.” In Studies in East Asian Linguistics, ed. by Foongha Yap and Caesar Lun. The Linguistic Society of Hong Kong.
2013 “From ‘direction’ to ‘positive evaluation’: On the grammaticalization, subjectification and intersubjectification of faan1 ‘return’ in Cantonese.” Language and Linguistics 14 (1): 91–134.
Claudi, Ulrike and Bernd Heine
1986 “On the metaphorical base of grammar.” Studies in Language 10 (2): 297–335. Crossref link
Company, Concepción
1995 “Old forms for new concepts: the recategorization of possessive duplications in Mexican Spanish.” In Historical Linguistics 1993: Selected Papers from the 11th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, ed. by Henning Andersen, 77–92. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Croft, William
2000Explaining Language Change: An Evolutionary Approach (Longman Linguistics Library Series). Harlow: Longman.
Croft, William and Alan D. Cruse
2004Cognitive Linguistics. Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Croft, William, Keith Denning and Suzanne Kemmer
(eds.) 1990Studies in Typology and Diachrony: Papers Presented to Joseph H. Greenberg on his 75th Birthday (Typological Studies in Language, 20.). Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Crossref link
Cuyckens, Hubert
1991The Semantics of Spatial Prepositions in Dutch: A Cognitive-linguistic Exercise. PhD dissertation. University of Antwerp.
Dahl, Östen
1985Tense and Aspect Systems. Oxford: Blackwell.
(ed.) 2000Tense and Aspect in the Languages of Europe. Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref link
Davidse, Kristin, Lieven Vandelanotte and Hubert Cuyckens
2010Subjectification, Intersubjectification and Grammaticalization. Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref link
Davidse, Kristin and Torsten Leuschner
(eds.) 2012Grammaticalization and Language Change: New Reflections. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Crossref link
Deane, Paul D.
1988 “Polysemy and cognition.” Lingua 75: 325–361. Crossref link
Diessel, Holger
1999Demonstratives: Form, Function, and Grammaticalization. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Diewald, Gabriele
2011 “Pragmaticalization (defined) as grammaticalization of discourse functions.” Linguistics 49 (2): 365–390. Crossref link
Diller, Anthony
1993 “Diglossic grammaticality in Thai.” In The Role of Theory in Language Description, ed. by William A. Foley, 393–420. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref link
Englebretson, Robet
2003Searching for Structure: The Problem of Complementation in Colloquial Indonesian Conversation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Evans, Vyvyan
2003The Structure of Time: Language, Meaning, and Temporal Cognition. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Fang, Xiaoyan
2003Guangzhou Fangyan Jumo Yuqizyuci [Sentence Final Particles in the Canton Dialect]. Guangzhou: Jinan University Press.
Finegan, Edward
1995 “Subjectivity and subjectivisation: an introduction.” In Subjectivity and Subjectification, ed. by Dieter Stein and Susan Wright, 1–15. Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Fischer, Olga and Anette Rosenbach
2000 “Introduction.” In Pathways of Change: Grammaticalization in English, ed. by Olga Fischer, Anette Rosenbach and Dieter Stein, 1–37. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Crossref link
Fischer, Olga, Anette Rosenbach and Dieter Stein
(eds.) 2000Pathways of Change: Grammaticalization in English. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Crossref link
Fischer, Olga, Muriel Norde, and Harry Perridon
(eds.) 2004Up and Down the Cline – the Nature of Grammaticalization. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Francis, Elaine J. and Etsuyo Yuasa
2008 “A multi-modular approach to gradual change in grammaticalization.” Journal of Linguistics 31: 45–86.
Fraser, Bruce
1999 “What are discourse markers?Journal of Pragmatics 31: 931–952. Crossref link
2006 “Towards a theory of discourse markers.” In Approaches to Discourse Particles, ed. by Kerstin Fischer, 189–204. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Fung, Sukyee
2000Final Particles in Standard Cantonese: Semantic Extension and Pragmatic Inference. PhD dissertation. The Ohio State University.
von der Gabelentz, Goerge
1891Die Sprachwissenschaft. Ihre Aufgaben, Methoden, und bisherigen Ergebnisse. Leipzig: Weigel.
Gao, Huanian
1980廣州方言研究 [A study of the Guangzhou dialect]. Hong Kong: Commercial Press Ltd..
Gao, Zengxia
2004 “從語法化角度看動詞直接作狀語” [“Verbs act as adverbial: a grammaticalization perspective”]. Chinese Language Learning 4: 18–23.
Geeraerts, Dirk
1993 “Vaguesness’s puzzles, polysemy’s vagaries.” Cognitive Linguistics 4: 223–272. Crossref link
Givón, Talmy
1971 “Historical syntax and synchronic morphology: an archaeologist’s fieldtrip.” In Papers from the Seventh Regional Meeting, Chicago Linguistic Society, 394–415. Chicago Linguistic Society.
1975 “Serial verbs and syntactic change: Niger Congo.” In Word Order and Word Order Change, ed. by Charles Li, 49–111. Austin: University of Texas Press.
1979On Understanding Grammar. New York: Academic Press.
Grady, Joseph
1997Foundations of Meaning: Primary Metaphors and Primary Scenes. PhD dissertation. University of California at Berkeley.
1999 “A typology of motivation for conceptual metaphor: correlation vs. resemblance.” In Metaphor in Cognitive Linguistics: Selected Papers from the Fifth International Cognitive Linguistics Conference, Amsterdam, July, ed. by Raymond W. Gibbs Jr. and Gerard J. Steen, 79–100. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Grice, H. Paul
1975 “Logic and conversation.” In Speech Acts (Series Syntax and Semantics 3), ed. by Peter Cole and Jerry Morgan, 41–58. New York: Academic Press.
