Typological Studies in Language

This book series is peer reviewed and indexed in: Scopus

A companion series to the journal Studies in Language. Volumes in this series are functionally and typologically oriented, covering specific topics in language by collecting together data from a wide variety of languages and language typologies.
For book proposals please contact the series editors Sonia Cristofaro (sonia.cristofaro at sorbonne-universite.fr) and Jean-Christophe Verstraete (jcv at kuleuven.be) or the publisher Esther Roth (esther.roth at benjamins.nl)
ISSN 0167-7373
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl
Sonia Cristofaro | Sorbonne Université
Jean-Christophe Verstraete | Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
Editorial Board
William A. Croft | Albuquerque
Carol Genetti | Santa Barbara
Spike Gildea | University of Oregon
John Haiman | St Paul
Marianne Mithun | Santa Barbara
Doris L. Payne | Eugene, OR
Frans Plank | Konstanz
Dan I. Slobin | Berkeley
Sandra A. Thompson | Santa Barbara
Fernando Zúñiga | University of Bern
Edited by Anna Margetts, Sonja Riesberg and Birgit Hellwig
2022. viii, 437 pp.
Edited by Ekaterina Rakhilina, Tatiana Reznikova and Daria Ryzhova
2022. vi, 339 pp.
Edited by Luca Alfieri, Giorgio Francesco Arcodia and Paolo Ramat
2021. vi, 424 pp.
Edited by Łukasz Jędrzejowski and Przemysław Staniewski
2021. xiii, 481 pp.
Edited by Katarzyna Janic and Alena Witzlack-Makarevich
2021. vii, 645 pp.
Edited by David Gil and Antoinette Schapper
2020. ix, 510 pp.
Edited by Tsuyoshi Ono and Sandra A. Thompson
2020. vi, 366 pp.
Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal
2020. xv, 291 pp.
Edited by Albert Álvarez González, Zarina Estrada-Fernández and Claudine Chamoreau
2019. vi, 257 pp.
Simone Mattiola
2019. xxiv, 237 pp.
Edited by Roberto Zariquiey, Masayoshi Shibatani and David W. Fleck
2019. vii, 662 pp.
Edited by Alena Witzlack-Makarevich and Balthasar Bickel
2019. vi, 536 pp.
Edited by Simon E. Overall, Rosa Vallejos and Spike Gildea
2018. vi, 407 pp.
Edited by Sonia Cristofaro and Fernando Zúñiga
2018. vi, 434 pp.
Edited by Albert Álvarez González and Ia Navarro
2017. xv, 310 pp.
Edited by Casper de Groot
2017. xix, 555 pp.
Edited by Simeon Floyd, Elisabeth Norcliffe and Lila San Roque
2018. vii, 505 pp.
Edited by Yvonne Treis and Martine Vanhove
2017. vi, 437 pp.
Edited by Yoshiko Matsumoto, Bernard Comrie and Peter Sells
2017. vi, 381 pp.
Edited by Nicholas Evans and Honoré Watanabe
2016. xii, 435 pp.
Edited by Rik van Gijn and Jeremy Hammond
2016. vi, 503 pp.
Edited by Claudine Chamoreau and Zarina Estrada-Fernández
2016. vii, 380 pp.
Edited by Eystein Dahl and Krzysztof Stroński
2016. v, 267 pp.
Zygmunt Frajzyngier and Erin Shay
2016. xvi, 308 pp.
Edited by Natalie Operstein and Aaron Huey Sonnenschein
2015. xiii, 385 pp.
Edited by Doris L. Payne and Shahar Shirtz
2015. vii, 321 pp.
Edited by Matti Miestamo, Anne Tamm and Beáta Wagner-Nagy
2015. ix, 667 pp.
Edited by Maria Koptjevskaja-Tamm
2015. xii, 934 pp.
Edited by Silvia Luraghi and Heiko Narrog
2014. vi, 336 pp.
Edited by Rik van Gijn, Jeremy Hammond, Dejan Matić, Saskia van Putten and Ana Vilacy Galucio
2014. vi, 409 pp.
Edited by Balthasar Bickel, Lenore A. Grenoble, David A. Peterson and Alan Timberlake
