Metroethnicity, Naming and Mocknolect

New horizons in Japanese sociolinguistics

| International Christian University, Tokyo
HardboundForthcoming
ISBN 9789027208576 | EUR 99.00 | USD 149.00
 
e-BookOrdering information
ISBN 9789027260024 | EUR 99.00 | USD 149.00
 
Language is a social space, an aesthetic, a form of play and communication, a geographical reference, a jouissance, a producer of numerous social and personal identities. This book takes up salient issues of sociolinguistics with a specific focus on Japan: language and gender (the married name controversy), language and the 'portable' identities being fashioned around traditional, essentialist notions of ethnicity (metroethnicity) endangerment, slang, taboo and discriminatory language in Japanese especially regarding minorities, place-names from indigenous languages, the fellowship and parody of children's songs, and the diversity of nicknames among children and young people. This books gives radical and new perspectives on the sociolinguistics of Japanese.
[IMPACT: Studies in Language, Culture and Society, 49]  Expected May 2021.  xiii, 240 pp. + index
Publishing status: In production
Table of Contents
This is a provisional table of contents, and subject to changes.
Acknowledgements
Introduction: Portable language and the jouissance of identities
Chapter 1. Metroethnicity and cool: A theory of lifestyle identities
Chapter 2. Mocknolect: Language and identity imitation
Chapter 3. The linguistic identity of place: Where things are, where we are
Chapter 4. Married names: Continuous identities and social conflict
Chapter 5. “Hirosima! Hiroshima! We all fall down!!”: The speech fellowship of children
Chapter 6. Multilingual Japan: Word borrowers of the Chuo line
Chapter 7. Discriminatory language, taboo and language hygiene
Chapter 8. Ainu and the Celtic languages: Comparing vitality and endangerment
Chapter 9. The Sanka and Sanshōkotoba : Lost argot of mountain itinerants
Chapter 10. Cool rules: Language loyalty, translation and ironic detachment
Chapter 11. A sociophonetics of the Japanese /r/: Mocknolect and variation
Chapter 12. Language difficulty and difficult languages
Chapter 13. Slang and modernity: Innovation and controversy about language
Chapter 14. Names and nicknames: Personal recognition, solidarity and social management
Chapter 15. Ethnic toponomy in Tokyo: Folklinguistics and multilingualism
References
Index
References

References

A-dro dge/Go Cornish
Aikio, M.
(1991) The Sami language: Pressure of change and reification. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 12, 93–103.Google Scholar
Ainu Pride Productions
(2011) Information about the Ainu people, aiming to help connect the Ainu people with the wider, non-Japanese speaking world. Retrieved from http://​www​.ainupride​.com
Aizawa, M.
(2019) Kirakira names: The hybridization of Japanese naming traditions. Autumn Report. Tokyo: International Christian University.Google Scholar
Akamatsu, T.
(1997) Japanese phonetics: Theory and practice. Munich: Lincom.Google Scholar
Akasaka, N.
(1991) History of the mountains – The figure of Kunio Yanagita. Tokyo: Shogakkan.Google Scholar
Alladina, S., & Edwards, V.
(1991) Multilingualism in the British Isles. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Allison, J.
(2000) Extinct tongues: South African language. Johannesburg: Kitchen Sisters.Google Scholar
Amino, Y.
(1994) Emperor, rice, and commoners. Japanese Studies, 14(2), 1–12. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, Fred E., & Iwasaki-Goodman, M.
(2001) Language and culture revitalization in a Hokkaido Ainu community. In M. G. Noguchi, Studies in Japanese bilingualism (pp. 45–67). Clevendon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Andersson, L.-G.
(1998) Some languages are harder than others. In L. Bauer & P. Trudgill (Eds.), Language myths (pp. 50–57). London: Penguin.Google Scholar
Aoyama, K., Flege, J., Guion, S., Akahane-Yamada, R., & Yamada, T.
(2004) Perceived phonetic dissimilarity and L2 speech learning: The case of Japanese /r/ and English /l/ and /r/. Journal of Phonetics, 32(2), 233–250.Google Scholar
Appadurai, A.
(1986) Theory in anthropology: Center and periphery. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 28, 356–361.Google Scholar
Arutinov, S.
(1999) Ainu origin theories. In C. O. Dubreuill & W. Fitzhugh (Eds.), Ainu: Spirit of a northern people (pp. 29–31). Seattle WA: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
Asahi Evening News
(2000) Koizumi in Brazil. August 5, p. 8.
Austin, P. K., & Sallabank, J.
(Eds.) (2011) The Cambridge handbook of endangered languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Bakhtin, M.
(1971) The dialogic imagination. Austin, TX: University of Texas.Google Scholar
Ball, M. J., & Müller, N.
(Eds.) (2009) The Celtic languages. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Basho, M.
(1702/2004) Oku no Hosomichi ‘The narrow road to the interior’. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
Basso, K.
(1988) Speaking with names: Language and landscape among the Western Apache. Cultural Anthropology, 3(2), 99–130.Google Scholar
Batchelor, J.
(1925) The pit-dwellers of Hokkaido and Ainu place-names considered. Sapporo: J. Batchelor.Google Scholar
(1995) An Ainu-English-Japanese dictionary (4th ed.). Tokyo: Iwanami-shoten.Google Scholar
Beatles, The
(1965) Rubber soul. London: Apple Records.Google Scholar
Berger, P.
(1963) Invitation to sociology: A humanistic perspective. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
Berman, J.
(2017, December 27) Why so many women still take their husband’s last name. Market Watch.Google Scholar
Bernstein, B.
(1987) Class, codes, and communication. Sociolinguistics: An international handbook of the science of language and society (Vol. 1). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Birmingham, L.
(2010, February 26) A cultural revival. The spirit of Japan’s Ainu. Wall Street Journal, 18.Google Scholar
Bjarke, F.
(2010) A history of the Japanese language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Bloch, B.
(1950) Studies in colloquial Japanese phonemics . Language, 26(1), 86–125.Google Scholar
Bolinger, D.
(1980) Language the loaded weapon: The use and abuse of language today. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Booth, Paul
(Ed.) (2018) A companion to media fandom and fan studies. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Bradlow A. R., Pisoni, D. B., Akahane-Yamada, R., & Tohkura, Y.
(1997) Training Japanese listeners to identify English /r/ and /l/: IV, Some effects of perceptual learning on speech production. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 101(4), 2299–2310. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bresson, J. L.
(1997) Le grand bleu. Los Angeles, CA: Paramount.Google Scholar
Paramount Pictures
(1961) Breakfast at Tiffanys. Los Angeles, CA: Paramount.
Bugaeva, A.
(2010) Internet applications for endangered languages: A talking dictionary of Ainu. Retrieved from https://​core​.ac​.uk​/download​/pdf​/144456981​.pdfGoogle Scholar
Bybee, J. J. & Fleischman, S.
(1995) Modality in grammar and discourse. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Cage, J.