1978 “Further notes on logic and conversation.” In Pragmatics (Syntax and Semantics 9), ed. by Peter Cole, 113–127. New York: Academic Press.
Gruber, Jeffery
1965Studies in lexical relations. Doctoral thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Haspelmath, Martin
1990 “The Grammaticization of Passive Morphology.” Studies in Language 14 (1): 25–72. Crossref link
1997From Space to Time: Temporal Adverbials in the World’s Languages. München: LINCOM Europa.
2004 “On directionality in language change with particular reference to grammaticalization.” In Up and Down the Cline – the Nature of Grammaticalization, ed. by Olga Fischer, Muriel Norde, and Harry Perridon, 17–44. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Hayano, Kaoru
2011Giving support to the claim of epistemic primacy: yo-marked assessments in Japanese. In Stivers, T., Mondada L. & Steensig J. (Eds.), The Morality of Knowledge in Conversation. (pp. 58–81). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Crossref link
He, Gang
1997 “語用方式 – 語用的語法化 [The modes of pragmatic acts – grammaticalization in pragmatics”]. Foreign Languages 3: 37–42.
He, Qingshun
2014 “A study of the subjectification of the Chinese word suoyi.” Open Journal of Modern Linguistics 4: 399–406. Crossref link
Heine, Bernd
1989 “Adpositions in African Languages.” Linguistique Africaine 2: 77–127.
1993Auxiliaries: Cognitive Forces and Grammaticalization. Oxford University Press.
1997aPossession: Cognitive Sources, Forces, and Grammaticalization. Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
1997bCognitive Foundations of Grammar. Oxford University Press.
2002 “On the role of context in grammaticalization.” In New reflections on grammaticalization, ed. by Ilse Wischer and Gabriele Diewald, 83–102. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Crossref link
2003 “Grammaticalization.” In The Handbook of Historical Linguistics, ed. by Brian D. Joseph and Richard D. Janda, 575–601. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Crossref link
2013 “On discourse markers: Grammaticalization, pragmaticalization, or something else?Linguistics 51 (6): 1205–1247. Crossref link
Heine, Bernd and Christa König
2005 “Grammatical hybrids: between serialization, compounding and derivation in !Xun (North Khoisan).” In Morphology and Its Demarcations, ed. by Wolfgang U. Dressler, Dieter Kastovsky, Oskar E. Pfeiffer and Franz Rainer, 81–96. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Crossref link
Heine, Bernd, Ulrike Claudi and Friederike Hünnemeyer
1991Grammaticalization: A Conceptual Framework. University of Chicago Press.
Heine, Bernd and Tania Kuteva
2002World Lexicon of Grammaticalization. Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Heine, Bernd and Mechthild Reh
1984Grammaticalization and Reanalysis in African Languages. Hamburg: Helmut Buske.
Hjelmslev, Louis
1935La Catégorie des cas: Étude de Grammaire Générale. Aarhus, Universitetsforlaget.
Hopper, Paul J. and Elizabeth C. Traugott
2003[1993] Grammaticalization. Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Hsiao, Yuchau E.
2003 “Conceptualizations of GUO in Mandarin.” Language and Linguistics 4 (2): 279–300.
Huang, Churen and Shenming Chang
1996 “Metaphor, metaphorical extension, and grammaticalization: a study of Mandarin Chinese – qilai .” In Conceptual Structure, Discourse and Language, ed. by Adele E. Goldberg, 201–216. Stanford/, Calif: CSLI Publications.
Huang, James C.
1982Logical Relations in Chinese and the Theory of Grammar. PhD dissertation. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
2013 “Variations in non-canonical passives.” In Non-canonical Passives, ed. by Artemis Alexiadou and Florian Schäfer, 95–114. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Crossref link
von Humboldt, Wilhelm
1825 “Über das Entastehen der grammatikalischen Formen und ihren Einfluß auf die Ideenentwicklung [On the genesis of grammatical forms and their influence on the evolution of ideas”]. Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 401–430.
Iwasaki, Shoichi
1993Subjectivity in Grammar and Discourse: Theoretical Considerations and a Case Study of Japanese Spoken Discourse. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Janda, Richard D.
2001 “Beyond ‘pathways’ and ‘unidirectionality’: on the discontinuity of langauge transmission and the counterability of grammaticalization.” Language Sciences 23: 265–340. Crossref link
Jespersen, Otto
1922Language: Its Nature, Development and Origin. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd.
Jiang, Chengzhi
1998 “從語義和語法的關係來探討中文的助動詞“來”” [“The investigation of the Chinese verbal particle lai – its pragmatics and syntax”]. Taiwan Guoli Zhongzheng Daxue Xuekekao Baogao.
Jiang, Hau
2003 “趨向動詞“上”語法化初探” [“A tentative exploration of the grammaticalization of the tendency verb shang ”]. Dongfang Luntan 5: 45–48.
Johnson, Mark
1987The Body in the Mind. University of Chicago Press.
Jonas, Dianne, John Whitman and Andrew Garrett
(eds.) 2012Grammatical Change: Origins, Nature, Outcomes. Oxford University Press.
Kearns, Kate
2002 “Implicature and language change.” In Handbook of Pragmatics, ed. by Jef Verschueren, Jan-Ola Östman, Jan Blommaert and Chris Bulcaen, 1–22. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.Crossref link
Kim, Shin M.