2013. viii, 512 pp.
Edited by Tim Thornes, Erik Andvik, Gwendolyn Hyslop and Joana Jansen
2013. xviii, 294 pp.
Edited by Bernard Comrie and Zarina Estrada-Fernández
2012. xiii, 307 pp.
Rachel Hendery
2012. xii, 281 pp.
Edited by Anetta Kopecka and Bhuvana Narasimhan
2012. xv, 371 pp.
Edited by Seppo Kittilä, Katja Västi and Jussi Ylikoski
2011. vi, 354 pp.
Edited by Nicholas Evans, Alice Gaby, Stephen C. Levinson and Asifa Majid
2011. viii, 349 pp.
Edited by Rik van Gijn, Katharina Haude and Pieter Muysken
2011. viii, 315 pp.
Edited by Foong Ha Yap, Karen Grunow-Hårsta and Janick Wrona
2011. xvii, 796 pp.
Edited by Claire Lefebvre
2011. ix, 626 pp.
Edited by An Van linden, Jean-Christophe Verstraete and Kristin Davidse
2010. viii, 344 pp.
Edited by Nino Amiridze, Boyd Davis and Margaret Maclagan
2010. vii, 224 pp.
Edited by Fernando Zúñiga and Seppo Kittilä
2010. x, 440 pp.
Edited by Ines Fiedler and Anne Schwarz
2010. xii, 383 pp.
Edited by Elizabeth Closs Traugott and Graeme Trousdale
2010. ix, 306 pp.
Edited by Spike Gildea and Francesc Queixalós
2010. v, 319 pp.
Karsten Schmidtke-Bode
2009. xii, 229 pp.
Edited by Norbert Cyffer, Erwin Ebermann and Georg Ziegelmeyer
2009. vi, 368 pp.
Edited by Marc-Antoine Mahieu and Nicole Tersis
2009. ix, 312 pp.
Edited by T. Givón and Masayoshi Shibatani
2009. vi, 553 pp.
Edited by John Newman
2009. xii, 280 pp.
Edited by Roberta Corrigan, Edith A. Moravcsik, Hamid Ouali and Kathleen Wheatley
2009. xxiv, 361 pp.
Edited by Roberta Corrigan, Edith A. Moravcsik, Hamid Ouali and Kathleen Wheatley
2009. 724 pp.
Edited by Roberta Corrigan, Edith A. Moravcsik, Hamid Ouali and Kathleen Wheatley
2009. xxiv, 315 pp.
Edited by Greville G. Corbett and Michael Noonan
2008. ix, 290 pp.
Edited by Ritva Laury
2008. xiv, 253 pp.
Edited by Werner Abraham and Elisabeth Leiss
2008. xxiv, 422 pp.
Edited by K. David Harrison, David S. Rood and Arienne Dwyer
2008. vi, 375 pp.
Edited by Elena Seoane and María José López-Couso
2008. x, 367 pp.
Edited by María José López-Couso and Elena Seoane
2008. 742 pp.
Edited by María José López-Couso and Elena Seoane
2008. x, 355 pp.
Edited by Zygmunt Frajzyngier and Erin Shay
2008. v, 234 pp.
Edited by Dennis Kurzon and Silvia Adler
2008. viii, 307 pp.
Edited by Umberto Ansaldo, Stephen Matthews and Lisa Lim
2007. xii, 292 pp.
Åshild Næss
2007. x, 240 pp.
Edited by Vladimir P. Nedjalkov
2007. xxiii, 2219 pp. (5 vols.)
Fernando Zúñiga
2006. xii, 309 pp.
Edited by Raúl Aranovich
2007. vii, 277 pp.
Edited by Werner Abraham and Larisa Leisiö
2006. x, 553 pp.
Ljuba N. Veselinova
2006. xviii, 236 pp.
Edited by Maya Hickmann † and Stéphane Robert
2006. x, 362 pp.
Edited by Tasaku Tsunoda and Taro Kageyama
2006. xviii, 342 pp.
Edited by F.K. Erhard Voeltz
2006. xiv, 426 pp.
Edited by Elena Filimonova
2005. xii, 436 pp.
Edited by Elizabeth Couper-Kuhlen and Cecilia E. Ford
2004. viii, 406 pp.
Edited by Peri Bhaskararao and Karumuri V. Subbarao
2004. 668 pp.
Edited by Peri Bhaskararao and Karumuri V. Subbarao
2004. xii, 319 pp.
Edited by Peri Bhaskararao and Karumuri V. Subbarao
2004. xii, 325 pp.
Edited by Olga Fischer, Muriel Norde and Harry Perridon
2004. viii, 406 pp.
Edited by Martin Haspelmath
2004. xcv, 578 pp.
Johanna Mattissen
2003. x, 350 pp.
Edited by Erin Shay and Uwe Seibert
