Late Modern English Medical Texts
Writing medicine in the eighteenth century
Including the LMEMT Corpus
The eighteenth century in medicine is a fallow period lying between the innovations of the Royal Society (1662–) with its new ways of doing science and the nineteenth-century achievements of clinical and laboratory medicine. The period deserves more attention, as the seeds of some modern approaches, like statistics leading to probabilities, date from this century. This volume provides a comprehensive description of the main developments in 1700–1800. Its main focus is on language use in context, with stylistic variation according to genres, authors and audiences. The volume is interdisciplinary: the chapters chart changes and continuities and draw on corpus linguistics, discourse analysis, history of medicine, digital humanities and computer science, and all studies are based on the corpus of Late Modern English Medical Texts (LMEMT). In addition, the volume contains a detailed description of corpus categories focusing on chronological coverage of the texts, criteria for inclusion, discourse forms, and background facts. The volume concludes with a Manual of the corpus, providing information about annotation conventions and examples of how the corpus can be used.
[Not in series, 221] 2019. xix, 432 pp., incl. CD-RoM
Publishing status: Available
© John Benjamins
Table of Contents
Conventions used in this book
List of abbreviations
List of contributors
Chapter 11. LMEMT category descriptions
11.2. Specific treatises
Primary data: Catalogue of corpus texts
Other primary sources
Other primary sources
Adair, James McKittrick 1790 Essays on Fashionable Diseases. London.
1684 ARISTOTLES MASTER-PIECE Or the Secrets of Generation displayed in all the parts thereof. London: Printed for J. How.
, De Spermate Hominis (late 14th c.) “De Spermate Hominis: A Middle English poem on human embryology.” Ed. by Henry Hargreaves 1977 Mediaeval Studies 39: 507.
1775 Lilly’s New Erra Pater; or, A Prognostication for Ever. London: Aldermary Church Yard.
c. 1800 Physiognomy, or the Corresponding Analogy between the Conformation of the Features, and the Ruling Passions of the Mind. London: H.D. Symonds.
1726? The Book of Knowledge Shewing the Wisdom of the Ancients, Written by Erra Pater, a Jewish Doctor… made English by William Lilly. Gosport: J. Phillpot.
1910 Treatises of Fistula in Ano, Haemorrhoids, and Clysters. Ed. by Power, D'Arcy. Early English Text Society O.S. 139. 1–37. London: Kegan, Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co..
 1831 “History of life and death.” In The Works of Francis Bacon, vol. XIV, 309–423. London: William Pickering.
1655 The Mystery of Astronomy. London.
 1640 Of the advancement and proficience of learning; or, The partitions of sciences IX bookes / written in Latin by the most eminent, illustrious, & famous Lord Francis Bacon baron of Verulam, Vicont St Alban, Counsilour of Estate and Lord Chancellor of England. ; Interpreted by Gilbert Wats. Instauratio magna Of the aduancement of learning Partitions of sciences Partitions of sciences. Oxford: Printed by Leon: Lichfield, printer to the University, for Rob: Young & Ed: Forrest., cI[c]I[c]cXL.
1588 A Short Discourse of the three kindes of PEPPERS in common vse, and certaine special medicines made of the same, tending to the preseruation of health. Facsimile edition: 1972 [The English experience No. 425]. Amsterdam/New York: Theatrum Orbis Terrarum and Da Capo Press. (Originally [London?: Eliot’s Court Press?].) STC 1199.
1772 “The case of Mr Thomas wood, a miller, of Billericay, in the county of Essex … read at the College on September 9, 1767.” In Medical Transactions, vol. 2, 259–274. Printed for Baker S. and Dodsley J.
1782 An Historical Sketch of Medicine and Surgery. London: J. Johnson.
1656 Glossographia or a Dictionary. London.
1525 The noble experyence of the vertuous handy warke of surgeri/ practysyd & compyled by the moost experte mayster Iherome of Bruynswyke/ borne in Straesborowe in Almayne/ þe whiche hath it fyrst proued/ and trewly founde by his awne dayly exercysynge. Item there after he hath authorysed and done it to vnderstande thrugh the trewe sentences of the olde doctours and maysters very experte in the seyence of Surgery… Facsimile edition: 1973 [The English experience No. 531]. Amsterdam/New York: Theatrum Orbis Terrarum and Da Capo Press. (Originally London: Petrus Treueris.) STC 13434.
1797 “Observations concerning the diet of the common people, recommending a method of living less expensive, and more conducive to health, than the present.” In Domestic Medicine: or, a Treatise on the Prevention and Cure of Diseases by Regimen and Simple Medicines. Buchan, W. London: W. Strahan.
Bullokar, John 1616 An English Expositor. London.
1621 An English Expositor. London.
Burney collection of Newspapers
. CC BY-NC-ND. Online: http://www.jisc.ac.uk/news/stories/2009/01/burney.aspx.
1617 A Table Alphabetical, Containing and Teaching the Understanding of Hard Usual English Words. London.
1604 A table alphabetical. London.
1678 THE Royal Pharmacopoea, GALENICAL AND CHYMICAL, According to the PRACTICE Of the Most Eminent and Learned PHYSITIANS OF FRANCE, And Publish’d with their several Approbations. London: printed for John Starkey and Moses Pitt. Wing C2040.
de Chauliac, Guy
1976 The Middle English Translation of Guy de Chauliac's Treatise on Wounds. Ed. by Björn Wallner. 3–51. Lund: CWK Gleerup.
1733  The English Malady. Scholars’ Facsimiles & Reprints.
1742 The Natural Method of Cureing the Diseases of the Body, and the Disorders of the Mind Depending on the Body. London: Geo. Strahan and John and Paul Knapton.
1623 English Dictionary. London.
2014 Writings on the Sober Life: The Art and Grace of Living Long, Hiroko Fudemoto (ed. and trans.). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
1649 A PHYSICALL DIRECTORY OR A translation of the LONDON DISPENSATORY Made by the Colledge of Physicians in London. Being that book by which all Apothicaries are strictly commanded to make all their Physick with many hundred additions which the reader may find in every page marked with this letter A. Also there is added the use of all the simples beginning at the first page and ending at the 78 page. London: Printed for Peter Cole. Wing C7540.
 1995 Complete Herbal and English Physician Enlarged. Wordsworth imprint of 1653 edition. London: Wordsworth.
1697 Art and nature. London: printed for Sam. Clark.
1586 Tesoro della sanità, nel quale si dà il modo di conservar la sanità et prolungar la vita. Rome: F. Zanetti.
1686 A Family-Herbal or the Treasure of Health. London: W. Crooke.
ECCO. Eighteenth Century Collections Online (ECCO)
. GALE CENGAGE Learning. Online: http://find.galegroup.com/ecco/basicSearch.do.