(1973) Silence: Lectures and writings. New York, NY: Wesleyan Paperback.Google Scholar
Castoriadis, C.
(1986) The nature and value of equality. Philosophy and Social Criticism, 11(4), 373–390.Google Scholar
Catford, J. C.
(1977) Fundamental problems in phonetics. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
(1982) Lecture on phonetics. Ann Arbor, MI: Department of Linguistics, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
Cen, Q.
(1990) Han yu wai lai yu ci dian. 汉语外来语词典. A dictionary of foreign words. Loan words in Chinese. Beijing: Shang.Google Scholar
Chapman, M.
(1978) The Gaelic vision in Scottish culture. London: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
Charbauski-Frohling, V.
(2001) Nursery rhyme in Lithuanian. Geneology Forum, 6, 23.Google Scholar
Charles, A.
(1990) Come forth with a Surah like it: Arabic as a measure of Arab society. In M. Eid (Ed.), Perspectives on Arabic Linguistics. Papers from the Annual Symposium on Arabic Linguistics. Volume I: Salt Lake City, Utah 1987 (pp. 39–49). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Chen, H.
(2014) A study of Japanese loanwords in Chinese (Unpublished MA thesis). University of Oslo.Google Scholar
Chiba, N.
(2008) The music of the Ainu. In A. Tokita & D. W. Hughes (Eds.), The Ashgate research companion to Japanese music. Farnham, UK: Ashgate.Google Scholar
Childress, H., & Stiller, B.
1994Reality bites. New York, NY: Jersey Films.Google Scholar
Chiri, M.
(1958/2003) Abashiri-gunnai Ainu-go chimei kai 2 [Understanding Ainu place-names in Abashiri district]. In M. Oka, Chiri Mashiho chosaku shu 3 [Masahiho Chiri anthology] (pp. 269–313). Tokyo: Heibon.Google Scholar
(1960/2000) Aikoku-shin: Watashi wa ko omou [What is a patriotic spirit? What I think]. In M. Chiri (Ed.), Wajin wa fune o kuu [Wajin eat boats] (p. 13). Hokkaido: Hokkaido Shuppan Kikaku Senta.Google Scholar
Chock, P.
(1987) The irony of stereotypes: Toward an anthropology of ethnicity. Cultural Anthropology, 2(3), 347–368.Google Scholar
Chukovsky, K.
(1963) From two to five. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Chung, K. S.
(2001) Some returned loans: Japanese loanwords in Taiwan Mandarin. In T. McAuley (Ed.), Language change in East Asia (pp. 161–179). Richmond, Surrey: Curzon.Google Scholar
Cirlo, J. E.
(1972) Picasso, birth of a genius. New York, NY: Praeger.Google Scholar
Clark, L.
(1995) Kids. Los Angeles, CA: Paramount.Google Scholar
Collazo, A. M.
(2016, March 23) The Japanese naming system. Morphology and semantics of individual names (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Kyoto University. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cook, J., & King J.
(1784) A voyage to the Pacific Ocean. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Cool Magazine
(2004) Cool. Cool Magazine.
Corcoran-Nantes, Y.
(2016, March 31) Most Australian women still take husband’s name after marriage. ABC Radio Adelaide.Google Scholar
Coulmas, F.
(1985) Sprache und Staat Studien über Sprachplanung und Sprachpolitik. Berlin: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
(1992) Language and economy. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
(2005) Sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Coppola, S.
(2003) Lost in translation. San Francisco, CA: American Zoetrope.Google Scholar
Crowley, T.
(2003) Standard English and politics of language. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Davis, A. N., Street, C., & Carlo, G.
(2016) Familism. In C. Shehan, The Wiley Blackwell encyclopedia of family studies (Vol. 1, pp. 701–704). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
Deely, J.
(2009) Purely objective reality. Berlin: De GruyterGoogle Scholar
De Cuba, P.
(1997, March 13) Nursery rhymes. Linguist List.Google Scholar
De Vos, G., & Wagatsuma, H.
(1967) Japan’s invisible race: Caste in culture and personality. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
DeChicchis, J.
(1995) The current state of the Ainu language. In J. C. Maher & K. Yashiro (Eds.), Multilingual Japan (pp. 103–124). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Despagne, C.
(2010) The difficulties of learning English: Perceptions and attitudes in Mexico. Canadian and International Education /Education Canadienne et Internationale, 39(2), Article 5. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dorian, N. C.
(Ed.) (1989) Investigating obsolescence: Studies in language contraction and death. Cambridge: Cambridge Universty Press.Google Scholar
(1970) A substitute name system in the Scottish Highlands. American Anthropologist, 72, 303–319.Google Scholar
Dovchin, S.
(2018) Language, media and globalization in the periphery: The linguascapes of popular music in Mongolia. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Du, X., Zhao, K., Ruan, Y., Wang, L., & Duan, X.
(2017) Beginner CFL learners’ perceptions of language difficulty in a task-based teaching and learning (TBTL) environment in Denmark. System, 69, 1–13.Google Scholar
Dunbar, R.
(2010) Language planning. In M. MacLeod & M. Watson, The Edinburgh companion to the gaelic language (pp. 146–171). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
Duolinguo
(2015, December 28) Comments on Dutch. Retrieved from https://​www​.duolingo​.com
Eco, U.
(1990) The name of the rose. Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
Edward, S.
(1921) Language: An introduction to the study of speech. New York, NY: Harcourt, Brace & Co.Google Scholar
Edwards, J.
(1989) Language, society and identity. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Endo, O.
(2011) Learning Japanese language education. In O. Mizutani et al.. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Japanese language education. Tokyo: Taishukan.Google Scholar
Eschholz, P., & Rosa, A.
(1970) Course names: Another aspect of college slang. American Speech, 38, 164–177.Google Scholar
Ferguson, C. A.
(1977) Baby talk as a simplified register. In C. E. Snow & C. A. Ferguson (Eds.), Talking to children. Language input and acquisition (pp. 209–235). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Firth, J.
(1930) Speech. London: Benn’s Sixpenny Library.Google Scholar
(1968) Speech fellowship: Selected papers of J. R. Firth, F. R. Palmer (Ed.). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
Fishman, J.
(1983) The rise and fall of the ‘ethnic revival’ in the USA. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 4(3), 5–46.Google Scholar
(1991) Reversing language shift: Theory and practice of assistance to threatened languages. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
(2000) Can threatened languages be saved? Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Fox, M.
(2008) Reading magic: Why reading aloud to our children will change their lives forever. Sydney: Mariner.Google Scholar
Fujimura, O., Fujii, L., & Kagaya, R.
(1972) Computation processing of palatographic patterns. Conference record: 1972 Conference on Speech Communication and Procession. USAF.Google Scholar
Fujita-Round, S., & Maher, J. C.
(2008) Language education policy in Japan. In S. May (Ed.), Encyclopedia of language and education (Vol. 1, pp. 393–404). Dordrecht: SpringerGoogle Scholar
Fujiwara, Y., & Hiroyasu K.