2005 “Evidentiality in achieving entitlement, objectivity, and detachment in Korean conversation.” Discourse Studies 7 (1): 87–108. Crossref link
2011 “Negotiating epistemic rights to information in Korean conversation: An examination of the Korean evidential marker – tamye .” Discourse Studies 13 (4): 435–459. Crossref link
Koo, Hyunjung and Seongha Rhee
. “On an emerging paradigm of sentence-final particles of discontent: a grammaticalization perspective.” Language Sciences 37: 70–89. Crossref link
König, Ekkehard
1991The Meaning of Focus Particles: A Comparative Perspective. London: Routledge. Crossref link
Kreitzer, Anatol
1997 “Multiple levels of schematization: a study in the conceptualization of space.” Cognitive Linguistics 8: 291–325. Crossref link
Kuteva, Tania
2001Auxiliation: An Enquiry into the Nature of Grammaticalization. Oxford University Press.
Kwok, Bitchee and Shin Kataoka
2006 “早期廣州話完成體標誌“嘵”的來源和演變” [“The origin and development of the perfective aspect marker hiu in early Cantonese”]. The Journal of the Institute of Chinese Studies of the Chinese University of Hong Kong 46: 91–116.
Kwok, Helen
1971A Linguistic Study of the Cantonese Verb. Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong.
1984Sentence Particles in Cantonese. Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong.
Lakoff, George
1987Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal about the Mind. University of Chicago Press. Crossref link
1993 “The contemporary theory of metaphor.” In Metaphor and Thought (2nd edition.), ed. by Andrew Ortony, 202–251. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Lakoff, George and Mark Johnson
1980Metaphors We Live By. University of Chicago Press.
1999Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and its Challenge to Western Thought. New York: Basic Books.
Langacker, Ronald W.
1977 “Syntactic reanalysis.” In Mechanism of Syntactic Change, ed. by Charles N. Li, 57–139. Austin: University of Texas Press.
1985 “Observations and speculations on subjectivity.” In Iconicity in Syntax, ed. by John Haiman, 109–150. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
1987–91Foundations of Cognitive Grammar (2nd volumes). Stanford University Press.
Langacker, Ronald W.
1990 “Subjectification.” Cognitive Linguistics 1: 5–38. Crossref link
Law, Sampo
1990The Syntax and Phonology of Cantonese Sentence-final Particles. Ph.D dissertation. Boston University.
Lee, Peppina Polun
2002 “Cantonese predicative suffix maai as an additive quantifier.” Paper presented at the Annual Research Forum of the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong, HKUST, 14–15 Dec.
Lee, Pepppina Polun and Haihua Pan
2010 “The landscape of additive particles – with special reference to the Cantonese sentence-final particle tim .” Lingua 120 (7): 1777–1804. Crossref link
Lehmann, Christian
1985 “Grammaticalization: synchronic variation and diachronic change.” Lingua e Stile 20: 303–318.
2004 “Theory and method in grammaticalization.” Zeitschrift für germanistische Linguistik 32 (2): 152–187. Crossref link
2015Thoughts on Grammaticalization. Berlin: Language Science Press.Crossref link
Leung, Chungsum
1992A Study of the Utterance Particles in Cantonese as Spoken in Hong Kong. M.Phil thesis. Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
Leung, Waimun
2010On the Synchrony and Diachrony of Sentence-final Particles: the Case of wo in Cantonese. Saarbrucken, Germany: Lambert.
Levinson, Stephen C.
1983Pragmatics. Cambridge University Press.
Li, Audrey Yenhui
1990Order and Constituency in Mandarin Chinese. Dordrecht; Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Crossref link
Li, Chao
2007 “Evolution of the bei Constructions in Chinese.’ Journal of Chinese Linguistics 35 (1): 98–127.
Li, Charles and Sandra A. Thompson
1974 “The semantic function of word order: a case study in Mandarin Chinese.” In Word Order and Word Order Change, ed. by Charles Li, 163–195. Austin: University of Texas Press.
1975 “Subject and topic: a new typology language.” In Subject and Topic, ed. by Charles Li, 457–489. New York: Academic Press.
1981Mandarin Chinese: A Functional Reference Grammar. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Li, David
1997 “The ‘deresultative’ and ‘no longer in a state of X’: On the typological status of -guo in contrastive aspectology.” Paper presented at the CTL seminar series, City University of Hong Kong.
Li, Fangkuei
1939 “Languages and dialects.” In Chinese Yearbook 1938–1939, 43–51. Shanghai Commercial Press.
Li, Jinxin
2005 “’好’的語法化與主觀化” [“The grammaticalization and subjectivity of hao ”]. Chinese Teaching in the World 1: 44–49.
Li, Jianxiao and Meng Cao
2002 “趨向動詞的語法化机制” [“Grammaticalization of directional verbs”]. Journal of Jinzhong Teachers College 3: 185–189.
Li, Michelle Kinling
2002On Cantonese Causative Constructions: Iconicity, Grammaticalization and Semantic Structures. M.Phil thesis. University of Hong Kong.Crossref link
Li, Ne and Yuzhi Shi
1997 “論漢語“體”標誌誕生的机制 [“On grammaticalization of aspect markers in Chinese”]. Zhongguo Yuwen 2: 82–96.
Li, Xinkui
1994 “廣東的方言” [The Guangdong dialect]. Guangdong Renmin Chubanshe.
Li, Xinkui, Jiajiao Huang, Qisheng Shi
1995 “廣州方言研究” [“A study of the Guangzhou dialect”]. Guangdong Renmin Chubanshe.
Lim, Ni’eng
2011 “From subjectivity to intersubjectivity: epistemic marker wo juede in Chinese.” In Current Issues in Chinese Linguistics, ed. by Yun Xiao, Liang Tao and Hooiling Soh, 265–300. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars.
