Measuring Native-Speaker Vocabulary Size

| Victoria University of Wellington
| Victoria University of Wellington
HardboundForthcoming
ISBN 9789027208149 | EUR 95.00 | USD 143.00
 
PaperbackForthcoming
ISBN 9789027208132 | EUR 33.00 | USD 49.95
 
e-BookOrdering information
ISBN 9789027260291 | EUR 95.00/33.00*
| USD 143.00/49.95*
 
Estimating native-speaker vocabulary size is important for guiding interventions to support native-speaker vocabulary growth and for setting goals for learners of English as a foreign language. Unfortunately, the measurement of native-speaker vocabulary size has been one of the most methodologically contentious areas of research in applied linguistics, with estimates of adults’ vocabulary size ranging from 12,000 words to well over 200,000 words. This book reviews over one hundred years of research, critically examining the methodological issues and findings at each age level from young children to adults, and suggesting solutions. It presents a model organising the factors involved in vocabulary growth and is rich in well-researched suggestions for supporting native-speaker vocabulary learning. It concludes with topics for further research. The research shows that we now have a more stable and coherent picture of what and how much vocabulary native-speakers know, and how this knowledge grows throughout their lives.
[Not in series, 233]  Expected March 2021.  xiii, 152 pp. + index
Publishing status: In production
Table of Contents
This is a provisional table of contents, and subject to changes.
Detailed table of contents
Acknowledgements
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. The productive vocabulary sizes of young native-speakers of English
Chapter 3. Dictionary-based studies of vocabulary size
Chapter 4. The receptive vocabulary sizes of young native-speakers of English
Chapter 5. The vocabulary sizes of native-speakers of English in secondary school
Chapter 6. Frequency-list based studies of adult native-speakers’ vocabulary size
Chapter 7. Factors affecting native-speaker vocabulary size and growth
Chapter 8. Supporting native-speaker vocabulary growth
Chapter 9. Measures and item types used to estimate native-speaker vocabulary size
Chapter 10. Creating a vocabulary size test
Chapter 11. Needed research and some final thoughts
Appendix 1. Instructions for individual test administration for research assistants (Coxhead, Nation, Woods, & Sim, 2018)
Appendix 2. Vocabulary size test feedback sheet for scores over 10,000 words (Coxhead, Nation, Woods, & Sim, 2018)
Appendix 3. Thorndike, E. L. (1924). The vocabularies of school pupils. In J. C. Bell (Ed.), Contributions to Education (pp. 69–76). New York, NY: World Book Co.
References
References

References

Alexander, F., & Chamberlain, I. C.
(1904) Studies of a child. Pedagogical Seminary, 11, 263–291.Google Scholar
Anderson, R. C., & Freebody, P.
(1983) Reading comprehension and the assessment and acquisition of word knowledge. Advances in Reading/Language Research, 2, 231–256.Google Scholar
Banerji, N., Gupta, V., Kilgarriff, A., & Tugwell, D.
(2012) Oxford Children’s Corpus: A Corpus of Children’s Writing, Reading, and Education. https://​www​.sketchengine​.co​.uk​/documentation​/raw…​/Beebox​_final​.docx.
Barry, C. L., Horst, S. J., Finney, S. J., Brown, A. R., & Kopp, J. P.
(2010) Do examinees have similar test-taking effort? A high-stakes question for low-stakes testing. International Journal of Testing, 10(4), 342–363. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bauer, L., & Nation, I. S. P.
(1993) Word families. International Journal of Lexicography, 6(4), 253–279. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Beglar, D.
(2010) A Rasch-based validation of the Vocabulary Size Test. Language Testing, 27(1), 101–118. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Biemiller, A.
(2005) Size and sequence in vocabulary development. In E. H. Hiebert & M. L. Kamil (Eds.), Teaching and learning vocabulary: Bringing research into practice (pp. 223–242). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
(2010) Words worth teaching: Closing the vocabulary gap. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
Biemiller, A., & Boote, C.