(1984) Hogen Kenkyu Handobukku [Handbook of dialect research]. Osaka: Izumi Sensho.Google Scholar
Fukushima, M.
(1997) Fūfu bessei Seminā [Separate married names seminar]. Tokyo: Jiyū Kokuminsha.Google Scholar
Gans, H.
(1979) Symbolic ethnicity: The future of ethnic groups and cultures in America. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 2, 1–20.Google Scholar
Gasquet-Cyrus, M.
(2012) La discrimination à l’accent en France. Idéologies, discours et pratiquesCahiers d’Atelier de Sociolinguistique, 6, 227–245.Google Scholar
(2018) Glottophobia. French Connections. France 24.Google Scholar
Gayman, J.
(2011) Ainu right to education and ainu practice of ‘education’. Current Intercultural Education, 22(1), 15–28.Google Scholar
Giddens, A.
(1993) Sociology. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
Giles, H.
(Ed.) (1977) Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations. New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Giroux, H.
(1998) Channel surfing: Racism, the media, and the destruction of today’s youth. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
Gleason, P.
(1979) Pluralism and assimiliation: A conceptual history. In J. Edwards (Ed.), Linguistic minorities, policies and pluralism. New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Goffman, E.
(1963) Stigma. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
Gotō, K.
(1989) Matagi and Sanka. Japanese History and Folklore, 8.Google Scholar
Goto, H.
(1971) Auditory perception by normal Japanese adults of the sounds “L” and “R”. Neuropsychologia, 9, 317–323.Google Scholar
Gottlieb, N.
(2006) Linguistic stereotyping and minority groups in Japan. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Goodenough, W. H.
(1965) Personal names and modes of address in two Oceanic societies. In M. E. Spiro (Ed.), Context and meaning in cultural anthropology (pp. 42–59). New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
Graham, D. A.
(2015, November 30) A short history of Hillary (Rodham) (Clinton)’s changing names. The Atlantic.Google Scholar
Grasstat, R.
(2005) Debunking german language myths. Expatica. https://​www​.expatica​.comGoogle Scholar
Gu, J.
(2011) Hanyu Zhongde Riyu Jieci Yanjiu. 汉语中的日语借词研究. [A study of Japanese loanwords in Chinese]. Shanghai: Shang.Google Scholar
Habermas, J.
(1963) Theory and practice. London: Sage.Google Scholar
Haga, Y.
(1979) Nihonjin no Hōgen Shinri. Tokyo: Chuō Kōronsha.Google Scholar
Hall, S.
(1991) The local and the global: Globalization and ethnicity. In A. King (Ed.), Culture, globalization and the world system (pp. 19–40). Basingstoke: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Halliday, M. A. K.
(1978) Language as a social semiotic: The social interpretation of language and meaning. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
Halliday, M. A. K., & Hasan, R.
(1991) Language, context, and text: Aspects of language in a social- semiotic perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Halliday, M. A. K.
(1978) Antilanguages. American Anthropologist, 78(3), 570–584. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hammond, P. & Stirner, P.
(1997) Fear and loathing in the British Press. In P. Hammond (Ed.), Cultural difference, media memories: Anglo-American images of Japan (pp. 85–114). London: Cassell.Google Scholar
Hanazaki, K.
(2000) Ainu Mosir and Yaponesia. In D. Denoon, M. Hudson, G. McCormack, & T. Morris-Suzuk (Eds), Multicultural Japan (pp. 117–134). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Hanho, T., & Sukezumi, H.
(1982) Hokkaido, Tohoku Chiho no Hogen. Tokyo: Kokusho Kankokai.Google Scholar
Harper, L. J.
(2011) Nursery rhyme knowledge and phonological awareness in preschool children. The Journal of Language and Literacy Education [Online], 7(1), 65–78.Google Scholar
Harte, J.
(2019) Names and tales: On folklore and place names. Folklore, 130(4), 373–394.Google Scholar
Haruhiko, K.
(1991) Nihongo no Tokushitsu [Characteristics of the Japanese language]. Tokyo: Sangensha.Google Scholar
Hasegawa, Y.
(2013, February 13) Interview. Tokyo: Ehon Navi.Google Scholar
Hattori, S.
(1960) Gengogaku no houhou [Methods in linguistics]. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.Google Scholar
Hay, J., & Drager, K.
(2007) Sociophonetics. Annual Review of Anthropology, 36, 89–102.Google Scholar
Hay, J., & Maclagan, M.
(2006) Are all /r/s alike? Degrees of constriction in New Zealand English intrusive /r/. Presented at N. Z. Lang. Soc. Conf., Christchurch.Google Scholar
Heinrich, P.
(2012) The making of monolingual Japan. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Hemphill, B. K.
(2011) The elements of creative and expressive artistry: A philosophy for creating everthing artistic. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse.Google Scholar
Herrera L., Lorenzo O., Defior S., Fernandez-Smith G., & Costa-Giomi E.
(2011) Effects of phonological and musical training on the reading readiness of native-and foreign-Spanish-speaking children. Psychol. Music , 39, 68–81.Google Scholar
Hidaka, M.
(2009) Gengo henka o yokusei suru goyo ishiki [Awareness of language cerror that represses language change]. Nihongogaku, 28(9), 14–26.Google Scholar
Hill, J. H.
(1993) Hasta la vista, baby: Anglo Spanish in the American Southwest. Critique of Anthropology, 13(2), 145–176.Google Scholar
(1998) Language, race, and white public space. American Anthropologist, 100(3), 680–689.Google Scholar
Ho, K. K.
(2018) Crazy rich Asians in going to change Hollywood. It’s about time. Time, August 15.Google Scholar
Hobbes, T.
(1651/2008) Leviathan. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Hoffman, M.
(2009) What’s in a (Japanese) name? Japan Times. October 11.Google Scholar
Holmes, Janet & Hay J.
(1997) Humor as an ethnic boundary marker in New Zealand interaction. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 18(2), 127–151.Google Scholar
Honbungeisha
(2005) Za Hougen bukku [The Hogen book]. Tokyo: Honbungeisha.
Honna, N.
(1995) English in Japanese society: Language within language. In J. C. Maher & K. Yashiro (Eds.), Multilingual Japan (pp. 45–62). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
(1998) Editorial. Asian Englishes, 1(1), 3.Google Scholar
Hooser, M.
(1990) Scratch n’ mimic Hiragana. Tokyo: Hokuseido Shoten.Google Scholar
Ikeda, S., & Niwa, M.
(Eds.) (1992) Rekishi to bunka wo saguru Nihon Chimei rutsu Jiten. Tokyo: Sotakusha.Google Scholar
Inoue, F.
(1989) Kotobazukai no Shin Fukei. Tokyo: Akiyama Shoten.Google Scholar
(1993) The significance of new dialects. Dialectologia et Geolinguistica, 1, 1–27.Google Scholar
Ishiguro, H.