2003. xvi, 305 pp.
Zygmunt Frajzyngier and Erin Shay
2003. xviii, 309 pp.
Edited by Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald and R.M.W. Dixon
2003. xiv, 349 pp.
Edited by T. Givón and Bertram F. Malle
2002. x, 394 pp.
Edited by Tom Güldemann and Manfred von Roncador
2002. xii, 425 pp.
Edited by John Newman
2002. xii, 409 pp.
Edited by Susanne Feigenbaum and Dennis Kurzon
2002. vi, 304 pp.
Edited by Ilse Wischer and Gabriele Diewald
2002. xiv, 437 pp.
Edited by Masayoshi Shibatani
2002. xviii, 551 pp.
Edited by Irène Baron, Michael Herslund and Finn Sørensen
2001. vi, 337 pp.
Edited by Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald, R.M.W. Dixon and Masayuki Onishi
2001. xii, 364 pp.
Edited by Joan L. Bybee and Paul J. Hopper
2001. vii, 492 pp.
Edited by F.K. Erhard Voeltz and Christa Kilian-Hatz
2001. x, 436 pp.
Edited by Spike Gildea
2000. xiv, 269 pp.
Holger Diessel
1999. xii, 205 pp.
Edited by Zygmunt Frajzyngier and Traci Walker
2000. xiv, 286 pp. & xii, 201 pp.
Edited by Zygmunt Frajzyngier and Traci Walker
2000. xii, 201 pp.
Edited by Zygmunt Frajzyngier and Traci Walker
2000. xiv, 286 pp.
Edited by Doris L. Payne and Immanuel Barshi
1999. ix, 573 pp.
Edited by Anna Siewierska and Jae Jung Song
1998. 395 pp.
Edited by Anna Giacalone Ramat and Paul J. Hopper
1998. vi, 307 pp.
Edited by John Newman
1998. xv, 373 pp.
Edited by T. Givón
1997. viii, 350 pp.
Edited by T. Givón
1997. viii, 302 pp.
Edited by Barbara A. Fox
1996. xii, 518 pp.
Edited by Joan L. Bybee and Suzanne Fleischman
1995. viii, 575 pp.
Edited by Morton Ann Gernsbacher and T. Givón
1995. x, 267 pp.
Edited by Pamela A. Downing and Michael Noonan
1995. x, 595 pp.
Edited by Peter Kahrel and René van den Berg
1994. x, 385 pp.
Edited by T. Givón
1994. viii, 402 pp.
Edited by Barbara A. Fox and Paul J. Hopper
1994. xiii, 377 pp.
Carol Lord
1993. x, 273 pp.
Soteria Svorou
1994. xiv, 290 pp.
Revere D. Perkins
1992. x, 245 pp.
Suzanne Kemmer
1993. xii, 300 pp.
Edited by Doris L. Payne
1992. viii, 320 pp.
Edited by Pamela A. Downing, Susan D. Lima and Michael Noonan
1992. xx, 334 pp.
Edited by William A. Croft, Suzanne Kemmer and Keith Denning
1990. xxxiv, 243 pp.
Edited by Elizabeth Closs Traugott and Bernd Heine
1990. xii, 360 pp. + xii, 560 pp.
Edited by Elizabeth Closs Traugott and Bernd Heine
1991. xii, 558 pp.
Edited by Elizabeth Closs Traugott and Bernd Heine
1991. xii, 360 pp.
Edited by John Haiman and Sandra A. Thompson
1988. xiii, 428 pp.
Edited by Michael Hammond, Edith A. Moravcsik and Jessica Wirth
1988. xiv, 394 pp.
Edited by Masayoshi Shibatani
1988. xi, 706 pp.
Edited by Peter Austin
1988. vii, 289 pp.
Edited by John Hinds, Shoichi Iwasaki and Senko K. Maynard
1987. xi, 307 pp.
Edited by Vladimir P. Nedjalkov
1988. xx, 573 pp.
Russell S. Tomlin
1987. viii, 512 pp.
Evelyn N. Ransom
1986. xii, 226 pp.
Joan L. Bybee
1985. xii, 235 pp.
Edited by Dan I. Slobin and Karl Zimmer
1986. vi, 294 pp.
Edited by Colette G. Craig
1986. vii, 481 pp.
Edited by John Haiman
1985. vi, 402 pp.
Edited by William E. Rutherford
1984. ix, 264 pp.
Edited by William Chisholm, Louis T. Milic and John A.C. Greppin
1984. v, 302 pp.
T. Givón
1983. vi, 492 pp.
Edited by John Haiman and Pamela Munro
1983. xv, 337 pp.
Edited by Paul J. Hopper
1982. ix, 350 pp.