(2006) An effective method for building meaning vocabulary in primary grades. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 44–62. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Biemiller, A., & Slonim, N.
(2001) Estimating root word vocabulary growth in normative and advantaged populations: Evidence for a common sequence of vocabulary acquisition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(3), 498–520. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bock, C.
(1948) Prefixes and suffixes. Classical Journal, 44, 132–133.Google Scholar
Bohn, W. E.
(1914) First steps in verbal expression. Pedagogical Seminary, 21, 579–595. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bowles, R. P., & Salthouse, T. A.
(2008) Vocabulary test format and differential relations to age. Psychology and Aging, 23(2), 366–376. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Brandenburg, G. C.
(1914) The language of a three-year-old child. Pedagogical Seminary, 22, 89–120. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1918) Psychological aspects of language. Journal of Educational Psychology, 9, 313–332. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Brandenburg, G. C., & Brandenburg, J.
(1919) Language development during the fourth year: the conversation. Pedagogical Seminary, 26(1), 27–40. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Brown, P., & Gaskins, S.
(2014) Language acquisition and language socialization. In N. J. Enfield, P. Kockelman, & J. Sidnell (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of linguistic anthropology (pp. 187–226). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bryan, F. E.
(1953) How large are children’s vocabularies? Elementary School Journal, 54, 210–216. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Brysbaert, M., Mandera, P., McCormick, S. F., & Keuleers, E.
(2019) Word prevalence norms for 62,000 English lemmas. Behavior Research Methods, 51(2), 467–479. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Brysbaert, M., & New, B.
(2009) Moving beyond Kucera and Francis: A critical evaluation of current word frequency norms and the introduction of a new and improved word frequency measure for American English. Behavior Research Methods, 41(4), 977–990. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Brysbaert, M., Stevens, M., Mandera, P., & Keuleers, E.
(2016) How many words do we know? Practical estimates of vocabulary size dependent on word definition, the degree of language input and the participant’s age. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1116. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bush, A.
(1914) The vocabulary of a three-year-old girl. Pedagogical Seminary, 21, 125–142. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Carlo, M. S., August, D., McLaughlin, B., Snow, C. E., Dressler, C., Lippman, D. N., … White, C. E.
(2004) Closing the gap: Addressing the vocabulary needs of English-language learners in bilingual and mainstream classrooms. Reading Research Quarterly, 39(2), 188–215. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Carroll, J. B., Davies, P., & Richman, B.
(1971) The American heritage word frequency book. New York, NY: American Heritage Publishing Co.Google Scholar
Cartmill, E., Armstrong, B. F., Gleitman, L. R., Goldin-Meadows, S., Medinac, T. N., & Trueswell, J. C.
(2013) Quality of early parent input predicts child vocabulary 3 years later. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), 110, 11278–11283. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Chall, J. S.
(1987) Two vocabularies for reading: Recognition and meaning. In M. McKeown & M. Curtis (Eds.), The nature of vocabulary acquisition (pp. 7–17). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Chung, T. M., & Nation, I. S. P.
(2004) Identifying technical vocabulary. System, 32(2), 251–263. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Coffman, K. C., & Klinowski, D.
(2020) The impact of penalties for wrong answers on the gender gap in test scores. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), 117(16), 8794–8803. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Coxhead, A.
(2004) Using a class vocabulary box: How, why, when, where and who. Guidelines, 26(2), 19–23.Google Scholar
Coxhead, A., & Bytheway, J.
(2015) Learning vocabulary using two massive online resources: You will not blink. In D. Nunan & J. Richards (Eds.) Learning beyond the classroom (pp. 65–74). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Coxhead, A., McLaughlin, E., & Reid, A.
(2019) The development and application of a specialised word list: The case of fabrication. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 71(2), 175–200. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Coxhead, A., Nation, I. S. P., & Sim, D.
(2014) Creating and trialling six forms of the Vocabulary Size Test. TESOLANZ Journal, 22, 13–26.Google Scholar
Coxhead, A., Nation, P., & Sim, D.