Liu, Danqing
2008 “Syntax of space across Chinese dialects: conspiring and competing principles and factors.” In Space in Languages of China: Cross-linguistic, Synchronic and Diachronic Perspectives, ed. by Dan Xu, 39–67. New York: Springer. Crossref link
Lord, Carol
1989Syntactic Reanalysis in the Historical Development of Serial Verb Constructions in Languages of West Africa. PhD dissertation. University of California, Los Angeles.
1993Historical Change in Serial Verb Constructions. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Lord, Carol, Foongha Yap and Shoichi Iwasaki
2002 “Grammaticalization of ‘give’: African and Asian perspectives.” In New Reflections on Grammaticalization, ed. by Ilse Wischer and Gabriele Diewald, 217–236. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Crossref link
Lu, Weilun L. and I-wen L. Su.
2009 “Speech in interaction: Mandarin particle le as a marker of intersubjectivity.” Zeitschrift für Interkulturellen Fremdsprachenunterricht 14 (1): 155–168.
Luke, Kangkwok
1990Utterance Particles in Cantonese Conversation. Amsterdam: Benjamins. Crossref link
2005 “廣東話“埋”字的語義分析” [“A semantic analysis of the word maai4 in Cantonese”]. In Yuyan wenzixue yanjiu, ed. by Chowyiu Sin and Kangkwong Luke, 297–303. Beijing: Zhongguo Shehui Kexue Chubanshe.
Luke, Kangkwong and Chaakming Lau
2008 “On loanword truncation in Cantonese.” Journal of East Asian Linguistics 17: 347–362. Crossref link
Luke, Kangkwong and May Laiyin, Wong
2015 “Hong Kong Cantonese Corpus: Design and uses.” In Linguistic Corpus and Corpus Linguistics in the Chinese Context (Journal of Chinese Linguistics, Monograph Series), ed. by Benjamin Tsou and Oiyee Kowng, 309–330. Berkeley, CA: Project on Linguistic Analysis, University of California.
Luo, Weihao
1990 “廣東話的“埋”字” [“The Cantonese word maai4 ”]. Paper presented at the 2nd International Conference on Yue Dialects. Guangzhou.
Lyons, John
1982 “Deixis and subjectivity.” In Speech, Place, and Action: Studies in Deixis and Related Topics, ed. by J. Robert Jarvella and Wolfgang Klein, 101–124. New York: John Wiley.
2004 “Serial and compound verbs in Anejom (Vanuatu).” In Complex Predicates in Oceanic Languages: Studies in the Dynamics of Binding and Boundness, ed. by Isabelle Bril and Françoise Ozanne-Rivierre, 145–166. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Lyovin, Anatole
1997An Introduction to the Languages of the World. Oxford University Press.
Ma, Qinghua
2003 “詞匯語法化的動因” [“Motivations of Lexical Grammaticalization”]. Chinese Language Learning 2: 15–20.
Matsumoto, Yo
1988 “From bound grammatical markers to free discourse markers: history of some Japanese connectives.” In Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society and the Para session on Grammaticalization, February 13–15, 1988, ed. by Shelley Axmaker, Annie Jaisser and Helen Singmaster, 340–351. Berkeley Linguistics Society.
Matthews, Stephen
1998 “Evidentiality and mirativity in Cantonese: wo3, wo4, wo5.” Manuscript, University of Hong Kong.
2006 “On serial verbs in Cantonese.” In Serial Verb Constructions: a Cross-linguistic Typology, ed. by Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald and R. M. W. Dixon, 69–87. Oxford University Press.
Matthews, Stephen and Virginia Yip
2001 “Aspects of contemporary Cantonese grammar: the structure and stratification of relative clauses.” In Sinitic Grammar: Synchronic and Diachronic Perspectives, ed. by Hilary Chappell, 266–281. Oxford University Press.
2009 “Contact-induced grammaticalization – evidence from bilingual acquisition.” Studies in Language 33 (2): 366–395. Crossref link
2011a[1994] Cantonese: A Comprehensive Grammar (2nd edition). London; New York: Routledge.
2011b “Contact-induced grammaticalization: evidence from bilingual acquisition.” In Language Change in Contact Languages: Grammatical and Prosodic Considerations, ed. by J. Clancy Clements and Shelome Gooden, 107–135. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Crossref link
Matthews, Stephen, Huiling Xu and Virginia Yip
2005 “Passive and unaccusative in the Jieyang dialect of Chaozhou.” Journal of East Asian Linguistics 14 (4): 267–298. Crossref link
Meillet, Antoine
1958 [1912] “L'evolution des formes grammaticales.” In Scientia (Rivista di Scienza) 12 (26). Reprinted in Meillet, Antoine 1958. Linguistique Historique et Linguistique Générale , 130–148. Paris: Champion.
Morrison, R.
1828A Vocabulary of the Canton Dialect. Macau: East India Company’s Press. 647 pages.
Morita, Emi
2005Negotiation of Contingent Talk: The Japanese interactional particles ne and sa. Amsterdam: Benjamins.Crossref link
Narrog, Heiko and Bernd Heine
(eds.) 2011The Oxford Handbook of Grammaticalization. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
Newmeyer, Frederick J.
1998Language Form and Language Function. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Noël, Dirk
2007 “Diachronic construction grammar and grammaticalization theory.” Functions of Language 14 (2): 177–202. Crossref link
Norde, Muriel
2001 “Deflexion as a counterdirectional factor in grammatical change.” Language Sciences 23: 231–264. Crossref link
Norman, Jerry
1988Chinese. Cambridge University Press.