ECCO TCP (Text Creation Partnership).
1537 DECLAMATIO IN LAVDEM nobilissimæ artis medicinae. A Declamacion in the prayse and co~me~dation of the most hygh and excellent science of Phisyke. London: Robert Redman.
1778 Observations on Some of the Articles of Diet and Regimen Usually Recommended to Valetudinarians. London: Edward and Charles Dilly. In Estes, J. Worth 1996 “The medical properties of food in the eighteenth century.” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 51 (2): 127–154.
Farington, Joseph  1979 The diary of Joseph Farington, vol. 3, Kenneth Garlick and Angus Macintyre (eds). New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
1746 A Treatise on the Causes of Most Diseases. London: J. Clarke, G. Hawkins and W. Reeve.
1703 Emmenologia. London: Thomas Bennet.
1725–1726 History of Physick. London: J, Walthoe.
1991 Compendium Medicinae. In Healing and Society in Medieval England: A Middle English Translation of the Pharmaceutical Writings of Gilbertus Anglicus, F. M. Getz(ed.). Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
1790 The Guardian of Health, Long-Life and Happiness. Newcastle upon Tyne: S. Hodgson.
1574 A Direction for the Health of Magistrates and Studentes. London: William How.
 1971 Fundamenta Medicinae. London: Macdonald.
1666 Some Considerations Concerning the Parenchymous parts of the Body. Philosophical Transactions 1 (18): 316–320.
1970 A Middle English Version of Lanfranc's Chirurgia Parva: The Surgical Part. Ed. by Annika Asplund. 66–95. Stockholm: Stockholm University.
 1706 A Treatise of Foods in General. London: Andrew Bell.
1762 An Essay on the Most Effectual Means of Preserving the Health of Seamen. London.
1690 An essay concerning humane understanding in four books. London: Printed for Tho. Basset.
The medical register for the year 1783
1783 Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. London: Joseph Johnson.
de Mediolano, Joannes
1528 Regimen sanitatis Salerni. London: Thomas Berthelet.
MEMT = Middle English Medical Texts Corpus
2005 Compiled by Irma Taavitsainen, Päivi Pahta and Martti Mäkinen. Software by Raymond Hickey. CD-Rom. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
1677 A New Dictionary French and English, with another English and French. London.
1581 The training vp of children, either for skill in their booke, or health in their bodie. Facsimile edition: 1971 Amsterdam/New York: Theatrum Orbis Terrarum and Da Capo Press. (Originally London: Thomas Vautrollier.)
1715 An essay upon the duty of Physicians and Patients, the Dignity of Medicine, and the Prudentials of Practice. In two dialogues. London: Printed by G. J. for Henry Clements at the Half-Moon in St. Paul’s Church-Yard.
1589 Trattato de’ cibi et del bere, con molte dotte et belle annotazioni di Francesco Gallina. Carmagnola: Marc’Antonio Bellone.
1664 Experimental Philosophy in three Books: Containing new Experiments Microscopical, Mercurial, Magnetical. London: Roycroft.
1756 Specimen Inaugurale Medicum, sistens experimenta quædam, quibus constitit, eas partes esse sensu præditas, quibus Hallerus cum aliis quibusdam omnem sentiendi facultatem cum irratabilitate degenat. Auctore Ignatio Radniczky: Prague.
Secreet Of Secreetes
. Secretum Secretorum: Nine English Versions 1977 Ed. by, M. A Manzalaoui.Early English Text Society 276. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sekenesse Of Wymmen 3 1981 Medieval Woman's Guide to Health: The First English Gynecological Handbook. Ed. by B. Rowland. 60–74. Kent, OH.: Kent State University Press.
1807–1808 The Code of Health and Longevity: or, a Concise View of the Principles Calculated for the Preservation of Health and the Attainment of Long Life, vol. 1. Edinburgh: Arch. Constable.
1776 A Sure Guide in Sickness and Health, in the Choice of Food, and Use of Medicine. London: J. Bew and J. Walter.
Sprat, T. 2003.  History of the Royal Society of London for the Improving of Natural Knowledge. Facsimile edition: 2003 Whitefish, MT: Kessinger. Originally London: J. Martyn.
1695 Compleat method of curing. Dr. Sydenham’s Compleat Method OF CURING Almost all DISEASES, AND Description of their Symptoms. London: H. Newman and Rich. Parker.
1659 The Hidden Treasures of the Art of Physic. London.
1675 Orthomethodos Iatro Chimiche, or the Direct Method of Curing Chymically. London: B. Billingsley.
1548 The names of herbes in Greke, Latin, Englishe Duche & Frenche wyth the commune names that Herbaries and Apotecaries vse. London: By [S. Mierdman for] John Day and Wyllyam Seres. STC 24359.
Van Helmont, Jan Baptist
1662 Oriatrike, or, Physick Refined. London: Lodowick Loyd.
de Vigo, Johannes
1543 Most excellent workes of chirurgerye. [London?]: Edwarde Whytchurch.
 1880 Primitive physic. Chicago: O. W. Gordon.
 1975 Journal entry for 28 June 1770, in The works of John Wesley. Oxford: Clarendon Press, vol. 22. Cited in Grumett, David and Muers, Rachel 1975 Theology on the Menu: Asceticism, Meat and Christian Diet. London: Routledge.
1668 Essays Towards Real Character and Philosophical Language. London: Gellibrand and John Martyn.
1684 Dr. Willis's Practice of Physic. London.
1691 A Plain and Easie Method FOR Preserving [by God's Blessing] those that are WELL from the Infection of the PLAGUE, OR Any Contagious Distemper in City, Camp, Fleet, &c. AND For Curing such as are Infected with it. London: Printed: William Crook.
National Library of Wales
c. 1730 MS NLW, 15C. Commonplace book of Michael Hughes of Lligwy.
c. 1680–1750 MS 7721, 2. Anonymous, Medical Recipe Collection.
c. 1750a MS Western 7998, 117. ‘Heppington Receipts.’
c. 1750b MSL MS 2, 30–31. Anonymous, Recipe Collection.
c. 1785–1818 MS 3656. Recipe collection attributed to ‘Miss Myddelton and others’.
c. 1788 MS 7720. Receipt book of Harriot Clinton.
c. late eighteenth century MS 7875. Anonymous, English Recipe Book.
c. 1648–1800 MS 8575, 13. Anonymous, Recipe Collection.
Ackerknecht, Erwin 1973 Therapeutics: From the Primitives to the Twentieth Century, with an Appendix History of Dietetics. London: Collier-Macmillan.
1996 Conversational Routines in English: Conversation and Creativity. London and New York: Longman.
2002 Eating Right in the Renaissance. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
2011 “The various forms of civilization arranged in chronological strata: manipulating the HTE.” In Cunning Passages, Contrived Corridors: Unexpected Essays in the History of Lexicography, Michael Adams and Giovanni Iamartino (eds.), 309–324. Monza, Italy, Polimetrica Press.