(2015) The vocabulary size of native speakers of English in New Zealand secondary schools. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 50(1), 121–135. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Coxhead, A., Nation, P., Woods, L., & Sim, D.
(2018) Group vs. individual: How administration procedure can affect vocabulary test scores. New Zealand Studies in Applied Linguistics, 24(2), 24–41.Google Scholar
Dale, E.
(1931) Evaluating Thorndike’s word list. Educational Research Bulletin, 10(17), 451–457.Google Scholar
Dale, E., & O’Rourke, J.
(1981) The living word vocabulary. Chicago, IL: World Book-Childcraft International.Google Scholar
(1976) The living word vocabulary. Chicago, IL: Field Enterprises Educational Corporation.Google Scholar
Dang, T. N. Y., & Webb, S.
(2016) Evaluating lists of high-frequency words. ITL-International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 167, 132–158. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dang, T. N. Y., Webb, S., & Coxhead, A.
(2020) Evaluating lists of high-frequency words: Teachers’ and learners’ perspectives. Language Teaching Research, 1–25. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
D’Anna, C. A., Zechmeister, E. B., & Hall, J. W.
(1991) Toward a meaningful definition of vocabulary size. Journal of Reading Behavior: A Journal of Literacy, 23(1), 109–122. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Daulton, F. E.
(2008) Japan’s built-in lexicon of English-based loanwords. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Deckner, D. F., Adamson, L. B., & Bakeman, R.
(2006) Child and maternal contributions to shared reading: Effects on language and literacy development. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 27, 31–41. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Diack, H.
(1975a) Standard literacy tests. St. Albans: Hart-Davis Educational.Google Scholar
(1975b) Test your own word power. St. Albans: Paladin.Google Scholar
Dickinson, D. K., & Porche, M. V.
(2011) Relation between language experiences in preschool classrooms and children’s kindergarten and fourth-grade language and reading abilities. Child Development, 82(3), 870–886. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Diller, K. C.
(1978) The language teaching controversy. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
Dolby, J. L., & Resnikoff, H. L.
(1967) The English word speculum. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
Dowdall, N., Melendez-Torres, G. J., Murray, L., Gardner, F., Hartford, L., & Cooper, P. J.
(2020) Shared picture book reading interventions for child language development: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Child Development, 91(2), e383–e399. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dunn, L. M.
(1965) Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Minnesota, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
Dupuy, H. J.
(1974) The rationale, development and standardization of a basic word vocabulary test. Washington, DC: US Govt Printing Office. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Elgort, I., & Coxhead, A.
(2016) An introduction to the Vocabulary Size Test: Description, application and evaluation. In J. Fox & V. Aryadoust (Eds.), Trends in language assessment research and practice (pp. 286–301). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars.Google Scholar
Elgort, I., Brysbaert, M., Stevens, M., & Van Asche, E.
(2018) Contextual word learning during reading in a second language: An eye- movement study. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 40(2), 341–366. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Elley, W. B.
(1989) Vocabulary acquisition from listening to stories. Reading Research Quarterly, 24(2), 174–187. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Eyckmans, J.
(2004) Measuring receptive vocabulary size. Utrecht: Netherlands Graduate School of Linguistics.Google Scholar
Farkas, G., & Beron, K.
(2004) The detailed age trajectory of oral vocabulary knowledge: Differences by class and race. Social Science Research, 33, 464–497. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Fernald, A., Marchman, V. A., & Weisleder, A.
(2013) SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months. Developmental Science, 16(2), 234–248. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Francis, W. N., & Kucera, H.
(1982) Frequency analysis of English usage. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.Google Scholar
Funk & Wagnall
(1937) New standard dictionary of the English language. New York, NY: Funk & Wagnall.Google Scholar
Gale, M. C., & Gale, H.
(1902) The vocabularies of three children in one family at two and three years of age. Pedagogical Seminary, 9, 422–435. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gathercole, S. E., & Baddeley, A. D.