Oakley, Todd
2007 “Image schemas.” In The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics, ed. by Dirk Geeraerts and Hubert Cuyckens, 214–235. Oxford University Press.
O’Melia, T. A.
1941First Year Cantonese. Hong Kong: Maryknoll House.
Onodera, Noriko Okada
1995 “Discourse analysis of Japanese discourse markers.” In Historical Pragmatics: Pragmatic Developments in the History of English, ed. by Andreas Jucker, 393–437. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Crossref link
Oxford English dictionary online
(2000) Oxford University Press.
Pagliuca, William
(ed.) 1994Perspectives on Grammaticalization. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Paprotté, Wolf and Dirven René
(eds.) 1985The Ubiquity of Metaphor: Metaphor in Language and Thought. Amsterdam: Benjamins. Crossref link
Peng, Xiaochuan
1999 “廣州的動態助詞‘翻’” [“The particle faan in Guangzhou”]. Fangyan 1: 64–69.
2010Guangzhouhau Zyuci Yanjiu [A study on Cantonese Particles]. Guangzhou: Jinan University Press.
Qiao, Yannong
1966廣州話口語詞的研究 [A study of colloquial words in the Guangzhou dialect]. China: Huaqiao Yuwen Chubanshe.
Ramat, Anna Giacalone and Paul J. Hopper
(eds.) 1998The Limits of Grammaticalization. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Crossref link
Ramsey, Robert S.
1987The Languages of China. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Rao, Bingcai, Jueya Ouyang and Wuji Zhou
1996廣州話方言詞典 [A Dictionary of the Guangzhou Dialect]. Guangzhou: Guangdong Renmin Chubanshe
Rhee, Seongha
2012 “Context-induced reinterpretation and (inter)subjectification: the case of grammaticalization of sentence-final particles.” Language Sciences 34 (3): 284–300. Crossref link
Robins, Robert H.
1967A Short History of Linguistics. London: Longman.
Pütz, Martin and Renè Dirven
(eds.) 1996The Construal of Space in Language and Thought. Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref link
Radden, Günter
1985 “Spatial metaphors underlying prepositions of causality.” In The Ubiquity of Metaphor: Metaphor in Language and Thought, ed. by Wolf Paprotté and René Dirven, 177–207. Amsterdam: Benjamins. Crossref link
Regier, Terry
1996The Human Semantic Potential: Spatial Language and Constrained Connectionism. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Rickheit, Gert and Christopher Habel
(eds.) 1999Mental Models in Discourse Processing and Reasoning. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Schiffrin, Deborah
1987Discourse markers. Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Schourup, Lawrence
1999 “Discourse markers (Tutorial overview).” Lingua 107: 227–265. Crossref link
Sebba, Mark
1987The Syntax of Serial Verbs: An Investigation into Serialisation in Sranan and Other Languages. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Crossref link
Shen, Jiaxuan
1994 “ ‘語法化’研究綜觀” [“Grammaticalization – an overview”]. Foreign Language Teaching and Research 4: 17–24.
1997 “語用、認知、言外義” [“Pragmatics, cognition and implicature”]. Foreign Language Teaching and Research 4: 10–12.
1998a “實詞虛化的機制” [“Mechanism of grammaticalization”]. Contemporary Linguistics 3: 41–46.
1998b “語用法的語法化” [“Grammaticalization in pragmatics”]. Fujian Waiyu 2: 1–8.
2000 “語用原則、語用推理和語義演變” [“Pragmatic principles, pragmatic inference, semantic change”]. Foreign Language Teaching and Research 4: 243–251.
2001 “語言的’主觀性’和’主觀化’” [“A survey of studies on subjectivity and subjectivisation”]. Foreign Language Teaching and Research 4: 268–275.
2005現代漢語語法的功能、語用、認知研究 [The grammar of modern Chinese: functional, pragmatic and cognitive perspectives]. Beijing: Commercial Press Ltd.
Shi, Yuzhi
2002The Establishment of Modern Chinese Grammar: The Formation of the Resultative Construction and Its Effects. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Crossref link
2006語法化的動因與機制 [Motivations and mechanisms in grammaticalization]. Beijing University Press.
Shi, Yuzhi and Charles Li
2001漢語語法化的歷程 [A history of grammaticalization in Chinese]. Beijing University Press.
Shi, Zhiqiang
1989 “The grammaticalization of the particle le in Mandarin Chinese.” Language Variation and Change 1: 99–114. Crossref link
Smith, Carlota S.
1997[1991] The Parameter of Aspect. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Crossref link
Smith, John C.
1993 “Subjectification and the semantic-pragmatic development of French deictic adverbs.” Paper presented at the 11th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, UclA.
Sohn, Sungock S.
2002 “The grammaticalization of honorific particles in Korean.” In New Reflections on Grammaticalization, ed. by Ilse Wischer and Gabriele Diewald, 309–325. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Song, Jae Jung
1996 “From purposive to manner in Korean: a semantic-pragmatic change of subjectification.” Australian Journal of Linguistics 16: 209–227. Crossref link
Stedman, T. L. and Lee, K. P.
1888A Chinese and English Phrase Book in the Canton Dialect. New York: William R. Jenkins. 186 pages.
Stubbs, Michael
1986 “A matter of prolonged field work: notes toward a modal grammar of English.” Applied Linguistics 7: 1–25. Crossref link
Sun, Chaofen
1994 “<<虛化論>>評介” [“Review of grammaticalization”]. Linguistics Abroad 4: 19–25.
1996Word-order Change and Grammaticalization in the History of Chinese. Stanford University Press.