(1984) Point of view in children’s discourse. Descriptive and Applied Linguistics, 97–105.Google Scholar
Ito, K.
(1990) Kodomo no kotoba. Tokyo: Keisoshobo.Google Scholar
Iwabuchi, K.
(1999) Return to Asia? Japan in the Asian audiovisual market. In K. Yoshino (Ed.), Consuming ethnicity and nationalism: Asian experiences (pp. 177–199). London: Curzon.Google Scholar
(2004) Transcending cultures, intertwining borders. Tokyo: Serika Shobo.Google Scholar
Jamison, K. R.
(1996) An unquiet mind: A memoir of moods and madness. New York, NY: Borzoi.Google Scholar
Jaspers, J.
(2017) Some limits and opportunities of identifying Dutch ethnolects. Dutch Journal of Applied Linguistics, 6(2), 231–246.Google Scholar
Jenner, H.
(1904) A handbook of the Cornish language. Retrieved from: https://​www​.gutenberg​.org​/files​/26192​/26192​-h​/26192​-h​.htmGoogle Scholar
Johnson, S.
(1988) Japan through American eyes. Tokyo: Kodansha International.Google Scholar
Johnstone, B.
(2010) Indexing the local. In N. Coupland (Ed.), The handbook of language and globalization (pp. 386–406). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Jones, R. O., & Williams, C.
(2009) The sociolinguistic context of Welsh. In M. J. Ball, The Celtic languages (pp. 650–711). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Jung, C. G.
(1961) Memories, dreams and reflections. London: Pantheon.Google Scholar
Kamens, E.
(1997) Utamakura, allusion and intertextuality in traditional Japanese poetry. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Kameda, L.
(2010) Hybrid identities and adolescent girls: Being ‘half’ in Japan. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Kamuy-turano, K.
(1987) Ainu go Kaiwa: Shokkyuken. Hokkaido: Kamuy torano Kyokai.Google Scholar
Kato, E.
(2004) Gender issues in Japan. Tokyo: Sangensha. [in Japanese].Google Scholar
Katsumi, N.
(1986) Shogaisha to Sabetsu-go [The handicapped and discriminatory language). Tokyo: Akashi Shoten.Google Scholar
Kawauchi, S.
(1979) Nihongo onsei gaisetsu [Introduction to phonology of the Japanese language]. Tokyo: Obunsha.Google Scholar
Kayano, Shiro, Kawakami, M. & Gayman, J.
(2009) Nibutani village, a language-revitalization case study of one Ainu hamlet in transition. Journal of Australian Indigenous Issues, 12(1–4), 248–258.Google Scholar
Kennedy, M.
(2009) Contemporary tradition: Reconfiguring Ainu culture in modern Japan. NUCB Journal of Language, Culture and Communication, 10(2), 37–45.Google Scholar
Kennedy, N.
(2002) Fatel era ny a keel? Revived Cornish: Taking stock. In P. Payton (Ed.), Cornish studies (Vol. 10, pp. 283–302). Exeter: University of Exeter Press.Google Scholar
Kennedy, R., & Zamuner, T.
(2006) Nicknames and the lexicon of sports. American Speech, 81(4), 387–422.Google Scholar
Kenney, S.
(2005) Nursery rhymes: Foundations for learning. General Music Today, 19(1), 28–31.Google Scholar
Kim, E.
(1975) Yellow English. Asian American Review, 2(1), 44–63.Google Scholar
Kinase, T.
(2002) Difference, representation, positionality: An examination of the politics of contemporary Ainu images. Senri Ethnological Studies, 60, 171–181.Google Scholar
Kindaichi, H.
(1988) Nihongo. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.Google Scholar
Kitagawa, N.
(1996) A comparative study of baby talk and regional dialect: Finding a common shift in pronunciation (Unpublished MA thesis). International Christian University, Tokyo.Google Scholar
Klassen, J.
(2012) This is not my hat. Somerville, MA: Candlewick.Google Scholar
Kloss, H.
(1967) Abstand languages and ausbau languages. Anthropological Linguistics, 9(7), 29–41.Google Scholar
Kokuritsu Kokugo Kenkyujo
(1980) Yoji no Kotoba Shiryo (Vol. 3–4). Tokyo: NINJAL.
Koike, Y.
(1991) Regional dialects in Tokyo: A sociopsychological study of speakers, attitudes and preferences (Unpublished senior thesis). International Christian University.Google Scholar
Konishi, S.
(2013) Anarchist modernity: Cooperatism and Japanese-Russian intellectual relations in Modern Japan. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Konno, T.
(1988) Besshi-go: Kotoba to Sabetsu [Language and discrimination]. Tokyo: Sangensha.Google Scholar
Kowethas an Yeth Kernewek
(2006) Membership survey November 2005 Retrieved from Kowethas an Yeth Kernewek: www​.cornish​-language​.org
Kymlicka, C.
(1995) Multicultural citizenship and minority rights. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
Ladefoged, P.
(1993) A course in phonetics. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovitch.Google Scholar
Leah, E.
(2018) Government makes Russian language easier. Retrieved from Liden & Denz Intercultural Institute of Language: https://​www​.russiancourses​.com​/blog​/russian​-language​-easier/Google Scholar
Lewallen, A. E.
(2006) Hands that never rest: Ainu women, cultural revival, and indigenous politics in Japan (Unpublished PhD dissertation). University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
Liu, Y.
(2020, July 25) China’s two-child policy means more babies are named after moms. Japan Times.Google Scholar
Loveday, L.
(2018) Creating a mock-western identity through English in Japanese ads: A study of occidentalist invocations . Journal of Creative Communications, 3(2), 123–153.Google Scholar
Luef, E. M., & Ghebru, B.
(2019) Perceptions of ‘language difficulty’ and their impact on second-language-learning commitment: Findings from Japanese and Korean. International Journal of Management and Applied Science (IJMAS), 5(1), 31–33.Google Scholar
Mabuchi, K.
(1982) Nihongo Oninron. Tokyo: Kasamashoin.Google Scholar
MacCaluim, A.
(2007) Reversing language shift: The social identity and role of Scottish Gaelic learners (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics, 16). Belfast: Clo Ollscoil na Banriona.Google Scholar
MacGregor, L.
(2003) The language of shop signs in Tokyo. English Today, 19(1), 18–23.Google Scholar
Machida, K.
(2008) Gengo Sekai Chizu [World map of languages]. Tokyo: Sangensha.Google Scholar
MacKinnon, K.
(2009) Scottish history and contemporary status. In M. J. Ball & N. Müller (Eds.), The Celtic languages (pp. 587–649). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Maffessoli, M.
(1996) The times of the tribes. London: Sage.Google Scholar
Maher, J. C., & Honna, N.
(1994) Atarashii Nihonkan Sekaikan ni mukatte: Gengo to Bunka no Tayosei. Tokyo: Kokusai Shoten.Google Scholar
Maher, J. C.