These are the guidelines for the preparation of a manuscript accepted for publication in the series Typological Studies in Language (TSL). Please note that the guidelines may vary per book series, and make sure that you use the guidelines for the series in which your volume will appear.

For the benefit of production efficiency and the production of texts of the highest quality and consistency, we urge you to follow the enclosed submission guidelines.

Manuscripts should be in either British or American English consistently throughout; if you are not a native speaker of English it is advisable to have your text checked by a native speaker before submission.

When submitting the final manuscript please make sure that you provide the following:

  1. final versions of the file(s)
  2. identical hard copy or a PDF file with embedded fonts, showing all special characters as they should be

and for collective volumes also:

  1. a complete set of copyright assignment forms
  2. the table of contents of the volume
  3. an electronic file with a list of all contributors’ addresses (mail and e-mail)

Hard copy and electronic files

Hard copy: Please provide hard copy or a PDF file with embedded fonts. During the production process the hard copy or PDF are referenced by the typesetter and is of great help to solve problems in the files, such as conversion errors, distorted tables, lost graphs, etc.

Electronic files: Please make sure that you supply all text and graphic files of the final version of the manuscript. Please delete any personal comments so that these cannot mistakenly be typeset, and check that all files are readable.

File naming conventions: When naming your file please use a clear and consistent file naming convention. We suggest the following: use the first three characters of your own surname; if your name is Johnson, the files should be named JOH.DOC, if further divided into chapters JOH1.DOC, JOH2.DOC. Figures can be named as follows JOH1.EPS, JOH2.EPS, etc. Please write the file names on the corresponding hard copy. This naming convention is particularly important when submitting for collective volumes.

Software: Files in Word are preferred, but our typesetters can convert almost anything. If, for some reason, a different format is required than supplied, we will contact you.

Graphic files: Any graphics created in Word (or Excell) can remain in the text and do not require special action. Graphics that have been created in another program, such as special purpose graphics software, and any other illustrations should be supplied separately. Please make sure that these have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi when resized to the book page. Also see the instructions in the section 'Tables, figures and plates' below.