Suzuki, Ryoko
1998 “From a lexical noun to an utterance-final pragmatic particle: wake .” In Studies in Japanese Grammaticalization, ed. by Toshio Ohori, 67–92. Tokyo: Kurosio Publishers.
2007 “(Inter)subjectification in the quotative tte in Japanese conversation: Local change, utterance – ness and verb – ness.” Journal of Historical Pragmatics 8 (2): 207–237. Crossref link
Suzuki, Satoko
1999 “Marker of unexpected statements: An analysis of the quotative particle datte .” Journal of the Association of Teachers of Japanese 33(1): 44–67. Crossref link
Svorou, Soteria
1986 “On the evolutionary paths of locative expressions.” In Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, February 15–17, 1986, ed. by Vassiliki Nikiforidou, Mary VanClay, Mary Niepokuj and Deborah Jeder, 515–527. Berkeley Linguistics Society, University of California.
1988The Experiential Basis of the Grammar of Space: Evidence from the Languages of the World. PhD Dissertation. SUNY Buffalo.
1994The Grammar of Space. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
2002 “Semantic constraints in the grammaticalization of locative constructions.” In New Reflections on Grammaticalization, ed. by Ilse Wischer and Gabriele Diewald, 121–142. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company Crossref link
Swadesh, Morris
1955 “Towards greater accuracy in lexicostatistic dating.” International Journal of American Linguistics 21: 121–137. Crossref link
Sweetser, Eve E.
1988 “Grammaticalization and semantic bleaching.” In Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistic Society and the Parasession on Grammaticalization, ed. by Shelley Axmaker, Annie Jaisser, and Helen Singmaster, 389–405. Berkeley Linguistics Society.
1990From Etymology to Pragmatics: Metaphorical and Cultural Aspects of Semantic Structure. Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Tang, Szewing
2001 “粵語助詞‘翻’的應用條件” [“The Cantonese particle faan: its conditions of use’.” Zhongguo Yuwen Tongxin 60: 50–55.
2003 “Properties of ngaang and the syntax of verbal particles in Cantonese.” Journal of Chinese Linguistics 31 (2): 245–269.
2015Yueyu Yufa Jiangyi [Lectures on Cantonese Grammar]. Hong Kong Commerical Press.
Tang, Szewing, Fan Kwok, Thomas Huntak Lee, Caesar Lun, Kangkwong Luke, Peter Tung and Kwanhin Cheung
2002Guide to LSHK Cantonese romanization of Chinese characters (2nd edition). Linguistic Society of Hong Kong.
Tao, Hongyin
1996Units in Mandarin Conversation: Discourse, Grammar and Prosody. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Crossref link
Tiee, Henry
1986A Reference Grammar of Chinese Sentences. Tucson: the University of Arizona Press.
Ting, Jen
2003 “The nature of the particle suo in Mandarin Chinese.” Journal of East Asian Linguistics 12: 121–139. Crossref link
2008 “The nature of the particle suo in the passive constructions in Classical Chinese.” Journal of Chinese Linguistics 36 (1): 30–72.
2010 “On the climbing of the particle suo in Mandarin Chinese and its implications for the theory of clitic placement.” The Linguistic Review 27(4): 449–484. Crossref link
Traugott, Elizabeth C.
1975 “Spatial expressions of tense and temporal sequencing: a contribution to the study of semantic fields.” Semiotica 15 (3): 207–230. Crossref link
1978 “On the expression of spatio-temporal relations in language.” In Universals of Human Language (Vol.3), ed. by Joseph Greenberg, Charles A. Ferguson and Edith A. Moravcsik, 369–400. Stanford University Press.
1982 “From propositional to textual and expressive meanings: some semantic-pragmatic aspects of grammaticalization.” In Perspectives on Historical Linguistics, ed. by Winfred P. Lehmann and Yakov Malkiel, 245–271. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Crossref link
1988 “Pragmatic strengthening and grammaticalization.” In Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society and the Parasession on Grammaticalization, ed. by Shelley Axmaker, Annie Jaisser and Helen Singmaster, 406–416. Berkeley Linguistics Society.
1989 “On the rise of epistemic meanings in English: an example of subjectification in semantic change.” Language 65: 31–55. Crossref link
1995 “Subjectification in grammaticalization.” In Subjectivity and Subjectification, ed. by Dieter Stein and Susan Wright, 31–54. Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
1997 “Subjectification and the development of epistemic meaning: the case of promise and threaten.” In Modality in Germanic Languages: Historical & Comparative Perspectives, ed. by Toril Swan and Jansen Olaf Westvik, 185–210. Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref link
1999 “The rhetoric of counter – expectation in semantic change: a study in subjectification.” In Historical Semantics and Cognition, ed. by Andreas Blank and Peter Koch, 177–196. Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref link
2003a “Constructions in grammaticalization.” In The Handbook of Historical Linguistics, ed. by Brian D. Joseph and Richard D. Janda, 624–647. UK: Blackwell Publishing. Crossref link
2003b “From Subjectification to intersubjectification.” In Motives for Language Change, ed. by Raymond Hickey, 124–139. Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
2010a “Grammatialization.” In Historical Pragmatics, ed. by Andreas H. Jucker and Irma Taavitsainen, 97–125. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
2010b “(Inter)subjectivity and (inter)subjectification: a reassessment.” In Subjectification, Intersubjectification and Grammaticalization, ed. by Kristin Davidse, Lieven Vandelanotte and Hubert Cuyckens, 29–71. Berlin; New York: Mouton De Gruyter. Crossref link
Traugott, Elizabeth C. and Richard B. Dasher
2002Regularity in Semantic Change. Cambridge University Press.