2017 Profiles and Peaks: Lexicalisation, Focus, and Trauma in the History of English. Plenary presentation at HEL-LEX 5, Zurich 15–19 February 2017.
2018a Lexicalization Pressure: From Frequency to Linguistic Trauma. Plenary presentation at ICEHL20, Edinburgh 27–30 August 2018.
2018b “The Hansard Corpus through a telescope.” Plenary talk at the 39th ICAME conference, Tampere, Finland.
2013 “Genre conventions in English recipes 1600-1800.” In DiMeo and Pennell (eds), 68–92.
1998 “On the phraseology of spoken English: The evidence of current word-combinations.” In Phraseology: Theory, Analysis and Applications, A. P. Cowie (ed.), 100–122. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Andrew, Donna T.
1989 Philanthropy and Police: London Charity in the Eighteenth Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Andrews, Jonathan, Briggs, Asa, Porter, Roy, Tucker, Penny and Waddington, Keir
1997 The History of Bethlem. London: Routledge.
2014 AntConc 3.4.3. Corpus software. Tokyo, Japan: Waseda University. Online: http://www.laurenceanthony.net/.
1999 Scientific discourse in Sociohistorical Context. The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 1675–1975. London and Mahwah, NJ: Laurence Erlbaum.
1981 “Medical semiotics: A new paradigm.” Semiotica 37: 169–191.
Bailey, Michael D.
2008 The Development of Scientific Writing, Linguistic Features and Historical Contexts. London: Equinox.
2017 “Establishing the boundaries and creating the genre of the scientific research article in the late seventeenth century.” Ranam; recherches anglaises et nord-américaines. (Special issue, ed. Jean-Jaques Chardin: Discourse, Boundaries and Genres in English Studies: An Assessment.) Strasbourg: Presses universitaires de Strasbourg. 31–42.
Baron, Alistair and Rayson, Paul
2008 VARD 2 http://ucrel.lancs.ac.uk/vard/about/.
Baroni Marco and Stefan Evert
2009 “Statistical methods for corpus exploitation” in: Corpus Linguistics: An International Handbook. Volume 2 eds Lüdeling, Anke and Kytö, Merja. Berlin: MOuton de Gruyter. 777–802
Barquet, Nicolaut and Domingo, Pere
1985 “Piety and the patient: Medicine and religion in eighteenth century Bristol.” In Roy Porter (ed.), 145–175.
1987 “Publicity and the public good: Presenting medicine in eighteenth-century Bristol.” In Medical Fringe & Medical Orthodoxy 1750–1850 (eds), W. F. Bynum and Roy Porter, 29–55. London: Croom Helm.
Bastian Mathieu, Heymann Sebastien and Jacomy, Mathieu
2009 “Gephi: an open source software for exploring and manipulating networks.” In Proceedings of International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media. Online: https://gephi.org/publications/gephi-bastian-feb09.pdf.
1988 Shaping Written Knowledge: The Genre and Activity of the Experimental Article in Science. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
2011 Vaccination: A History. From Lady Montagu to Genetic Engineering. Esher: John Libbey.
2008 Wellbeing: A Cultural History of Healthy Living. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Berkenkotter Carol and Thomas N. Huchkin
1995 Genre knowledge in disciplinary communication. Hillsdale, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
2003 Gender, Society and Print Culture in Late Stuart England: The Cultural World of the Athenian Mercury [Women and Gender in the Early Modern World]. Aldershot: Ashgate.
1993 “Using register-diversified corpora for general language studies.” Computational Linguistics 19(2): 219–241.
Biber, Douglas and Finegan, Edward
Biber, Douglas, Finegan, Edward and Atkinson, Dwight
1993 “ARCHER and its challenges: compiling and exploring A Representative Corpus of Historical English Registers.” In Creating and Using English Language Corpora, Udo Fries, Gunnel Tottie and Peter Schneider (eds), 1–13. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Biber, Douglas and Finegan, Edward
1997 “Diachronic relations among speech-based and written registers in English.” In To Explain the Present: Studies in the Changing English Language in Honour of Matti Rissanen, Terttu Nevalainen and Leena Kahlas-Tarkka (eds), 253–276. Helsinki: Société Néophilologique.
Biber, Douglas, Johanson, Stig, Leech, Geoffrey, Conrad, Susan and Finegan, Edward
1999 Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. London: Longman.
Biber, Douglas, Conrad, Susan and Cortes, Viviana
(ed.) 2016 Beyond the Secular West. New York: Columbia University Press.
Blei, David M., Ng, Andrew Y. and Jordan, Michael I.
2003 “Latent Dirichlet allocation.” Journal of Machine Learning Research 3: 993–1022.
2006 Lexical Processes in Scientific Discourse Popularisations: A Corpus-Linguistic Study of the SARS Coverage. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
Broman, Thomas H.
1995 “Apprenticeship, social mobility and the middling sort 1550–1800.” In The Middling Sort of People: Culture, Society and Politics in England, 1550–1800, Jonathan Barry and Christopher Brooks (eds), 52–83. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan.
2011 Performing Medicine: Medical Culture and Identity in Provincial England, c. 1760–1850. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Brown, Penelope and Levinson, Stephen
Bynum, William F.
1994 Science and the Practice of Medicine in the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Carlson, C. Lennart
1938 The First Magazine: A History of The Gentleman’s Magazine. Providence, RI: Brown University.
Cambridge History of Science
. Volume 4, Eighteenth-Century Science, Roy Porter ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cody, Lisa Forman
2005 Birthing the Nation: Sex, Science and the Conception of Eighteenth-Century Britons. New York: Oxford University Press.
Collins, James and Blot, Richard K.
1977 “Another side to William Byrd of Westover: An explanation of the food in his secret diaries.” Virginia Cavalcade 26 (3): 124–133.
CoRD. Corpus Resource Database
. Online: http://www.helsinki.fi/varieng/CoRD/.
Corfield, Penelope J.
2014 “Foreword.” In Writings on the Sober Life: The Art and Grace of Living Long, Hiroko Fudemoto (ed. and transl. ), vii–xxv. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Crombie, A. C.
Crombie, Alistair Cameron
1994 Styles of Scientific Thinking in the European Tradition: The History of Argument and Explanation, Especially in the Mathematical and Biomedical Sciences and Arts. Vols 1–3. London: Duckworth.
2009 “Historical Sociopragmatics: An introduction.” Jounal of Historical Pragmatics, Special issue, ed. by Jonathan Culpeper: 179–186. Rpt 2011 Sociopragmatics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Culpeper, Jonathan and Demmen, Jane
2011 “Nineteenth-century English politeness: Negative politeness, conventional indirect requests and the rise of individual self.” Journal of Historical Pragmatics 12 (1): 49–81.