Additional materials: If the book has associated audio-visual materials or datasets, please indicate in the text where each of these files is referred to. Also provide a separate list containing the name of each associated file, its type, size, and caption/description.


Our typesetters will do the final formatting of your document. However, some of the text enhancement cannot be done automatically and therefore we kindly ask you to carefully observe the following style.

Do’s and don’ts

Please use a minimum of page settings. The preferred setting is 12 pt Times New Roman, double line spacing, on 13 x 22 cm (5" x 8.6") text area. With this setting the ratio manuscript to typeset pages is roughly 2:1. The only relevant codes are those pertaining to font enhancements (italics, bold, caps, small caps, etc.), punctuation, and the format of the references. Whatever formatting or style conventions you use, please be consistent.

Emphasis and foreign words: Use italics for foreign words, highlighting, and emphasis. Bold should be used only for highlighting within italics and for headings. Please refrain from the use of FULL CAPS (except for focal stress and abbreviations) and underlining (except for highlighting within examples, as an alternative for boldface).

Running heads: In case of a long title please suggest a short one for the running head (max. 55 characters) on the title page of your manuscript.

Symbols and special characters: Please use Unicode fonts!

Chapters and headings: Chapters or articles should be reasonably divided into sections and, if necessary, into subsections. Please mark the hierarchy of subheadings as follows:

Heading A = bold, two lines space above and one line space below.
Heading B = italics, one line space above and one line space below.
Heading C = italics, one line space above, text on new line
Heading D = italics, one line space above; period; run on text.

Quotations: Text quotations in the main text should be given in double quotation marks. Quotations longer than 3 lines should have a blank line above and below and a left indent, without quotation marks, and with the appropriate reference to the source.

Listings: Should not be indented. If numbered, please number as follows:

1. ..................... or a. .......................

2. ..................... or b. .......................

Listings that run on with the main text should be numbered in parentheses: (1).............., (2)............., etc.


Each article should start off with an abstract. The abstract should be:
Accurate: Ensure that the abstract objectively reflects the purpose and content of your paper. Report rather than evaluate.
Self-contained: Define abbreviations and unique terms, spell out names, and give reference to the context in which your paper should be viewed (i.e., it builds on your previous work, or responds to another publication)
Concise and specific: Abstracts should not exceed 120 words. Be maximally informative, use the active voice, and include the 4 or 5 most important key words, findings, or implications.

Abstracts should also be submitted in a separate file.

Examples and glosses

Examples: should be numbered with Arabic numerals (1,2,3, etc.) in parentheses and indented. Every next level in the example (a), (b) gets one indent:

(3)         a.           Ed en Floor gaan samen-wonen

                           Ed and Floor go together-live INF

                          ‘Ed and Floor are going to live together’

             b.           Maarten en Stefanie zijn uit elkaar

                           Maarten and Stefanie be out RECP

                          ‘Maarten and Stefanie have split up’

Glosses: forconventions for interlinear morpheme-by-morpheme glosses, please refer to

www.eva.mpg.de/lingua/resources/glossing-rules.php .


Notes should be kept to a minimum. Note indicators in the text should appear at the end of sentences and follow punctuation marks. Notes will generally be formatted as foot notes by the typesetters.


It is essential that the references be formatted to the specifications given in these guidelines, as these cannot be formatted automatically.

References in the text: These should be as precise as possible, giving page references where necessary; for example (Clahsen 1991: 252) or: as in Brown et al. (1991: 252). All references in the text should appear in the references section.

References section: References should be listed first alphabetically and then chronologically. The section should include all (and only!) references that are actually mentioned in the text.

Authors/contributors are encouraged to supply – with a reference, not instead of – the DOI if they happen to have that information readily available.


Book (monograph):

Bybee, Joan. 1985. Morphology. A Study of the Relation between Meaning and Form [Typological Studies in Language 9]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.