(1991) J-Wave. In J. C. Maher & K. Yashiro (Eds.), Nihon no Bairingarizumu [Bilingualism in Japan] (pp. 24–32). Tokyo: Kenkyuusha.Google Scholar
(2001) Akor Itak – Our language, your language Ainu in Japan. In J. Fishman (Ed.), Can threatened languages be saved? (pp. 323–349). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
(2010) Metrolanguages and metroethnicity. In N. Coupland (Ed.), Handbook of language and globalization (pp. 575–591). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
Maher, J. C., & Honna, N.
(1994b) Hajime ni (Preface). In J. C. Maher & N. Honna, Atarashii Nihonkan, Sekaikan ni mukatte: Nihon ni okeru Gengo to Bunka no Tayosei (pp. 7–15). Tokyo: Kokusaishoin.Google Scholar
(1994a) Atarashii nihonkan, sekaikan ni mukatte: Nihon ni okeru gengo to bunka no tayosei. [Towards a new order: Linguistic and cultural diversity in Japan]. Tokyo: Kokusai Shoin.Google Scholar
Maher, J. C., & Madconald, G.
(Eds.) (1995) Diversity in Japanese culture and language. London: Kegan Paul International.Google Scholar
Maher, J. C., & Yashiro K.
(Eds.) (1995) Multilingual Japan. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Maher, J., & Yashiro, K.
(1995b) Introduction. In J. C. Maher & K. Yashiro (Eds.), Multilingual Japan (pp. 1–12). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Maher, J. C., & Yashiro, K.
(1991) Nihon no Bairingarizumu [Bilingualism in Japan]. Tokyo: Kenkyuusha.Google Scholar
Maher, J., & Ikuko, Y.
(1991) Boundaries, bilingualism and ethnocentrism: The case of Erika. Gengo, 20 (8), 28–35.Google Scholar
Maher, J. C., & Honna, N.
(1994b) Hajime ni (Preface). In J. C. Maher & N. Honna (Eds.), Atarashii Nihonkan, Sekaikan ni mukatte: Nihon ni okeru Gengo to Bunka no Tayosei (pp. 7–15). Tokyo: Kokusaishoin.Google Scholar
Maher, J. C.
(1994) Pidgins and creoles. Educational Studies, 52, 35–46.Google Scholar
(1999) Marriage and change name policy in Japan. The Japanese Journal of Language in Society, 2(1), 25–36.Google Scholar
(2005) Metroethnicity, language, and the principle of Cool. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 175/176, 83–102.Google Scholar
(2007) Remains of the Day; language orphans and the decline of German as a medical lingua franca in Japan. In F. Coulmas (Ed.), Language regimes in transformation: Future prospects for German and Japanese in science, economy and politics (pp. 141–154). Berlin: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
(2008) Fūfu Bessei: Marriage and change – Name policy in Japan. Journal of the Japanese Association of Sociolinguistic Sciences, 8(3), 25–32.Google Scholar
(2010) Metrolanguages. In N. Coupland (Ed.), Language and globalization (pp. 575–591). Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.Google Scholar
Makiko, O.
(2019) Why can’t I keep my surname? The fairness and welfare of the Japanese legal system. Feminist Economics, 25(3), 171–200. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Malik, K.
(1996) The meaning of race. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Martens M. A., Jungers M. K. & Steele A. L.
(2011) Effect of musical experience on verbal memory in Williams syndrome: Evidence from a novel word learning task. Neuropsychologia, 49, 3093–3102.Google Scholar
Martin, K.
(2010) Aynu itak: On the road to Ainu language revitalization. Media and Communication Studies, 60, 57–93.Google Scholar
Mason, F. V.
(1997) The China Sea murders (original title: The Shanghai Bund murders). Toronto: Pocket Books.Google Scholar
Masuda, E.
(2001) Child speech in Japanese and pronunciation (Unpublished senior dissertation). International Christian University, Tokyo.Google Scholar
Masuda, H.
(2015) Mock Japanese. Term paper, 6.Google Scholar
Matsuda, K.
(1993) Dissecting analogical leveling quantitatively: The case of the innovative potential suffix in Tokyo Japanese. Language Variation and Change, 5(1), 1–34. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Matsukawa, M.
(1998) Given names and professions in Japan. Academia. Literature and Language, 143, 133–142.Google Scholar
Matsumoto, K., & Britain, D.
(2003) Language choice and cultural hegemony: Linguistic symbols of dominance and resistance in Palau. In M. N. Dedaic & D. N. Nelson (Ed.), At war with words (pp. 321–349). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Matsumoto, K.
(2010) The role of social networks in the post-colonial multilingual island of Palau: Mechanisms of language maintenance and shift. Multilingua, 29, 133–165.Google Scholar
Maugham, S. W.
(1921) The circle. London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
McCormack, G., & Morris-Suzuki
(Eds) (2001) Multicultural Japan: Palaeolithic to postmodern. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
McLaren, P.
(1995). Critical pedagogy and predatory culture. London: Routledge,Google Scholar
McLaughlin, B.
(1995) Myths and misconceptions about 2nd language learning: What every teacher needs to unlearn. Fostering second language learning in young children: Principles and practices. Educational Practice Report 5: 60–75.Google Scholar
Mervio, M.
(1993) Research on Japan in a world afflicted by nationalism, racism and other biases. In Kivisto et al.. (Eds), Transient Societies. Japanese and Korean Studies in a Transitional World. Tampere: University of Tampere.Google Scholar
Miller, P.
(1997) The pest. Los Angeles, CA: Paramount.Google Scholar
Miller, R.
(1967) The Japanese Language. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Ministry of Education
(2006) Curriculum guidelines for schools in Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland: Ministry of Education.
Misumi, K.
(1965) Sanka Society. Tokyo: Asahi Shuppan.Google Scholar
(1966) Sanka Tales. Tokyo: Yomiuri Shuppan.Google Scholar
(1971) Research on the Sanka society. Tokyo: Hahanen Shuppan.Google Scholar
Miyawaki, K., Strange, W., Verbrugge, R., Liberman, A. M., Jenkins, J. J., & Fujimura, O.
(1975) An effect of linguistic experience: The discrimination of [r] and [l] by native speakers of Japanese and English. Perception and Psychophysics, 18, 331–340.Google Scholar
Moerman, M.
(1965) Ethnic identification in a complex civilizationAmerican Anthropologist 67: 1215–30.Google Scholar
Montello D., & Clark K.
(2010) Toponymy: What’s in a name? Santa Barbara, CA: UCSB, Dept of Geography.Google Scholar
Montgomery, M.
(1989) ‘Antilanguages’. In An Introduction to Language and Society. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Moore, T.
(1977) An experimental language handicap. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 30(107), 107–110.Google Scholar
Moran, J. F.
(1992) The Japanese and the Jesuits. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Moreno S., Bialystok E., Barac R., Schellenberg E. G., Cepeda N. J., & T Chau
(2011a) Short-term music training enhances verbal intelligence and executive function. Psychological Sciences, 22, 1425–1433.Google Scholar
Morioka, H.