(1993) Working memory and language. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Gerlach, F. M.
(1917) Vocabulary studies. Studies in education and psychology, 1. Colorado Springs, CO: Colorado College.Google Scholar
Golinkoff, R. M., Hoff, E., Rowe, M. L., & Hirsh-Pasek, K.
(2019) Language matters: Denying the existence of the 30-million-word gap has serious consequences. Child Development, 90(3), 985–992. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Goulden, R., Nation, P., & Read, J.
(1990) How large can a receptive vocabulary be? Applied Linguistics, 11(4), 341–363. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Grant, L., & Nation, I. S. P.
(2006) How many idioms are there in English? ITL – International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 151, 1–14. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Grasby, K. L., Coventry, W. L., Byrne, B., & Olson, R. K.
(2019) Little evidence that socio-economic status modifies heritability of literacy and numeracy in Australia. Child Development, 90(2), 623–637. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gyllstad, H., Vilkaite, L., & Schmitt, N.
(2015) Assessing vocabulary size through multiple-choice formats: Issues with guessing and sampling rates. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 166(2), 276–303.Google Scholar
Hart, B., & Risley, T. R.
(1995) Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
van Hees, J., & Nation, I. S. P.
(2017) What every primary school teacher should know about vocabulary? Wellington: NZCER Press.Google Scholar
Heilig, M. R.
(1913) A child’s vocabulary. Pedagogical Seminary, 20, 1–16. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Heilmann, J., Weismer, S. E., Evans, J., & Hollar, C.
(2005) Utility of the MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventory in identifying language abilities of late-talking and typically developing toddlers. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 14(1), 40–51. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Herdan, G.
(1960) Type-token mathematics: A textbook of mathematical linguistics. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
Hill, L. A.
(1969) Delayed copying. ELT Journal, 23(3), 238–239. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hoff, E.
(2003) The specificity of environmental influence: Socio-economic status affects early vocabulary development. Child Development, 74(5), 1368–1378. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2006) How social contexts support and shape language development. Developmental Review, 26(1), 55–88. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2013) Interpreting the early language trajectories of children from low-SES and language minority homes: Implications for closing achievement gaps. Developmental Psychology, 49(1), 4–4. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hoff, E., & Naigles, L.
(2002) How children use input to acquire a lexicon. Child Development, 73(2), 418–433. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Holden, E. S.
(1875) On the number of words used in speaking and writing. Bulletin of the Philosophical Society of Washington, 2, 16–21, 28.Google Scholar
Huibregtse, I., Admiraal, W., & Meara, P.
(2002) Scores on a yes–no vocabulary test: Correction for guessing and response style. Language Testing, 19, 227–245. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hurtado, N., Marchman, V. A., & Fernald, A.
(2008) Does input influence uptake? Links between maternal talk, processing speed and vocabulary size in Spanish-learning children. Developmental Science, 11(6), F31–F36. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Huttenlocher, J., Haight, W., Bryk, A., Seltzer, M., & Lyons, T.
(1991) Early vocabulary growth: Relation to language input and gender. Developmental Psychology, 27(2), 236–248. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Joe, A.
(1998) What effects do text-based tasks promoting generation have on incidental vocabulary acquisition? Applied Linguistics, 19(3), 357–377. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Jones, G., & Rowland, C. F.
(2017) Diversity not quantity in caregiver speech: Using computational modeling to isolate the effects of the quantity and the diversity of the input on vocabulary growth. Cognitive Psychology, 98, 1–21. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Keuleers, E., & Brysbaert, M.
(2010) Wuggy: A multilingual pseudoword generator. Behavior Research Methods, 42(3), 627–633. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Keuleers, E., Stevens, M., Mandera, P., & Brysbaert, M.
(2015) Word knowledge in the crowd: Measuring vocabulary size and word prevalence in a massive online experiment. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68(8), 1665–1692. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kirkpatrick, E. A.