Traugott, Elizabeth C. and Bernd Heine
(eds.) 1991Approaches to Grammaticalization. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Traugott, Elizabeth C. and Ekkehard König
1991 “The Semantic-pragmatics of Grammaticalization Revisited.” In Approaches to Grammaticalization, ed. by Elizabeth C. Traugott and Bernd Heine, 189–218. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Traugott, Elizabeth C. and Trousdale Graeme
2013Constructionalization and Constructional Changes. Oxford University Press. Crossref link
Tuggy, David
1999 “Linguistic evidence for polysemy in the mind: a response to William Croft and Dominiek Sandra.” Cognitive Linguistics 10: 343–386.
2007 “Schematicity.” In The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics, ed. by Dirk Geeraerts and Hubert Cuyckens, 82–116. Oxford University Press.
Vendler, Zeno
1967Linguistics in Philosophy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Wang, Fumei
2002 “From a motion verb to an aspect marker: a study of GUO in Mandarin Chinese.” Concentric: Studies in English Literature and Linguistics 28 (2): 57–84.
Wang, Yin and Chensong Yan
2005 “語法化的特徵、動因、机制” [“Grammaticalization: characteristics, motivations and mechanisms”]. Journal of PLA University of Foreign Languages 4: 1–5.
Whorf, Benjamin L.
1956Language, Thought, and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press.
Wong, Cherie
2010Word Order and Subjectivity in Cantonese. MPhil Thesis. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
Wong, Kwokshing
2004 “The acquisition of polysemous forms: the case of bei2 (“give”) in Cantonese.” In Up and Down the Cline – The Nature of Grammaticalization, ed. by Olga Fischer, Muriel Norde, and Harry Perridon, 325–343. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Wu Kaibin
1997香港話詞典 [A Dictionary of the Hong Kong Speech]. Guangzhou: Huacheng Chubanshe.
Wu, Fuxiang
2003 “關於語法化的單向性問題” [“On the unidirectionality of grammaticalization”]. Contemporary Linguistics 4: 307–322.
Wu, Hsiaoching
2003 “A case study on the grammaticalisation of GUO in Mandarin Chinese – polysemy of the motion verb with respect to semantic changes.” Language and Linguistics 4 (4): 857–885.
Wu, Zoe Xiuzhi
2004Grammaticalization and Language Change in Chinese: A Formal View. London; New York: RoutledgeCurzon.
Xiao, Richard and Tony McEnery
2004Aspect in Mandarin Chinese: A Corpus-based Study. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing. Crossref link
Xing, Janet Zhiqun
2003 “Grammaticalization of Verbs in Mandarin Chinese.” Journal of Chinese Linguistics 31 (1): 101–144.
2004 “Grammaticalization of the scalar focus particle lian in Mandarin Chinese.” Journal of Historical Pragmatics 5 (1): 81–106. Crossref link
(ed) 2012Newest Trends in the Study of Grammaticalization and Lexicalization in Chinese. Berlin; Boston: Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref link
2013 “Semantic Reanalysis in Grammaticalization in Chinese.” In Increased Empiricism: New Advances in Chinese Linguistics, ed. by Jing-Schmidt Zhuo, 223–246. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Crossref link
2016 “Semantic Change in Chinese.” In The Routledge Encyclopedia of the Chinese Language, ed. by Sin-wai Chan, 706–721. London; New York: Routledge.
Xu, Baohua and Yilang Gongtian
1999漢語方言大詞典 [Dictionary of Chinese Dialects]. Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju.
Xu, Dan
(ed.) 2008Space in Languages of China: Cross-linguistic, Synchronic and Diachronic Perspectives. New York: Springer. Crossref link
Xu, Huiling and Stephen Matthews
2011 “On the polyfunctionality and grammaticalization of the morpheme KAI in the Chaozhou dialect.” In Nominalization in Asian Languages: Diachronic and Typological Perspectives, Volume 1 Sino-Tibetan and Iranian Languages, ed. by Foongha Yap, Karen Grunow-Hårsta, and Janick Wrona. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Crossref link
Yap, Foongha, Pikling Choi and Kamsiu Cheung
2010 “Delexicalizaing di: How a Chinese noun has evolved into an attitudinal nominalizer.” In Formal Evidence in Grammaticalization Research, ed. by An van linden, Jean-Christophe Verstraete, and Kristin Davidse, 63–92. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing. Crossref link
Yap, Foongha, Karen Grunow-Hårsta and Janick Wrona
2011 “Nominalization strategies in Asian languages.” In Nominalization in Asian Languages: Diachronic and Typological Perspectives [Typological Studies in Language 96], ed. by Foongha Yap, Karen Grunow-Hårsta and Janick Wrona, 1–57. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Crossref link
Yap, Foongha and Stephen Matthews
2008 “The development of nominalizers in East Asian languages.” In Rethinking Grammaticalization: New Perspectives, ed. by Maria Jose Lopez-Couso and Elena Seoane, , 309–341. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Crossref link
Yap, Foongha, Stephen Matthews and Kaoru Horie
2004 “From pronominalizer to pragmatic marker: implications for unidirectionality from a crosslinguistic perspective.” In Up and Down the Cline – the Nature of Grammaticalization, ed. by Olga Fischer, Muriel Norde, and Harry Perridon, 137–169. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Yap, Foongha and Jiao Wang
. In press. “From light noun to nominalizer: the grammaticalization of zhe and suo in Old and Middle Chinese.” In Nominalization in Asian Languages: Diachronic and Typological Perspectives, Volume 1 Sino-Tibetan and Iranian Languages ed. by Foongha Yap, Karen Grunow-Hårsta, and Janick Wrona. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Yap, Foongha and Winnie Chor
2014 “Epistemic, Evidential and Attitudinal Markers in Clause-medial Position in Cantonese.” In Modes of Modality: Modality, Typology and Universal Grammar, ed. by Elizabeth Leiss and Werner Abraham, 219–260. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Crossref link
2016 “Implicit deicticity and negative attitudinal marking: The case of nei di and go di [Demonstrative + Classifier] constructions in Cantonese discourse.” Paper presented at the 26th Annual Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society (SEALS – 26), Manila, the Philippines, May 26–28.