(2009) Myoji no Himitsu [Secrets of family names]. Tokyo: Asahi Shimbun Publications.Google Scholar
Morgan, J., Christopher, O., & Rom, H.
(1979) Nicknames: Their origins and social consequences. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
Mori, M. G.
(1929) The pronunciation of Japanese. Tokyo: Herald-sha.Google Scholar
Murakawa, H., & Lambacher, S.
(1996) Improving Japanese pronunciation of American English [r] using electronic visual feedback. Center for Language Research 1995 Annual Review, 79–97.Google Scholar
Murasaki, K.
(1990) Hatsuon-shido no Hoho [How to teach Japanese pronunciation]. In S. Miyoko, Nihongo to Nihongo Kyoiku [Japanese and Japanese languages education] (pp. 72–91). Tokyo: Meiji-shoin.Google Scholar
Murota, H.
(1998) Mock English, mock Japanese. Term Paper, 6.Google Scholar
Nagai, Y.
(2015) Mock Japanese. Term Paper, 6.Google Scholar
Nagase, J.
(1996) The role of student club-members in the process of word spread. American Speech, 71(2), 136–141.Google Scholar
Nakagawa, H., & Okuda, O.
(2007) Nivkh and Ainu. In O. S. Miyaoka, The vanishing languages of the Pacific Rim (pp. 371–385). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Nakamura, K.
(1993) Referential structure in Japanese children’s narratives [Japanese/Korean Linguistics 3]. Stanford, CA: CSLI.Google Scholar
(1996) The use of polite language by Japanese preschool children. In J. G. Gerhardt, Social interaction, social context and language: A Festschrift for Susan Ervin-Tripp (pp. 84–71). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
(1997) Gender-based differences in the language of Japanese preschool children; A look at metalinguistic awareness. In E. Clark (Ed.), Proceedings of the 28th Child Language Research Forum (pp. 213–222). Stanford, CA: CSLI.Google Scholar
Nakamura, M., & Kindaichi, H.
(1955) Tokyogo. Kokugo Gakkai, 622–623.Google Scholar
Neuman, S. B.
(2004) Learning from poems & rhymes. Scholastic Parent & Child, 12(3), 32.Google Scholar
Neustupný, J. V.
(1978) Post-structural approaches to language: Language theory in a Japanese context. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.Google Scholar
NHK
(2004) San Jun Kan in Kyushu. TV Channel 1. Tokyo: Nippon Broadcasting Corporation.
Niedzielski, N. A., & Preston, D. R.
(1999) Folk Linguistics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Nikolova, D.
(2007) The language world of elementary schoolchildren in Japan: A contemporary perspective on Warabeuta, Manga and TV as observed in 3 public elementary schools in Tokyo (Unpublished PhD dissertation). International Christian University, Tokyo.Google Scholar
Nitschke, G.
(1976/2018) MA: Place, space, void. Kyoto Journal, 7–12.Google Scholar
Noguchi, M., & Fotos, S.
(2001) Studies in Japanese bilingualism. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Obata, K.
1990Chukoseitachi ga imeji suru ‘gaikokujin’ [High School pupils image of Foreigners]. Bessatsu Takarajima, 106, 106–109.Google Scholar
O’Conner, F.
(1952) Wise blood. New York, NY: Harcourt, Brace & Company.Google Scholar
Ochiai E., & Hosoya L. A.
(Eds.) (2014) Transformation of the intimate and the public in Asian modernity. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Ofis Publik ar Brezhoneg
(2013) Reports opab-opalb. Cles.
Ogawa, M.
(1993) The Hokkaido former aborigines protection act and assimilatory education. In N. Loos & T. Osanai (Eds.), Indigenous minorities in education: Australian and Japanese perspectives of their indigenous peoples, aborigines and the Torres Strait peoples (pp. 237–249). Tokyo: Sanyusha.Google Scholar
Ogden, C. K., & Richards, I. A.
(1923) The meaning of meaning. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
Ogino, T.
(1988) Nihongo ni okeru gairaigo no ryunyu jiki to gengo. Keiryo Kokugogaku, 16(4), 42–60.Google Scholar
O’Riagain, P.
(2001) Irish language reproduction 1981–1996. In J. Fishman (Ed.), Can threatended languages be saved? (pp. 195–214). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Okrand
(1985) The Klingon dictionary. New York, NY: Pocket Books.
Okubo, A.
(1969) Children language. Tokyo: Kokudosha.Google Scholar
Omura, J.
(2015) Mock Japanese. Term Paper, 6.Google Scholar
Omura, M.
(2019) Why can’t I keep my surname? An analysis of the fairness and welfare of the Japanese legal system. Meiji Gakuin University, Discussion Paper 17 December.Google Scholar
Ookawa, T.
(1998) Campus slang and language borrowing in a bilingual educational institution (). International Christian University, Tokyo.Google Scholar
Opie, I., & Opie, P.
(1959) The language and lore of schoolchildren. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Oshima, K.
(2002) Gairaigo usage in Japan: From cultural controversy to a new analytical framework (Unpublished PhD dissertation). International Christian University, Tokyo.Google Scholar
(2002) Semantic and structural shift patterns of Gairaigo in Japan . Intercultural Communication Studies, 12(4), 51–66.Google Scholar
Pennycook, A.
(2010) Language as social practice. Milton Park: Routledge.Google Scholar
Phillips, B. S.
(2004) Nicknames and sex role stereotypes. Sex Roles, 23(5–6), 281–289.Google Scholar
Plutschow, H. E.
(1995) Japan’s name culture: The significance of names in a religious, political and social context. Folkestone: Japan Library.Google Scholar
Pountain, D., & Robins, D.
(2000) Cool rules: Anatomy of an attitude. Chicago, IL: Reaktion Books.Google Scholar
Priedite, A.
(2002) On Finnish and German. Sociolinguistica International, 1–3.Google Scholar
Pulgram, E.
(1954) Theory of names. Berkeley, CA: American Name Society.Google Scholar
Pulvers, R.
(2005, April 3) Counterpoint. Japan Times.Google Scholar
Quackenbush, H. C.
(1989) Edo and Tokyo dialects. In C. Gerstle (Ed.), 18th Century Japan: Culture and society (pp. 73–86). Richmond, Surrey: Curzon.Google Scholar
Quine, W.
(1960) Word and object. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
Rampton, B.
(1995) Crossing: Language and ethnicity among adolescents. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Randerson, J.
(2001) English is toughest European language to read in. New Scientist, 4.Google Scholar
Rawls, A.
(2003) Harold Garfinkel. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Reeves, M.
(1995) Somebody scream! Rap music’s rise to prominence in the aftershock of black. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Reyes, A. & Adrienne, L.
(eds) (2009) Beyond yellow English: Toward a linguistic anthropology of Asian Pacific America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Riney T., Takeda T., & Ohta, M.