(1891) Number of words in an ordinary vocabulary. Science, 18, 446, 107–108. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kremmel, B., & Schmitt, N.
(2016) What do various item formats tell us about learners’ ability to employ words? Interpreting vocabulary test scores. Language Assessment Quarterly, 13(4), 377–392. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Labov, W.
(1973) The logic of non-standard English. In N. Keddie (Ed.), Tinker, tailor … The myth of cultural deprivation (pp. 21–66). Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
Langenbeck, M.
(1914) A study of a five-year-old child. Pedagogical Seminary, 22, 65–88. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Larson, M.
(2019) Estimating the vocabulary sizes of learners around the world. Presentation at IALLT 2019 (International Association for Language Learning Technology), Eugene, Oregon. http://​www​.vocabularysize​.net​/iallt2019​/iallt​.html
Laufer, B., Elder, C., Hill, K., & Congdon, P.
(2004) Size and strength: Do we need both to measure vocabulary knowledge? Language Testing, 21(2), 202–226. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Laufer, B., & Goldstein, Z.
(2004) Testing vocabulary knowledge: Size, strength, and computer adaptiveness. Language Learning, 54(3), 399–436. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lemhöfer, K., & Broersma, M.
(2012) Introducing LexTALE: A quick and valid Lexical Test for Advanced Learners of English. Behavior Research Methods, 44(2), 325–343. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Liu, O. L., Bridgeman, B., & Adler, R. M.
(2012) Measuring learning outcomes in higher education: Motivation matters. Educational Researcher, 41(9), 352–362. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Liu, O. L., Rios, J. A., & Borden, V.
(2015) The effects of motivational instruction on college students’ performance on low-stakes assessment. Educational Assessment, 20(1), 79–94. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lonigan, C. J., & Milburn, T. F.
(2017) Identifying the dimensionality of oral language skills of children with typical development in preschool through fifth grade. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 60, 2185–2198. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lorge, I., & Chall, J.
(1963) Estimating the size of vocabularies of children and adults: an analysis of methodological issues. Journal of Experimental Education, 32, l47–l57. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mancilla-Martinez, J., Pan, B. A., & Vagh, S. B.
(2011) Assessing the productive vocabulary of Spanish-English bilingual toddlers from low-income families. Applied Psycholinguistics, 32(2), 333–357. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mastin, J. D., & Vogt, P.
(2016) Infant engagement and early vocabulary development: A naturalistic observation study of Mozambican infants from 1;1 to 2;1. Journal of Child Language, 43, 235–264. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mateer, F.
(1908) The vocabulary of a four year old boy. Pedagogical Seminary, 15, 63–74. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
McDonald, K., & Asaba, M.
(2015) ‘‘I Don’t Know’’ use and guessing on the bilingual Japanese Vocabulary Size Test: A preliminary report. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 4(1), 16–25.Google Scholar
McKay, P.
(2006) Assessing young language learners. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Meara, P., & Jones, G.
(1987) Tests of vocabulary size in English as a foreign language. Polyglot, 8, (Fiche 1).Google Scholar
Mochida, A., & Harrington, M.
(2006) The Yes/No test as a measure of receptive vocabulary knowledge. Language Testing, 23(1), 73–98. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mol, S., Bus, A., de Jong, M., & Smeets, D.
(2008) Added value of dialogic parent-child book readings: A meta-analysis. Early Education and Development, 19(1), 7–26. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Nagy, W. E., & Anderson, R. C.
(1984) How many words are there in printed school English? Reading Research Quarterly, 19, 304–330. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Nagy, W. E., Herman, P., & Anderson, R. C.
(1985) Learning words from context. Reading Research Quarterly, 20(2), 233–253. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Nation, I. S. P.