Yap, Foongha and Winnie, Chor
. forthcoming. “The grammaticalization of stance markers in Chinese.” In The Routledge Handbook of Chinese Discourse Analysis ed. by Chris Shei. London: Routledge.
Yap, Foongha, Winnie Chor and Jiao Wang
2012 “On the development of epistemic ‘fear’ markers: An analysis of Mandarin kongpa and Cantonese taipaa .” In Covert Patterns of Modality, ed. by Werner Abraham and Elisabeth Leiss, 312–342. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Yap, Foongha, Ying Yang and Taksum Wong
2014 “On the development of sentence final particles (and utterance tags) in Chinese.” In Discourse Functions at the Left and Right Periphery: Crosslinguistic Investigations of Language Use and Language Change. [Studies in Pragmatics 12], ed. by Kate Beeching and Ulrich Detges, 179–220. Leiden, The Netherlands; Boston: Brill. Crossref link
Yeung, Kawaii
2003 “The grammaticalization of complementizers from verbs of ‘saying’: the case of Cantonese waa6 .” In Proceedings of the Fifteenth North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics, ed. by Y.H. Lin, 487–503. Distributed by GSIL, University of Southern California.
2006 “On the status of the complementizer waa6 in Cantonese.” Taiwan Journal of Linguistics 4 (1): 1–48.
Yin, Hui
2004 “Grammaticalization of Mandarin transfer verbs gei and bei as passive markers.” In Proceedings of the 2004 Annual Conference of the Canadian Linguistic Association.
Yip, Virginia and Stephen Matthews
2007The Bilingual Child: Early Development and Language Contact. Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Yiu, Carine Yukman
2001Cantonese Final Particles 'LEI', 'ZYU' and 'LAA': An Aspectual Study. M.Phil thesis. University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong.
2005Spatial Extension: Directional Verbs in Cantonese. PhD dissertation. University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong.
You, Rujie
2002西洋傳教士漢語方言學著作書目考述[A bibliography of works by western missionaries on Chinese Dialectology]. Haerbin: Heilongjiang Jiaoyu Chubanshe.
Yu, Ning
1998The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor: A Perspective from Chinese. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing. Crossref link
Yuan, Jiahua
1989[1960] 漢語方言概要 [An outline of Chinese dialects]. Beijing: Wenzi Gaige Chubanshe.
Yue, Anne
1993Comparative Chinese Dialectal Grammar: Handbook for Investigators. Paris: Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Centre de Rechersches Linguistiques sur l’Asie Orientale.
2004a “Materials for the diachronic study of the Yue dialects.” In Joy of Research: A Festschrift in Honor of Professor William S -Y. Wang on His Seventieth Birthday, ed. by Feng Shi and Zhongwei Shen, 246–271. Tianjin: The Nankai University Press.
2004b “The verb complement construction in historical perspectives with special reference to Cantonese.” In Chinese Grammar: Synchronic and Diachronic Perspectives, ed. by Chappell, Hilary, 232–265. Oxford University Press.
Yue, Xiang
2003 “語用因素語法化研究” [“On the grammaticalization of pragmatic factors”]. Journal of Hunan University of Arts and Science 28 (5): 100–102.
Zeng, Liying
2005 “ ‘我看’與’你看’的主觀化” [“The subjectivisation of wo-kan and ni-kan ”]. Chinese Language Learning 2: 15–22.
Zhan, Bohui
1958 “粵方言中的虛詞親住翻埋添” [“The particles can, zyu, faan, maai, tim in the Yue dialect”]. Chinese Language 3: 119–122.
Zhang, Shuangqing
1996動詞的體 [Aspects of verbs]. The Chinese University of Hong Kong Institute of Chinese Studies, T.T. Ng Chinese Language Research Centre.
Zhang, Liyan and Leihuai Ni
1999港式廣州話詞典 [A Dictionary of Hong Kong Style Cantonese]. Hong Kong: Wanli Shudian
Zhang, Yisheng
2003 “從量詞到助詞 – 量詞’個’語法化過程的個案分析” [“From a measure word to an auxiliary word – a case study of the grammaticalization of the Chinese measure word ge ”]. Contemporary Linguistics 3: 193–205.
2005 “副詞’都’的語法化與主觀化 – 兼論’都’的表達功能和內部分類” [“On the grammaticalization and subjectivisation of the adverb dou ”]. Journal of Xuzhou Normal University 1: 56–62.
Zheng, Dian and Meiqiao Mai
1964古漢語語法學資料彙編 [A collection of materials on Old Chinese Grammar]. Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju.
Zhu, Dexi
1982語法講義 [Lecture notes of grammar]. Beijing: Commercial Press Ltd.
Ziegeler, Debra
1997 “Retention in ontogenetic and diachronic grammaticalization.” Cognitive Linguistics 8: 207–242. Crossref link
Subjects
BIC Subject: CF/2GDCC – Linguistics/Cantonese
BISAC Subject: LAN009010 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / Historical & Comparative
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  2017050539