Anderson, Bruce. 2002. The Fundamental Equivalence of Native and Interlanguage Grammars: Evidence from Argument Licensing and Adjective Position. PhD dissertation, Indiana University.

Book (edited volume):

Barlow, Michael & Kemmer, Suzanne (eds). 2000. Usage Based Models of Language. Stanford CA: CSLI.

Article (in book):

Lohndal, Terje. 2007. On the structure and development of nominal phrases in Norwegian. In Nominal Determination. Typology, Context Constraints, and Historical Emergence [Studies in Language Companion Series 89], Elizabeth Stark, Elizabeth Leiss & Werner Abraham (eds), 285-308. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Articles (in journal):

Napoli, Donna Jo & Hoeksema, Jack. 2009. The grammatical versatility of taboo terms. Studies in Language 33(3): 612-643.

Bobaljik, Jonathan D. & Wurmbrand, Susi. 2002. Notes on agreement in Itelmen. Linguistic Discovery 1(1). <http://linguistic-discovery.dartmouth.edu>

Electronic, online sources:

Liberman, Mark. 2006. Uptalk is not HRT. Language Log, 28 March 2006, <http://itre.cis.upenn.edu/~myl/languagelog/archives/002967.html> (30 March 2006).

Please note that not all book series published with John Benjamins follow the same style of references. Basically our style follows The Chicago Manual of Style (as the above) or the American Psychological Association Publication Manual (5th ed.).

Tables, figures and plates
  1. Tables and figures should be numbered consecutively and provided with concise captions (max. 240 characters).
  2. All figures and tables should be referenced in the text, e.g. (see Figure 5). Please do not use relative indicators such as “see the table below”, or “in this table: ...”.
  3. If the table or figure is not enclosed in the text file, please indicate the preferred position of the table or figure in the text by inserting a line “ at  at Insert (file name) here” at the appropriate position. It will be placed either at the top or the bottom of the page on which it is mentioned, or on the following page.
  4. The book will be printed in black & white. Before submitting the material for production, please check carefully whether all illustrations are still meaningful when printed in black & white. If the use of some color figures in your book has been agreed beforehand, please indicate clearly in a separate instruction which tables and/or figures are to be printed in color.
  5. All tables, plates, and figures eventually have to fit the following text area, either portrait or landscape: 12 cm x 20 cm at 8 pt minimum.
  6. Notes in tables and figures should not be regular endnotes. Please use a table note or a figure note as in the example below. Standard note indicators in tables are *, **, †, ‡. The note itself is then inserted directly below the table/figure.
  7. In tables, keep shading to a functional minimum and for individual cells only, not for entire rows or columns.

Appendices should follow the references section. Please make sure you refer to the appendix in the main text.



Authors receive first proofs for correction, and corrected proofs for final checking and indexing. Please use correction symbols as provided. Proofs must be returned with corrections by the dates determined by the publication schedule.

Collective volume

Contributors to collective volumes will receive proofs of their article for correction and will be requested to return their corrections to the volume editor. The editor will receive one full set of first proofs and after corrections another set of corrected proofs for final checking and indexing. The editor is responsible for checking the corrected proofs against the first proofs to examine if all corrections were implemented correctly. Proofs must be returned with corrections by the dates determined by the publication schedule.


Please indicate corrections that should be implemented throughout only once, with a clear instruction that they should be processed throughout.

If it is absolutely necessary to change larger chunks of text (i.e. more than just a few words), it is best to submit the changes digitally by email. The same holds for updated references. If, for whatever reason existing items in the References section must be redone or new ones inserted, submit these electronically by email.

Please limit corrections to the essential! It is at the publisher’s discretion not to implement substantial changes or to charge the author.

For further queries you may consult The Chicago Manual of Style or the American Psychological Association Manual, or contact your editor.


You will prepare the index after correction of the first proofs at which time we will send you detailed instructions. If you are familiar with index markers you can also add markers to your file before submission. In such a case, please request the index guidelines from us.