(2000) Segmentals and global foreign accent: The Japanese flap in EFL. TESOL Quarterly, 34(4), 711–737.Google Scholar
Rivers, W.
(1981) Teaching foreign language skills. Chicago, IL: Chicago Univeristy Press.Google Scholar
Roach, P.
(1992) Introducing phonetics. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
Robnett, R. D., Wertheimer, M., & Tenenbaum, H. R.
(2018) Does a woman’s marital surname choice influence perceptions of her husband? An analysis focusing on gender-typed traits and relationship power dynamics. Sex Roles, 79, 59–71.Google Scholar
Sallabank, J.
(2011) Language policy for endangered languages. In P. K. Austin & J. Sallabank (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of endangered languages (pp. 277–290). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Sanada, S., & Kishie, S.
(1990) Osaka-shi Hogen no Doko. Ministry of Education Grant Report. In S. Sanada, D. Long, Y. Asahi, & Y. Chien (Eds.), Japan sociolinguistics illustrated. Tokyo: Akiyama Shoten.Google Scholar
Sasaki, R.
(Director). (2020) Sanka: Nomads of the mountains [Motion picture].Google Scholar
Sato, K., & Yoneda, M.
(1999) Dōnaru Nihon no Kotoba, Hōgen to Kyōtsūgo no Yukue. Tokyo: The Taishūkan Shoten.Google Scholar
Sato-Rossberg, N.
(2012) Translating place-names in a colonial context. In N. Sato-Rossberg & J. Wakabayashi (Eds.), Translation and translation studies in the Japanese context (pp. 134–151). London: Continuum.Google Scholar
Saunders, G.
(2018) Le Kov [Cornish language pop music album]. London: Heavenly Recordings.Google Scholar
Schreiber, M.
(2008, October 7) New Japanese makes inroads into Chinese vocabulary. Japan Times, 8.Google Scholar
Scott, C.
(1966) Preliminaries to English teaching. Tokyo: English Language Education Council.Google Scholar
Scottish Government
(2010) Pupils in Scotland 2010 Edinburgh: Scottish Government.
Scotus, D.
(1987) Duns Scotus: Philosophical writings (Allan B. Wolter, Trans.). Indianapolis, IN: Hackett.Google Scholar
Shaw, G. B.
(1913) Pygmalion. London: Constable.Google Scholar
Sheldon, A., & Strange, W.
(1982) The acquisition of /r/ and /l/ by Japanese learners of English: Evidence that speech production can precede speech perception. Applied Psycholinguistics, 3, 243–261.Google Scholar
Shigeko, O., & Shibamoto-Smith, J. S.
(Eds.) (2004) Language, gender, and ideology: Cultural models and real people. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Shigematsu-Murphy, S.
(2012) When half is whole: Multiethnic Asian American identities. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Shillony, B.-A.
(1984) The princess of the dragon palace. A new Shinto sect is born. Monumenta Nipponica, 39(2), 177–182.Google Scholar
Shiraishi, H.
(2001) Prosodic structure and Sandhi phenomena in the Saru dialect of Ainu. In T. Nishihara & J. van de Weijer, Issues in Japanese phonology and morphology (pp. 141–157). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Shukan, B.
(Ed.) (1994) Kotobagari to Sabetsu [Language and discrimination]. Tokyo: Bungei Shunju.Google Scholar
Sibata, T.
(1956) Department store slang. Gengo Seikatsu, 97, 46.Google Scholar
(1960) Fashion word and language leader. Gengo Seikatsu, 105, 124.Google Scholar
(1975) Some problems in Japanese sociolinguistics. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
Siddle, R.
(1996) Race, resistance, and the Ainu of Japan. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Simmel, G.
(1903) The metropolis and mental Life. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
Sims-Williams, P.
(2006) Ancient Celtic place-names in Europe and Asia Minor. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Skutnabb-Kangas, T.
(2000) Linguistic genocide in education ? Or worldwide diversity and human rights? Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Smith, A.
(1981) The ethnic revival. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Smolicz, J.
(1979) Culture and education in a plural society. Canberra: Curriculum Development Centre.Google Scholar
Snyder, G. & Shigematsu, S.
(2008) A zen forest: Sayings of the masters (Companions for the journey). New York, NY: White Pine Press.Google Scholar
Sondergaard, G.
(1995) Narning. In R. E. Asher (Ed.), The encylopedia of language and linguistics (pp. 2674–2679). Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
Sontag, S.
(1964) Notes on camp. In F. Cleto (Ed.), Camp: Queer aesthetics and the performing subject: A reader (pp. 53–65). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Spiers, B.
(1998) Spice world. London: Columbia.Google Scholar
Spolsky, B.
(2009) Language management. Cambridge: Cambridge Universty Press.Google Scholar
Steiner, F.
(1956) Taboo. London: Cohen and West.Google Scholar
Strange, W., Akahane-Yamada, R., Kubo, R., Trent, S. A., & Nishi, K.
(2001) Effects of consonantal context on perceptual assimilation of American English vowels by Japanese listeners. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 109(4), 1691–1704. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sugimoto, T.
(1971) Japanese in Taiwan. Current Trends in Linguistics, 8, 969–995.Google Scholar
Sukigara, R.
(1995) Language and discrimination: A critical examination of ‘sabetsugo’ in the media (Unpublished MA thesis). International Christian University, Tokyo.Google Scholar
Suthers L., & Niland, A.
(2007) An exploration of young children’s engagement with music experiences. In K. Smithrim & R. B. Uptitis (Eds.), Listen to their voices: Research and practice in early childhood music (pp. 19–32). Waterloo, ON: Canadian Music Educators’ Association.Google Scholar
Suzuki, M. J.
(2000) Child-rearing and educational practices in the United States and Japan: Comparative perspectives. Hyogo Kyoiku Daigaku Kenkyu Kiyo [Hyogo University of Teacher Education Journal], 20(1), 177–186.Google Scholar
Swaminathan, S., & Gopinath, J. K.
(2013) Music training and second-language English comprehension and vocabulary skills in Indian children. Psychological Studies, 58, 164–170.Google Scholar
Tachitani, M.
(1985) Tabu-go ni kan suru shakaigengogakuteki ichikosatsu [A sociolinguistic study of taboo words]. Tokyo: Kenkyusha.Google Scholar
Tadano, J.
(1979) Sanka tales. Junkan Dorumen, 20.Google Scholar
Takagi, M.
(1992) Sabetsu-yogo no Kiso Chishiki [Basic knowledge of discriminatory language]. Tokyo: Kenkyusha.Google Scholar
Takagi, N.
(1993) Perception of American English /r/ and /l/ by adult Japanese learners of English: A unified view (Unpublished PhD dissertation). University of California, Irvine.Google Scholar
(1995) Signal detection modeling of Japanese learners’ /r/-/l/ labeling behavior in a one-interval identification task. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 97(1), 563–574.Google Scholar
Takahashi, I.