Culpeper, Jonathan and Kytö, Merja
2010 Early Modern English Dialogues: Spoken Interaction as Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cunningham, Andrew and French, Roger
(eds) 1990 The Medical Enlightenment of the Eighteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1986 From York Lunatic Asylum to Bootham Park Hospital. University of York, Borthwick Paper, no. 69.
1994 Making a Medical Living: Doctors and Patients in the English Market for Medicine, 1720–1911. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
DiMeo, Michelle and Pennell, Sara
(eds) 2013 Reading and Writing Recipe Books, 1550–1800. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Dunn, Peter. M.
Early Science and Medicine: A Journal for the Study of Science, Technology and Medicine in the Pre-modern Period 3/2
1998 Special issue: The Vernacularization of Science, Medicine, and Technology in Late Medieval Europe, Crossgrove, William, Schleissner, Margaret and Voigts, Linda Ehrsam (eds). Leiden: Brill.
2008 The Early American Table: Food and Society in the New World. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press.
Eggins, Suzanne and Martin, J. R.
1997 “Genres and registers of discourse.” In Discourse as Structure and Process, Teun A. van Dijk (ed.), 230–256. London: Sage Publications.
1986 “Eighteenth- and nineteenth-century medical semiotics.” XXVII International Congress of the History of Medicine, 503–505.
Eisenberg, Mickey S.
1997 Life in the Balance: Emergency Medicine and the Quest to Reverse Sudden Death. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ellis, Nick C.
EMEMT = Early Modern English Medical Texts
2010 Compiled by Irma Taavitsainen, Päivi Pahta, Turo Hiltunen, Martti Mäkinen, Ville Marttila, Maura Ratia, Carla Suhr and Jukka Tyrkkö. DVD with EMEMT Presenter software by Raymond Hickey. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
1966 Boston, London, Toronto, Geneva, Sydney, Tokyo: William Benton.
2010  Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc. 15th edition.
ESTC = English Short Title Catalogue
. British Library. Online: http://estc.bl.uk/.
Estes, J. W.
2008 “Crucible steel as an enlightened material.” Historical Metallurgy 42 (2): 79–88.
2006 Sacred Cow, Mad Cow: A History of Food Fears. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Finger, Stanley and Ferguson, Ian
Firth, John Rupert
1957 A Synopsis of Linguistic Theory 1930–1955. London: Longman.
Fissell, Mary 1991 Patients, Power and the Poor in Eighteenth-Century Bristol. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2007 “The marketplace of print.” In Jenner and Wallis (eds), 108–132.
2012 “A book of receipts of all sorts: Elizabeth Strachey, 1693–1730s.” In Hidden Treasure: The National Library of Medicine, Michael Sappol (ed.), 204–205. New York: Blast Books.
2012 “Social factors and language change in eighteenth-century England: The case of negative concord.” Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 3 CXIII: 243–321.
1986 Linguistic Criticism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2000 Oral and Literate Culture in England, 1500–1700. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Francia, Susan and Stobart, Anne
(eds) 2014 Critical Approaches to the History of Western Herbal Medicine: From Classical Antiquity to the Early Modern Period. London: Bloomsbury.
1994 “Astrology in Medical Practice.” In Practical Medicine from Salerno to the Black Death, L. Garcia-Ballester et al. (eds), 30–59. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2012 “Newspapers from 1665 to 1765.” In News as Changing Texts: Corpora, Methodologies and Analysis, Roberta Facchinetti, Nicholas Brownlees, Birte Bös and Udo Fries (eds), 49–89. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing (rpt 2015).
2004 Galen on Antecedent Causes. Hankinson, R. J. (ed. and transl.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2014 Francis Watkins and the Dollond Telescope Patent Controversy. [Science, Technology and Culture, 1700–1945]. Dorchester: Ashgate.
2016 Food and Health in Early Modern Europe: Diet, Medicine and Society, 1450–1800. London: Bloomsbury.
 2010 Relations in Public. Microstudies of the public order. New Brunswick and London: Transaction Publishers.
2016 The Experimental Self: Humphry Davy and the Making of a Man of Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
1992 “Text-types and language history: The cookery recipe.” In History of Englishes: New Methods and Interpretations in Historical Linguistics [Topics in English Linguistics 10], Matti Rissanen, Ossi Ihalainen, Terttu Nevalainen and Irma Taavitsainen (eds), 721–736. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. (Reprint in Text Types and the History of English, Manfred Görlach (ed.), 121–140. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.)
1996 Robert Boyle and the Language of Science. Milano: Guerini.
Gotti, Maurizio 2003 Specialized Discourse. Linguistic Features and Changing Conventions. Bern: Peter Lang.
2005 Investigating Specialized Discourse. Bern: Peter Lang.
2006 “Disseminating early modern science specialized news discourse in the Philosophical Transactions .” In News Discourse in Early Modern Britain: Selected Papers of CHINED 2004, Nicholas Brownlees (ed.), 41–70. Bern: Peter Lang.
Grafton, Anthony, Shelford, April and Siraisi, Nancy
1992 New Worlds, Ancient Texts: The Power of Tradition and Shock of Discovery. Cambridge, MA and London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Gray, Bethany, Biber, Douglas and Hiltunen, Turo
2011 “The expression of stance in early (1665–1712) publications of the Philosophical Transactions and other contemporary medical prose. Innovations in a pioneering discourse.” In Medical Writing in Early Modern English, Irma Taavitsainen and Päivi Pahta (eds), 221–247. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gries, Stephan Th
Grimmer, Justin and Stewart, Brandon
2017 Death, Disease & Dissection: The Life of a Surgeon Apothecary 1750–1850. London: Pen and Sword.
Gross, Alan G., Harmon, Joseph E. and Reidy, Michael
2002 Communicating Science: The Scientific Article from the 17th Century to the Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Grumett, David and Muers, Rachel
2010 Theology on the Menu: Asceticism, Meat and Christian Diet. London: Routledge.
2000 Obesity and Depression in the Enlightenment: The Life and Times of George Cheyne. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
Hall, A. Rupert
1995 “Problematising Popular Culture.” In Harris (ed.), 1–27.
 1970 “Distributional structure.” In Papers in Structural and Transformational Linguistics [Formal Linguistics Series], 775–794. Dordrecht: D. Reidel.
1968 Mathematical Structures of Language. New York, NY: Wiley.
Haycock, David B. and Wallis, Patrick
(eds) 2005 “Quackery and commerce in seventeenth-century London: The proprietary medicine business of Anthony Daffy.” In Medical History Supplement 25: 1–216.