(2000) Learning vocabulary in lexical sets: dangers and guidelines. TESOL Journal, 9(2), 6–10.Google Scholar
(2006) How large a vocabulary is needed for reading and listening? Canadian Modern Language Review, 63(1), 59–82. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2007a) The four strands. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1(1), 1–12. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2007b) Fundamental issues in modelling and assessing vocabulary knowledge. In H. Daller, J. Milton, & J. Treffers-Daller (Eds.), Modelling and assessing vocabulary knowledge (pp. 35–43). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2013) Learning vocabulary in another language (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2016) Making and using word lists for language learning and testing. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Nation, I. S. P., & Anthony, L.
(2016) Measuring vocabulary size. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning, Vol. III. New York, NY: Routledge. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Nation, I. S. P., & Beglar, D.
(2007) A vocabulary size test. The Language Teacher, 31(7), 9–13.Google Scholar
Nation, I. S. P., & Crabbe, D.
(1991) A survival language learning syllabus for foreign travel. System, 19(3), 191–201. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Nation, I. S. P., & Macalister, J.
(2021) Teaching ESL/EFL reading and writing. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Nation, I. S. P., & Webb, S.
(2011) Researching and analyzing vocabulary. Boston, MA: Heinle Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
Nguyen, L. T. C., & Nation, I. S. P.
(2011) A bilingual vocabulary size test of English for Vietnamese learners. RELC Journal, 42(1), 86–99. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
O’Neil, A. F., Abedi, J., Miyoshi, J., & Mastergeorge, A.
(2005) Monetary incentives for low-stakes tests. Educational Assessment, 10(3), 185–208. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pan, B. A., Rowe, M. L., Singer, J. D., & Snow, C. E.
(2005) Maternal correlates of growth in toddler vocabulary production in low-income families. Child Development, 76(4), 763–782.Google Scholar
Parent, K.
(2012) The most frequent English homonyms. RELC Journal, 43(1), 69–81. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Paul, P. V., Stallman, A. C., & O’Rourke, J. P.
(1990) Using three test formats to assess good and poor readers’ word knowledge. Technical Report No. 509 Center for the Study of Reading, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.Google Scholar
Pellicer-Sanchez, A., & Schmitt, N.
(2012) Scoring Yes-No vocabulary tests: Reaction time vs non-word approaches. Language Testing, 29(4), 489–509. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pelsma, J. R.
(1914) A child’s vocabulary and its development. Pedagogical Seminary, 17, 329–369.Google Scholar
Pollard-Durodola, S. D., Gonzalez, J. E., Simmons, D. C., Kwok, O., Taylor, A. B., Davis, M. J., … Simmons, L.
(2011) The effects of an intensive shared book-reading intervention for preschool children at risk for vocabulary delay. Exceptional Children, 77(2), 161–181. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Quero, B.
(2015) Estimating the vocabulary size of L1 Spanish ESP learners and the vocabulary load of medical textbooks (Unpublished doctoral dissertation), Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.Google Scholar
Read, J.
(2000) Assessing vocabulary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Richards, B. J., & Malvern, D. D.
(1997) Quantifying lexical diversity in the study of language development. Reading: University of Reading.Google Scholar
Rosenthal, R.
(1987) Judgement studies: Design, analysis, and meta-analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Rowe, E. C., & Rowe, H.
(1913) The vocabulary of a child at four and six years of age. Pedagogical Seminary, 20, 187–208. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Rowe, M. L.
(2012) A longitudinal investigation of the role of quantity and quality of child-directed speech in vocabulary development. Child Development, 83(3), 1762–1774. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2018) Understanding socio-economic differences in parents’ speech to children. Child Development Perspectives, 12(2), 122–127. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Rowe, M. L., & Goldin-Meadow, S.
(2009) Differences in early gesture explain SES disparities in child vocabulary size at school entry. Science, 323, 951–953. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Rowe, M. L., Raudenbush, S. W., & Goldin-Meadow, S.
(2012) The pace of vocabulary growth helps predict later vocabulary skill. Child Development, 82(3), 508–525. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schmitt, N.