(2015) Mock Japanese. Term paper, 6.Google Scholar
Takahashi, K., & Ninomiya, S.
(1995) Fūfu Bessei e no Shōtai. Tokyo: Yukaikaku.Google Scholar
Takemae, E.
(2002) Allied occupation of Japan. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
Tamiya, N., Kashiwabara, S., & Sakai, K.
(2001) Tamahiyo Nazuke Hyakka, Ketteiban [Tamahiyo dictionary of personal names, definitive edition]. Tokyo: Benesse Corporation.Google Scholar
Tamura, S.
(1996) The Ainu-Japanese dictionary, Saru dialect (I. R. L. McDonnell, Trans.). Tokyo: Sofukan.Google Scholar
Tanaka, K.
(1995) The new feminist movement in Japan, 1970–1990. In A. Kameda & K. Fujimura-Fanselow (Eds.), Japanese Women: New Feminist Perspectives on the Past, Present and Future (pp. 343–352). New York, NY: The Feminist Press.Google Scholar
Taniguchi, H., & Kaufman, G.
(2020) Attitudes toward married persons’ surnames in Twenty-First Century Japan. Gender Issues, 37, 205–222. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Tanikawa, K.
(1998) Compilation of Japanese folk culture materials. Sanka and Matagi, 1.Google Scholar
The Asahi Shimbun
(2004, April) The Prime Minister visits the Japanese community in Brazil. Morning Issue. The Asahi Shimbun Newspaper.
The Yomiuri Shimbun
(2012) Contractions drive grammar hawk nuts.
Todd, L.
(1979) Pidgins and creoles. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
Tokyo Bengoshi Kai
(1992) Korekara no Sentaku fūfu Bessei. Tokyo: Yukaikaku.
Tokyo Metropolitan Board of Education
(1979) Shiseki to jinbutsu de tsuzuru Tokyo to no rekishi [Historic places and people in the history of Tokyo]. Tokyo: Primary School Social Studies Research Council.
Tolomei, C.
(1530/55) Il Cesano de la lingua toscana. Firenze.Google Scholar
Torpey, P.
(2006, March 28) Modern teaching tools capitalize on Japan cool. Japan Times, 15.Google Scholar
Trosset, C. S.
(1986) The social identity of Welsh learners. Language in Society, 15(2), 165–191.Google Scholar
Tsuneyoshi, R. K.
(1992) Ningen keisei no nichibei hikaku [Comparative studies in formation of human characters in the United States and Japan]. Tokyo: Chukou Shinsho.Google Scholar
Tsutomu, A.
(1997) Japanese Phonetics: Theory and practice. Munich: Lincom.Google Scholar
Turner, D.
(2008, March 14) Exotic languages blow for private schools. Financial Times.Google Scholar
UC Center for Chinese Studies
(2004, June 11) A sampling of Japanese comment on “Lost in Translation”. Retrieved from UCLA Center for Chinese Studies: https://​www​.international​.ucla​.edu​/ccs​/article​/11981
Uldall, E.
(1974) Some remarks on the Japanese variphone r and the concept of free variation. In World Papers in Phonetics: Festschrift for Dr. Onishi’s Kiju (pp. 505–517). Tokyo: Phonetic Society of Japan.Google Scholar
Umehara, R.
(1997) Main issues in the problem of Fūfu Bessei. Unpublished report for Gender Studies Center. Tokyo: International Christian University.Google Scholar
UNESCO
(2013) Atlas of the world’s languages in danger. Retrieved from http://​www​.unesco​.org​/languages​-atlas/
Van Dijk, T.
(1993) Elite discourse and racism. London: Sage.Google Scholar
Van Meel, L.
(2016) 2016. The roots of ethnolects: A sociophonological study in Amsterdam and Nijmegen. Utrecht, Netherlands: LOT.Google Scholar
Van der Post, L.
The seed and the sower. London: Hogarth.
Vance, T. J.
(1986) An introduction to Japanese phonology. New York, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
Voloshinov, V.
(1973). Marxism and the philosophy of language. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Vovin, A.
(1993) A reconstruction of proto-Ainu. Leiden: E. J. Brill.Google Scholar
Wallman, S.
(1979) Social anthropology of work. New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Wang, Y.
(2016) Study on campus slang from the perspective of semiotics. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 6(3), 642–647.Google Scholar
Washizu, N.
(1995) Singing mother goose nursery rhymes. Tokyo: Kyuryudo.Google Scholar
Weaver, S.
(2011) Jokes, rhetoric and embodied racism: A rhetorical discourse analysis of the logics of racist jokes on the internet. Ethnicities, 11(4), 413–435. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Webern, A.
(1963) The path to the new music (L. Black, Trans.). London: Universal Edition.Google Scholar
Weinreich, U.
(1952) Languages in contact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Williams, M.
(1963) Folklore and place-names. Folklore, 74(2), 361–376.Google Scholar
Winchester, M.
(2009) On the dawn of a new national Ainu policy: The ‘Ainu’ as a situation today. The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus, 7(41), 3–09.Google Scholar
Wittgenstein, L.
(1922) Tractatus logico-philosophicus. London: Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
Xenakis, I.
(1971) Formalized music: Thought and mathematics in Ccomposition. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
Yamada, R., & Tohkura, Y.
(1992) Perception of American English /r/ and /l/ by native speakers of Japanese. In Y. V.-B. Tohkura, Speech perception, production and linguistic structure. (pp. 155–174). Amsterdam: IOS Press.Google Scholar
Yamamoto, K.
(2003) Some evidence for the language fellowship of children. Occasional note. Tokyo: International Christian University.Google Scholar
Yamamoto, M.
(2001) Language use in interlingual families: A Japanese- English sociolinguistic study. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Yamamura, K.
(1990) The growth of commerce in medieval Japan. In K. Yamamura (Ed.), The Cambridge history of Japan: Volume 3, Medieval Japan (p. 347). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Yeats, W.
(1916) The fascination with what is difficult. Responsibilities and other poems. New York, NY: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Ye, Liu
(2020) China’s two-child policy means more babies named after mom. Japan Times. July 23.Google Scholar
Ynsee Gaelg
. (2013) This website from Culture Vannin supports the Manx language strategy. Retrieved from https://​www​.learnmanx​.comGoogle Scholar
Yomiuri, S.
(2012, March 9) Contractions drive grammar hawk nuts.Google Scholar
Yonekawa, A.
(1997) Gendai no wakamono kotoba [Young people’s speech]. Tokyo: Maruzen.Google Scholar
Yoshizumi, K.
(1995) Marriage and family: Past and present. In A. Kameda & K. Fujimura-Fanselow (Eds.), Japanese Women: New Feminist Perspectives on the Past, Present and Future (pp. 183–197). New York, NY: The Feminist Press.Google Scholar
Subjects
BIC Subject: CFB – Sociolinguistics
BISAC Subject: LAN009050 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / Sociolinguistics