Hiltunen, Turo 2010 “Philosophical Transactions”. In Early Modern English Medical Texts. Corpus Description and Studies, Irma Taavitsainen and Päivi Pahta (eds), 127–131. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
2017 “Passives in academic writing comparing research articles and student essays across four disciplines.” In Corpus Linguistics on the Move: Exploring and Understanding English through Corpora, María José López-Couso, Belén Méndez-Naya, Paloma Núnez-Pertejo and Ignacio M. Palacios-Martínez (eds), 132–157. Leiden and Boston: Brill Rodopi.
Hiltunen, Turo, Säily, Tanja and McVeigh, Joe
2017 “How to turn linguistic data into evidence?.” In Big and Rich Data in English Corpus Linguistics: Methods and Explorations, Turo Hiltunen, Joe McVeigh and Tanja Säily (eds). Online: http://www.helsinki.fi/varieng/series/volumes/19/introduction.html.
2007 “Sickness as metaphor in Early Modern and Present-day English.” In Change in Meaning and the Meaning of Change: Studies in Semantics and Grammar from Old to Present-Day English, Matti Rissanen, Marianna Hintikka, Leena Kahlas-Tarkka, and Roderick McConchie (eds), 91–112. Helsinki: Société Néophilologique de Helsinki.
Historical Thesaurus of English
2016–. Version 4.61. Available online at https://ht.ac.uk.
Holbrook, Stewart H.
1959 The Golden Age of Quackery. New York: The Macmillan Company.
Holbrook, Sue Ellen
1998 “A medieval scientific encyclopedia ‘Renewed by Goodly Printing’: Wynkyn de Worde’s English De proprietatibus rerum .” In Crossgrove et al. Early Science and Medicine 3 (2): 119–156.
2010 The Symptom and the Subject: The Emergence of the Physical Body in Ancient Greece. Princeton University Press.
Jenner, Mark S. R. and Wallis, Patrick
2007a “The Medical Marketplace.” In Jenner and Wallis (eds), 1–21.
Jones, Claire L.
2013 The Medical Trade Catalogue in Britain, 1870–1914. London: Pickering and Chatto.
Jones, Peter Murray
2011 “Medical Literacies and medical culture in early modern England.” In Taavitsainen and Pahta (eds), 30–43.
Jucker, Andreas H.
2008 “Politeness in the history of English.” In English Historical Linguistics 2006. Volume II: Lexical and Semantic Change. Selected Papers from the Fourteenth International Conference on English Historical Linguistics (ICEHL 14), Bergamo, 21–25 August 2006 [Current Issues in Linguistics Theory 296], Richard Dury, Maurizio Gotti and Marina Dossena (eds), 3–29. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Jucker, Andreas H. 2012 “Changes in politeness cultures.” In The Oxford Handbook of the History of English, Terttu Nevalainen and Elizabeth Traugott (eds), 422–433. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jucker, Andreas H., Schreier, Daniel and Hundt, Marianne
(eds) 2009 Corpora: Pragmatics and Discourse. Amsterdam.: Rodopi.
Jucker, Andreas H. and Taavitsainen, Irma
Jucker, Andreas H., Taavitsainen, Irma and Schneider, Gerold
2012 “Semantic corpus trawling: Expressions of ‘courtesy’ and ‘politeness’ in the Helsinki Corpus.” In Developing Corpus Methodology for Historical Pragmatics [Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English 11], Carla Suhr and Irma Taavitsainen (eds). Research Unit for Variation, Contacts and Change in English (VARIENG), University of Helsinki. Online: http://www.helsinki.fi/varieng/journal/volumes/11/jucker_taavitsainen_schneider/.
1990 “ ‘Living in the light’: Dispensaries, philanthropy and medical reform in late-eighteenth-century London.” In The Medical Enlightenment of the Eighteenth Century, Andrew Cunningham and Roger French (eds), 254–280. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1928–1931 Die Grundlagen des deutchen Zeitschriftenwesens mit einer gesamtbibliographie der deutschen Zeitschriften bis zur Jahre 1790. Leipzig: Hierseman.
1997 “Practicing chemistry ‘after the Hippocratical manner’: Hippocrates and the importance of chemistry in Boerhaave’s medicine.” In New Narratives in Eighteenth-Century Chemistry, Lawrence Principe (ed.), 63–76. Dordrecht: Springer.
2008a “Tracing directives through text and time: Towards a methodology of a corpus-based diachronic speech-act analysis.” In Jucker and Taavitsainen (eds), 295–310.
2008b “Directives in Old English: Beyond politeness?” In Jucker and Taavitsainen (eds), 27–44.
Kopaczyk Joanna and Sauer, Hans
2017 Binomials in the History of English: Fixed and Flexible. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2013b “Formulaic discourse across Early Modern English medical genres: Investigating shared lexical bundles.” In Meaning in the History of English: Words and Texts in Context [Studies in Language Companion Series 148], Andreas H. Jucker, Daniela Landert, Annina Seiler and Nicole Studer-Joho (eds), 257–299. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Kronick, David Abraham
1976 A History of Scientific & Technical Periodicals: The Origins and Development of the Scientific and Technical Press, 1665–1790. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press.
1991 Scientific and Technical Periodicals of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: A Guide. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow.
1996  Manual to the Diachronic Part of the Helsinki Corpus of English Texts: Coding Conventions and Lists of Source Texts. Third Edition. Helsinki: Department of English.
Labov, William and Waletzky, Joshua 1997  “Narrative analysis: Oral versions of personal experience.” Essays on the Verbal and Visual Arts: Proceedings of the 1966 Annual Spring Meeting of the American Ethnological Society, June Helm (ed.), 12–44. Seattle: American Ethnological Society. Reprinted in Journal of Narrative and Life History 7: 3–38.
1985 “Cultural habits of illness: The Enlightened and the Pious in eighteenth century England.” In Roy Porter (ed.), 205–248.
2001 A Social History of Medicine: Health, Healing and Disease in England, 1750–1950. London: Routledge.
2006 Consumption and Literature: The Making of the Romantic Disease. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
Leech, Geoffrey, Hund, Marianne, Mair, Christian and Smith, Nicholas
Lefanu, W. R.
1938 British Periodicals of Medicine: A Chronological List. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.
Lehto Anu, Baron, Alistair and Rayson, Paul
2010 “Improving the precision of corpus methods: The standardized version of Early Modern English Medical Texts.” In Irma Taavitsainen and Päivi Pahta (eds), 279–290.
2015 The Genre of Early Modern English Statutes: Complexity in Historical Legal Language. Diss. Helsinki: Société Néophilologique de Helsinki.
Leong, Elaine and Pennell, Sara
2007 “Recipe collections and the currency of medical knowledge in the early modern ‘medical marketplace.’” In Jenner and Wallis (eds), 133–152.