(2019) Understanding vocabulary acquisition, instruction, and assessment: A research agenda. Language Teaching, 52, 261–274.Google Scholar
(2010) Researching vocabulary: A vocabulary research manual. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schmitt, N., & Schmitt, D.
(2014) A reassessment of frequency and vocabulary size in L2 vocabulary teaching. Language Teaching, 47(4), 484–503.Google Scholar
Schmitt, N., Schmitt, D. & Clapham, C.
(2001) Developing and exploring the behaviour of two new versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test. Language Testing 18(1), 55–88. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Scott, J. A., & Nagy, W. E.
(2004) Developing word consciousness. In J. F. Baumann & E. J. Kame’enui (Eds.), Vocabulary instruction: Research to practice (pp. 201–217). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Seashore, R. H., & Eckerson, L. D.
(1940) The measurement of individual differences in general English vocabularies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 3l, l4–38.Google Scholar
Segal, C.
(2012) Working when no one is watching: Motivation, test scores, and economic success. Management Science, 58(8), 1438–1457. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Senechal, M., Pagan, S., Lever, R., & Ouellette, G. P.
(2008) Relations among the frequency of shared reading and 4-year-old children’s vocabulary, morphological and syntax comprehension, and narrative skills. Early Education and Development, 19(1), 27–44. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Shneidman, L. J., Arroyo, M. E., Levine, S. C., & Goldin-Meadow, S.
(2013) What counts as effective input for word learning? Journal of Child Language, 40, 672–686. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schmitt, N.
(2019) Understanding vocabulary acquisition, instruction, and assessment: A research agenda. Language Teaching, 52, 261–274. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schmitt, N., & Schmitt, D.
(2014) A reassessment of frequency and vocabulary size in L2 vocabulary teaching. Language Teaching, 47(4), 484–503. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Singer, T., Verhaeghen, P., Ghisletta, P., Lindenberger, U., & Baltes, P. B.
(2003) The fate of cognition in very old age: Six-year longitudinal findings in the Berlin Aging Study (BASE). Psychology and Aging, 18(2), 318–331. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sorell, C. J.
(2012) Zipf’s law and vocabulary. In C. A. Chapelle (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of applied linguistics. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sperry, D. E., Sperry, L. L., & Miller, P. J.
(2019a) Language does matter: But there is more to language than vocabulary and directed speech. Child Development, 90(3), 993–997. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2019b) Reexamining the verbal environments of children from different socio-economic backgrounds. Child Development, 90(4), 1303–1318. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Stauffer, R. G.
(1942) A study of prefixes in the Thorndike list to establish a list of prefixes that that should be taught in elementary school. Journal of Educational Research, 35, 453–458. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Stewart, J.
(2014) Do multiple-choice options inflate estimates of vocabulary size on the VST? Language Assessment Quarterly, 11(3), 271–282. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Stoeckel, T., Bennett, P., & McLean, S.
(2016) Is “I don’t know” a viable answer choice on the Vocabulary Size Test? TESOL Quarterly, 50(4), 965–975. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Stoeckel, T., McLean, S., & Nation, I. S. P.
(2020) Limitations of size and levels tests of written receptive vocabulary knowledge. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 1–20. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Stoeckel, T., Stewart, J., McLean, S., Ishii, T., Kramer, B., & Matsumoto, Y.
(2019) The relationship of four variants of the Vocabulary Size Test to a criterion measure of meaning recall vocabulary knowledge. System, 87, 1–14. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Stubbe, R.
(2012) Do pseudoword false alarm rates and overestimation rates in Yes/No vocabulary tests change with Japanese university students’ English ability levels? Language Testing, 29(4), 471–488. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Stubbe, R., & Stewart, J.
(2012) Optimizing scoring formulas for Yes/No vocabulary tests with linear models. Shiken Research Bulletin, 16(2), 2–7.Google Scholar
Suskind, D. L., Leffel, K. R., Graf, E., Hernandez, M. W., Gunderson, E. A., Sapolich, S. G., … Levine, S. C.