Leong, Elaine and Rankin, Alisha
(eds) 2011 Secrets and Knowledge in Medicine and Science, 1500–1800. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate.
2013 The British Empire: Sunrise to Sunset. 2nd edition. London and New York: Routledge.
1981 “The origins and growth of the dispensary movement in England.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 55 (3): 322–342.
Marttila, Ville 2014 Creating Digital Editions for Corpus Linguistics: The Case of Potage Dyvers, a Family of Six Middle English Recipe Collections. Diss. Helsinki: University of Helsinki.
McAllister, Marie E.
McCallum, Andrew Kachites
2002 “MALLET: A Machine Learning for Language Toolkit.” http://mallet.cs.umass.edu.
McClellan, James E.
1985 Science Reorganized: Scientific Societies in the Eighteenth Century. New York: Columbia University.
McConchie, R. W.
1997 Lexicography and Physicke: The Record of Sixteenth-Century English Medical Terminology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
McEnery, Tony, Xiao, Richard and Tono, Yukio
2006 Corpus-Based Language Studies: An Advanced Resource Book. London: Routledge.
Meyer, Charles F.
2015 “Corpus-based and corpus-driven approaches to linguistic analysis: One and the same?” In Developments in English: Expanding Electronic Evidence, Irma Taavitsainen, Merja Kytö, Claudia Claridge and Jeremy Smith (eds), 14–28. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1999 Hygiene in the Early Modern Medical Tradition. Helsinki: Finnish Academy of Science and Letters.
Mikkeli, Heikki and Marttila, Ville
2010 “Change and continuity in early modern medicine (1500–1700).” In Irma Taavitsainen and Päivi Pahta (eds), 13–29.
2006 “The birth of the experimental essay.” In Explorations in Specialized Genres, Vijay Bhatia and Maurizio Gotti (eds), 59–78. Bern and Berlin: Peter Lang.
2009 “The influence of the Royal Society on 17th-century scientific writing.” ICAME Journal 33: 65–88.
1998 Fixed Expressions and Idioms in English: A Corpus-Based Approach. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
2013 Distant Reading. London: Verso Books.
Moskowich, Isabel and Crespo, Begoña
(eds.) 2012 Astronomy ‘playne and simple’: The writing of science between 1700 and 1900. Including CD-Rom: A Corpus of English Texts on Astronomy (CETA). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Moskowich, Isabel, Riobo, Gonzalo Camiña, Ines, Lareo and Crespo, Begoña
(eds.) 2016 “The Conditioned and Unconditioned”: Late Modern English Texts on Philosophy. Including CD-Rom. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Mullet, Charles F.
1936 “The English plague scare of 1720–23.” Osiris 2: 484–516. Online: http://www.jstor.org/stable/301561.
Murakami, Akira, Thompson, Paul, Hunston, Susan and Vajn, Dominik
Nagy, Doreen E. 1988 Popular Medicine in Seventeenth-Century England. Bowling Green: Bowling Green Popular Press.
Nevalainen, Terttu and Tissari, Heli
2010 “Contextualising eighteenth-century politeness: Social distinction and metaphorical levelling.” In Hickey (ed.), 133–158.
1993 “Galen at the bedside: The methods of a medical detective.” In Medicine and the Five Senses, W. F. Bynum and Roy Porter (eds), 7–16. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
ODNB = Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
2004 Oxford: Oxford University Press. Online: http://www.oxforddnb.com/.
OED Online (Oxford English Dictionary)
2018 Oxford University Press, July 2018.
2003 “The human sciences.” In The Cambridge History of Science, 437–461.
2014 The Role of Domestic Knowledge in an Era of Professionalization: Eighteenth-Century Manuscript Medical Recipe Collections. (Unpublished diss.). University of Roehampton.
2012 “Eighteenth-century English medical texts and discourses on reproduction.” In Languages of Science in the Eighteenth Century, Britt-Louise Gunnarsson (ed.), 333–355. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Pahta, Päivi and Ratia, Maura
2010 “Treatises on specific topic.” In Early Modern English Medical Texts. Corpus Description and Studies, Irma Taavitsainen and Päivi Pahta (eds), 73–100. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Pahta, Päivi and Taavitsainen, Irma
2004 “Vernacularisation of scientific and medical writing in its sociohistorical context.” In Irma Taavitsainen and Päivi Pahta (eds), 1–22.
2010 “Introducing Early Modern English Medical Texts .” In Irma Taavitsainen and Päivi Pahta (eds), 1–11. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
2011 “An interdisciplinary approach to medical writing in the Early Modern period.” In Irma Taavitsainen and Päivi Pahta (eds), 1–9.
1991 “Health, hygiene and longevity in Medieval and Renaissance Europe.” In History of Hygiene, Yoshio Kawakita, Shizu Sakai and Yasuo Otsuka (eds), 75–98. Tokyo: Ishiyaku.
Pelling, Margaret and White, Frances
2004 “LUCATELLO, Matthew.” In Physicians and Irregular Medical Practitioners in London 1550–1640 Database. London: Centre for Metropolitan History, British History Online. Online: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=17988.
2013 “Making livings, lives and archives: Tales of four eighteenth-century recipe books.” In Reading and Writing Recipe Books, 1550–1800, Michelle DiMeo and Sara Pennell (eds), 225–246. Manchester, UK; New York: Manchester University Press.
Pickstone, John V.
Pomata, Gianna and Siraisi, Nancy
(eds) 2005 Historia: Empiricism and Erudition in Early Modern Europe [Transformations: Studies in the History of Science and Technology]. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Porter, Dorothy 1999 Health, Civilization and the State: A History of Public Health from Ancient to Modern Times. London and New York: Routledge.
Porter, Dorothy and Porter, Roy
1989 Patient’s Progress: Doctors and Doctoring in Eighteenth-Century England. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
(ed) 1985 Patients and Practitioners: Lay Perceptions of Medicine in Pre-Industrial Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1985a “Laymen, doctors and medical knowledge in the eighteenth century: The evidence of The Gentleman’s Magazine .” In Roy Porter (ed.), 283–314.
1989b Health for sale: Quackery in England 1660–1850. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press.
1992 The popularization of medicine 1650–1850. London and New York.: Routledge.
1993 “Health care in enlightenment England: knowledge, power, and the market.” In Curing and Insuring: Essays on Illness in Past Times: The Netherlands, Belgium, England, and Italy, 16th–20th Centuries: Proceedings of the Conference Illness and History, Rotterdam, 16 November 1990, Hans Binneveld and Rudolf Dekker (eds), 95–113. Hilversum: Verloren.
2000 Enlightenment: Britain and the Creation of the Modern World. London: Penguin Books.
2003 Quacks: Fakers and Charlatans in Medicine. Stroud: Tempus.
Quirk, Randolph, Greenbaum, Sidney, Leech, Geoffrey and Svartvik, Jan
1985 A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London and New York: Longman.
2009 Wmatrix corpus analysis and comparison tool. Online: http://ucrel.lancs.ac.uk/wmatrix/.
Risse, Günter B.
1987 “A shift in medical epistemology: Clinical diagnosis, 1770–1828.” In History of Diagnostics, Yosio Kawakita (ed.), 115–147. Osaka: Div. of Medical History, The Taniguchi Foundation.
Rousseau, G. S.
1999 “‘Stung into action &’: Medicine, professionalism, and the news.” In News, Newspapers, and Society in Early Modern Britain, Joad Raymond (ed.), 176–205. London: Frank Cass.
Rusnock, Andrea A. 1995 “The weight of evidence and the burden of authority: Case histories, medical statistics and smallpox inoculation.” In Medicine in the Enlightenment, Roy Porter (ed.), 289–315. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
2006 The Word-Space Model: Using Distributional Analysis to Represent Syntagmatic and Paradigmatic Relations between Words in High-Dimensional Vector Spaces. Diss. Stockholm University.
Schaffer, Steven and Shapin, Simon
1985 Leviathan and the Air-Pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the Experimental Life. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.
Schwab, Linda S.
2012 “The curious and important subject’: John Wesley and The Desideratum.” In “Inward and outward health”: John Wesley’s Holistic Concept of Medical Science, the Environment and Holy Living, Deborah Madden (ed.), 169–212. London: Epworth.
2003a “How to eat like a gentleman: Dietetics and ethics in early modern England.” In Right Living: An Anglo-American Tradition of Self-Help Medicine and Hygiene, Charles Rosenberg (ed.), 21–58. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Shapiro, Barbara J.
2000 A Culture of Fact: England 1550-1720. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
Sherman, William H.
2007 Used Books: Marking Readers in Renaissance England. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Silverman, Bernard Walter
1991 Corpus, Concordance, Collocation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2005 “Corpus and text – basic principles.” In Developing Linguistic Corpora: A Guide to Good Practice, Martin Wynne (ed.), 1–16. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
2015 “Code-switching and vernacular support: An early Middle English case study.” Multilingua 35 (3): 203–227.
1979 “Mirrors of health and treasures of poor men: The uses of the vernacular medical literature of Tudor England.” In Health, Medicine and Mortality in the Sixteenth Century, Charles Webster (ed.), 237–273. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1985 “Prescribing the rules of health: Self-help and advice in the late eighteenth century.” In Roy Porter (ed.), 249–282.
Smith, Leonard 2007 Lunatic Hospitals in Georgian England, 1750–1830 [Routledge Studies in the Social History of Medicine 28]. New York and London: Routledge.
Staiano, Kathryn Vance
1982 “Medical semiotics: Redefining an ancient art.” Semiotica 38: 319–346.
Stansfield, Dorothy A. and Stansfield, Ronald G.
2013 “Tax and quacks: The policy of the eighteenth century medicine stamp duty.” In Studies in the History of Tax Law. Volume 6, John Tiley (ed.), 283–304. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
Steyvers, Mark and Griffiths, Tom
2007 “Probabilistic Topic Models.” In Handbook of Latent Semantic Analysis, Thomas K. Landauer, Danielle S. McNamara, Simon Dennis and Walter Kintsch (eds), 427–440. New York: Routledge.
Stine, Jennifer K.
1996 Opening Closets: The Discovery of Household Medicine in Early Modern England. Diss. Stanford University.
2016 Household Medicine in Seventeenth-Century England. London: Bloomsbury.
2000 “Politics and the state in eighteenth century Europe.” In The Short Oxford History of Europe: The Eighteenth Century: Europe, 1688–1815, T. C. W. Blanning (ed.), 11–51. Oxford [England]; New York: Oxford University Press.
(ed.) 1988 Middle English Lunaries: A Study of the Genre. Helsinki: Société Néophilologique.
1994 “On the evolution of scientific writings from 1375 to 1675: Repertoire of emotive features.” In English Historical Linguistics 1992: Papers from the 7th International Conference on English Historical Linguistics, Valencia, 22–26 September 1992 [Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 113], Francisco Fernandez, Miguel Fuster, and Juan José Calvo (eds), 329–342. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing
Taavitsainen, Irma 2009 “The pragmatics of knowledge and meaning: Corpus linguistic approaches to changing thought-styles in early modern medical discourse.” In Corpora: Pragmatics and Discourse Papers from the 29th International Conference on English Language Research on Computerized Corpora (ICAME 29), Andreas H. Jucker, Daniel Schreier and Marianne Hundt (eds), 37–62. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
2011 “Medical case reports and scientific thought-styles.” Revista de Lenguas para Fines Específicos 17: 75–98. (Special issue, Diachronic English for Specific Purposes, ed. Francisco Alonso Almeida.)
2012 “Discourse forms and vernacularisation processes in genres of medical writing.” In Translation – Interpretation: COLLeGIUM, Annikki Ajmelaeus and Päivi Pahta (eds), 91–112. Helsinki: Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies.
2017b “The essay in Early Modern and Late Modern English medical writing.” Recherches Anglaises et Nord-Américaines (RANAM) 50: 15–30. (Special issue, ed. Jean-Jaques Chardin: Discourse, Boundaries and Genres in English Studies: An Assessment.)
2018 “Scholastic genre scripts in English medical writing 1375–1800.” In Diachronic Corpora, Genre, and Language Change, Richard J. Whitt (ed.), 95–115. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
2019 forthcoming. “Dissertations, essays, and pamphlets 1660–1800: a study on the genre.” In: Maci Stefania Maria and Michele Sala(eds.). Communicating English in Specialised Domains. Synchronic and Diachronic Perspectives. Festschrift for Maurizio Gotti. Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars.
Taavitsainen, Irma and Pahta, Päivi
2013 “The Corpus of Early English Medical Writing (1375–1800) – a register-specific diachronic corpus for studying the history of scientific writing.” In Principles and Practices for the Digital Editing and Annotation of Diachronic Data. In Anneli Meurman-Solin and Jukka Tyrkkö (eds). Helsinki: Varieng, online at http://www.helsinki.fi/varieng/series/volumes/14/index.html
Taavitsainen, Irma and Hiltunen, Turo
Taavitsainen, Irma, Hiltunen, Turo, Lehto, Anu, Marttila, Ville, Pahta, Päivi, Ratia, Maura, Suhr, Carla and Tyrkkö, Jukka
Taavitsainen, Irma and Jucker, Andreas H.
Taavitsainen, Irma and Jucker, Andreas H.
2008a “‘Methinks you seem more beautiful than ever’: Compliments and gender in the history of English.” In Jucker and Taavitsainen (eds), 195–228.