(2016) A parent-directed language intervention for children of low socio-economic status: A randomized controlled pilot study. Journal of Child Language, 43, 366–406. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sutarsyah, C., Nation, P., & Kennedy, G.
(1994) How useful is EAP vocabulary for ESP? A corpus based study. RELC Journal, 25(2), 34–50. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Tegge, F.
(2017) The lexical coverage of popular songs in English language teaching. System, 67, 87–98. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Thorndike, E. L.
(1921) The teacher’s word book. New York, NY: Teachers College Columbia University.Google Scholar
(1924) The vocabularies of school pupils. In J. Carelton Bell (Ed.), Contributions to Education (pp. 69–76). New York, NY: World Book Co.Google Scholar
Thorndike, E. L., & Lorge, I.
(1944) The teacher’s word book of 30,000 words. New York, NY: Teachers College Columbia University.Google Scholar
Tyler, A., & Nagy, W.
(1989) The acquisition of English derivational morphology. Journal of Memory and Language, 28, 649–667. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Uhrbrock, R. S.
(1935) The vocabulary of a five-year-old. Educational Research Bulletin, 14(44), 85–97.Google Scholar
Verhaeghen, P.
(2003) Aging and vocabulary scores: A meta-analysis. Psychology and Aging, 18(2), 332–339. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Waring, R., & Takaki, M.
(2003) At what rate do learners learn and retain new vocabulary from reading a graded reader? Reading in a Foreign Language, 15(2), 130–163.Google Scholar
Webb, S.
(2010) A corpus driven study of the potential for vocabulary learning through watching movies. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 15(4), 497–519. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Webb, S., & Nation, I. S. P.
(2017) How vocabulary is learned. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Webb, S., & Rodgers, M. P. H.
(2009a) The lexical coverage of movies. Applied Linguistics, 30(3), 407–427. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2009b) The vocabulary demands of television programs. Language Learning, 59(2), 335–366. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Webb, S., Sasao, Y., & Ballance, O.
(2017) The updated Vocabulary Levels Test. ITL International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 168(1), 33–69. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wei, Z., & Nation, P.
(2013) The word part technique: A very useful vocabulary teaching technique. Modern English Teacher, 22(1), 12–16.Google Scholar
Weisleder, A., & Fernald, A.
(2013) Talking to children matters: Early language experience strengthens processing and builds vocabulary. Psychological Science, 24(11), 2143–2152. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
West, M.
(1965) A general service list of English words. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Whipple, G. M., & Whipple, M.
(1909) The vocabulary of a three-year-old boy with some interpretive comments. Pedagogical Seminary, 16(1), 1–22. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
White, T. G., Power, M. A., & White, S.
(1989) Morphological analysis: Implications for teaching and understanding vocabulary growth. Reading Research Quarterly 24, 283–304. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J.
(2000) Expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 68–81. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
de Wilde, V., Brysbaert, M., & Eyckmans, J.
(2019) Learning English through out-of-school exposure. Which levels of language proficiency are attained and which types of input are important? Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 23, 171–185. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Willard, A. I., Busch, J. T. A., Cullum, K. A., Letourneau, S. M., Sobel, D. M., Callanan, M., & Legare, C. H.
(2019) Explain this, explore that: A study of parent–child interaction in a children’s museum. Child Development, 90(5), e598–e617. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Williams, H. M.
(1932) Some problems of sampling in vocabulary tests. Journal of Experimental Education, 1, l3l–l33. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wise, S. L., & DeMars, C. E.
(2010) Examinee noneffort and the validity of program assessment results. Educational Assessment, 15(1), 27–41. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2005) Low examinee effort in low-stakes assessment: Problems and potential solutions. Educational Assessment, 10(1), 1–17. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, X.
(2013) The ‘I Don’t Know’ option in the Vocabulary Size Test. TESOL Quarterly, 47, 790–811. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Subjects
BIC Subject: CFDC – Language acquisition
BISAC Subject: LAN009000 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General