2008b “Speech acts now and then: Towards a pragmatic history of English.” In Jucker and Taavitsainen (eds), 1–23.
2010 “Expressive speech acts and politeness in eighteenth-century English.” In Hickey (ed.), 159–181.
Taavitsainen, Irma and Pahta, Päivi
1995 “Scientific ‘Thought-Styles’ in discourse structure: Changing patterns in a historical perspective.” In Organization in Discourse, Brita Wårvik, Sanna-Kaisa Tanskanen and Risto Hiltunen (eds), 519–529. Turku: University of Turku.
(eds) 2004 Medical and Scientific Writing in English 1375–1500. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(eds) 2010 Early Modern English Medical Writing: Corpus Description and Studies. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Taavitsainen Irma and Schneider, Gerold
2019 forthcoming. “Scholastic argumentation in early English medical writing and its afterlife: New corpus evidence.” In From Data to Evidence, Carla Suhr, Terttu Nevalainen and Irma Taavitsainen (eds), 191–221.Leiden: Brill.
Taavitsainen, Irma and Suhr, Carla
2010 “Appendix: Medicine in society.” In Irma Taavitsainen and Päivi Pahta (eds), 133–146. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Taylor, J. R.
2003 Linguistic Categorisation. 3rd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
1971 Religion and the Decline of Magic. Harmondworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books.
Tieken-Boon van Ostade, Ingrid
2010 “Lowth as an icon of prescriptivism.” In Hickey (ed.), 73–88.
Toolan, Michael J.
2001  Narrative: A Critical Linguistic Introduction. New York and London: Routledge.
2005 “Quantifying experience and beating biases: A new culture in eighteenth-century British clinical medicine.” In Body Counts: Medical Quantification in Historical and Sociological Perspective, Gerard Jorland, Annick Opinel and George Weisz (eds), 19–50. Montreal and Kingston: McQill–Queen’s University Press.
Turk, J. L.
1994 “Inflammation: John Hunter’s ‘A treatise on the blood, inflammation and gun-shot wounds.’” International Journal of Experimental Pathology 5 (6): 385–395.
Turner, David M. and Withey, Alun
2006a “Tokens, signs, and symptoms: Signifier terms in medical texts from 1375 to 1725.” In Selected Proceedings of the 2005 Symposium on New Approaches in English Historical Lexis (HEL-LEX), Roderick W. McConchie, Heli Tissari, Olga Timofeeva and Tanja Säily (eds), 155–165. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Tyrkkö, Jukka 2006b “From tokens to symptoms: 300 years of developing discourse on medical diagnosis in English medical writing.” In Diachronic Perspectives on Domain-Specific English, Marina Dossena and Irma Taavitsainen (eds), 229–255. Bern: Peter Lang.
2010 “Sign terms in specific medical genres in early modern medical texts.” In Early Modern English Medical Texts: Corpus Description and Studies, Irma Taavitsainen and Päivi Pahta (eds), 169–191. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
2017 “Discovering the past for yourself: Corpora, data-driven learning and the history of English.” In Approaches to Teaching History of the English Language: Pedagogy in Practice, Mary Hayes and Allison Burkette (eds), 141–157. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tyrkkö, Jukka, Hickey, Raymond and Marttila, Ville
2010 “Exploring Early Modern English Medical Texts: Manual to EMEMT Presenter.” In Irma Taavitsainen and Päivi Pahta (eds), 221–279.
Tyrkkö, Jukka and Hiltunen, Turo
2009 “Frequency of nominalization in Early Modern English medical writing.” In Corpora: Pragmatics and Discourse Papers from the 29th International Conference on English Language Research on Computerized Corpora (ICAME 29), Andreas H. Jucker, Daniel Schreier and Marianne Hundt (eds), 293–316. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Tyrkkö, Jukka and Nurmi, Arja
2017 “Analysing multilingual practices in Late Modern English: Parameter selection and recursive partitioning in focus.” In Exploring Recent Diachrony: Corpus Studies of Lexicogrammar and Language Practices in Late Modern English, Sebastian Hoffmann, Andrea Sand and Sabine Arndt-Lappe (eds). Online: http://www.helsinki.fi/varieng/series/volumes/18/tyrkko_nurmi/.
van der Wal, Marijke J. and Rutten, Gijsbert
Veatch, Robert M.
 1997 “Medical ethics: An introduction.” In Medical Ethics, Robert M. Veatch (ed.), 1–28. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
1987 “The discourse on sex – or sex as discourse: Eighteenth-century medical and paramedical erotica.” In Sexual Underworlds of the Enlightenment, George Sebastian Rousseau and Roy Porter (eds), 46–68. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
1996 Personal Pronouns in Present-Day English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2011 “A socio-cognitive approach to historical politeness.” Journal of Historical Pragmatics 12 (1/2): 104–132. (Special issue, ed. Marcel Bax and Dániel Z. Kádár: Understanding Historical (Im)Politeness .)
1992 “The popularization of medicine in early modern England.” In Porter (ed.), 17–41.
1975 The Great Instauration: Science, Medicine and Reform 1626–1660. London: Duckworth.
1983 A Text Grammar of English. Heidelberg: Quelle and Meyer.
2006 Medicine-By-Post: The Changing Voice of Illness in Eighteenth-Century British Consultation Letters and Literature. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
2007 The Vaccination Controversy: The Rise, Reign and Fall of Compulsory Vaccination for Smallpox. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.
1990 “The politics of medical improvement in Early Hanoverian London.” In The Medical Enlightenment of the Eighteenth Century, Andre Cunningham and Roger French (eds), 4–39. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1995 The Making of Midwifery: Childbirth in England, 1660–1770. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
2011 Physick and the Family: Health, Medicine and Care in Wales. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
2013 “Crossing the boundaries: Domestic recipe collections in early modern Wales.” In Reading and Writing Recipe Books, 1550–1800, Michelle DiMeo and Sara Pennell (eds), 179–196. Manchester, UK; New York: Manchester University Press.
2010 Society in Early Modern England. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Włodarzyck, Matylda and Taavitsainen, Irma
Woods, Robert and Galley, Chris
2014 “Experiment, observation, self-observation. Empiricism and the ‘Reasonable Physicians’ of the Early Enlightenment.” In Medical Empiricism and Philosophy of Human Nature in the 17th and 18th Century, Claire Crignon, Carsten Zelle, and Nunzio Allocca (eds), 131–148. Special issue of Early Science and Medicine. Leiden: Brill.
Zipf, George K.
1949 Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort. Cambridge, MA: Addison Wesley.
Cited by other publications
No author info given
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 02 june 2020. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.
BIC Subject: CF/2AB – Linguistics/English
BISAC Subject: LAN009010 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / Historical & Comparative
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number: 2018059723