Bermudian English

A sociohistorical and linguistic profile

| University of Basel
HardboundForthcoming
ISBN 9789027208545 | EUR 99.00 | USD 149.00
 
e-BookOrdering information
ISBN 9789027260048 | EUR 99.00 | USD 149.00
 
Bermudian English. A sociohistorical and linguistic profile focuses on a hitherto severely under-researched variety of English. The book traces the origins and development of Bermudian English, so as to situate the variety within the canon of other lesser-known varieties of English, and provides a first in-depth description of its variable morphosyntactic structure. Relying on sociolinguistic interview data and combining qualitative, typological and quantitative, variationist analyses of selected morphosyntactic features, it sheds light on structural affiliations of Bermudian English and argues for a two-way transfer pattern where Bermudian English plays an important role in the development of a number of other English(-based) varieties in the wider geographical region. Complementing existing studies which document such varieties, this book contributes to the body of research that describes the diversity of English(-based) varieties around the globe, filling a notable gap.
[Varieties of English Around the World, G64]  Expected May 2021.  xv, 231 pp.
Publishing status: Printing
Table of Contents
List of tables
vii–ix
List of figures
xi–xii
List of maps and pictures
xiii
Acknowledgments
xvii
Chapter 1. Introduction
2–9
Chapter 2. The theoretical framework of Bermudian English as a contact-based variety
12–38
Chapter 3. Bermuda: 400 years of history
40–73
Chapter 4. Methodology and data
76–88
Chapter 5. Bermudian English morphosyntax: Qualitative and quantitative analyses
90–178
Chapter 6. Conclusion
180–187
References
189–201
Appendices
203–228
Appendices
203–228
Index
229
References

References

Primary data

Kortmann, B. & Lunkenheimer, K.
2011The Electronic World Atlas of Varieties of English. http://​ewave​-atlas​.org/ (1 August 2017).Google Scholar

Secondary sources

Aceto, M. & Williams, J. P.
(eds) 2003Contact Englishes of the Eastern Caribbean [Varieties of English Around the World G30]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Agar, M. H.
1996The Professional Stranger. An Informal Introduction to Ethnography. San Diego CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Anderwald, L.
2001 Was/Were variation in non-standard British English today. English World-Wide 22: 1–21.Google Scholar
Anttila, A.
2004Variation and phonological theory. In Chambers, Trudgill & Schilling-Estes (eds), 206–243.Google Scholar
Ayres, H. M.
1933Bermudian English. American Speech 8: 3–10.Google Scholar
Babel, M.
2010Dialect divergence and convergence in New Zealand English. Language in Society 39: 437–456.Google Scholar
Baker, P.
1999Investigating the origin and diffusion of shared features among the Atlantic English Creoles. In Baker & Bruyn (eds), 315–364.Google Scholar
Baker, P. & Bruyn, A.
(eds) 1999St Kitts and the Atlantic Creoles. London: University of Westminster Press.Google Scholar
Baker, P. & Huber, M.
2001Atlantic, Pacific, and world-wide features in English-lexicon contact languages. English World-Wide 22: 157–208.Google Scholar
Baldacchino, G.
2007Introducing a world of islands. In A World of Islands: An Island Studies Reader, G. Baldacchino (ed.), 1–29. Canada: Institute of Island Studies.Google Scholar
Barker, D.
2011Geographies of opportunity, geographies of constraint. In The Caribbean. A History of the Region and Its Peoples, S. Palmié & F. A. Scarano (eds), 25–38. Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Bauer, L.
2008A question of identity: A response to Trudgill. Language in Society 37: 270–273.Google Scholar
Bayley, R.
1994Consonant cluster reduction in Tejano English. Language Variation and Change 6: 303–326.Google Scholar
Bermudian English: Vocabulary, Dialects and Borrowings. n.d. Ms, Bermudian National Library
Bernhard, V.
1985Bermuda and Virginia in the seventeenth century: A comparative view. Journal of Social History 19: 57–70.Google Scholar
1988Beyond the Chesapeake: The contrasting status of blacks in Bermuda, 1616–1663. The Journal of Southern History 54: 545–564.Google Scholar
1999Slaves and Slaveholders in Bermuda. 1616–1782. Columbia MO: University of Missouri Press.Google Scholar
2010Religion, politics, and witchcraft in Bermuda, 1651–55. The William and Mary Quarterly 67: 677–708.Google Scholar
Bisang, W.
2004Dialectology and typology – An integrative perspective. In Dialectology Meets Typology, B. Kortmann (ed.), 11–45. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Bowern, C.
2013Fieldwork in contact situations. In The Handbook of Language Contact, R. Hickey (ed.), 340–357. Malden MA: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
Britain, D.
1997aDialect contact and phonological reallocation: ‘Canadian raising’ in the English Fens. Language in Society 26: 15–46.Google Scholar
1997bDialect contact, focusing and phonological rule complexity: The koinéisation of Fenland English. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 4: 141–170.Google Scholar
2001aIf A changes to B, make sure A exists: A case study on the origins of New Zealand English. Essex Research Reports in Linguistics 38: 39–79.Google Scholar
2001bWhere did it all start? Dialect contact, the ‘founder principle’ and the so-called (-own) split in New Zealand English. Transactions of the Philological Society 99: 1–27.Google Scholar
2002aDiffusion, levelling, simplification and reallocation in past tense BE in the English Fens. Journal of Sociolinguistics 6: 16–43.Google Scholar
2002bSpace and spatial diffusion. In Chambers, Trudgill & Schilling-Estes (eds), 603–637.Google Scholar
2006Language/dialect contact. In Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, Vol. 6, K. Brown (ed.), 651–656. Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
2008When is a change not a change? A case study on the dialect origins of New Zealand English. Language Variation and Change 20: 187–223.Google Scholar
2009aOne foot in the grave? Dialect death, dialect contact, and dialect birth in England. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 196/7: 121–155.Google Scholar
2009bLanguage and space: The variationist approach. In Language and Space. An International Handbook of Linguistic Variation, P. Auer & J. E. Schmidt (eds), 142–163. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
2010aSupralocal regional dialect levelling. In Language and Identities, C. Llamas & D. Watt (eds), 193–204. Edinburgh: EUP.Google Scholar
2010bConceptualisations of geographic space in linguistics. In Language and Space: An International Handbook of Linguistic Variation, A. Lameli, R. Kehrein & S. Rabanus (eds), 69–97. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
2010cDialect contact, focusing and phonological rule complexity: The koineisation of Fenland English. In The Sociolinguistics Reader, M. Meyerhoff & E. Schleef (eds), 231–247. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
2012aKoineization and cake baking: Reflections on methods in dialect contact research. In Methods in Contemporary Linguistics, A. Ender, A. Leemann & B. Wälchli (eds), 219–237. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
2012bCountering the urbanist agenda in variationist sociolinguistics: Dialect contact, demographic change and the rural-urban dichotomy. In Dialectological and Folk Dialectological Concepts of Space, S. Hansen, C. Schwarz, P. Stoeckle & T. Streck (eds), 12–30. Berlin: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
2013aContact and dialectology. In The Handbook of Language Contact, R. Hickey (ed.), 208–229. Malden MA: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
2013bSpace, diffusion and mobility. In The Handbook of Language Variation and Change, 2nd edn, J. K. Chambers & N. Schilling (eds). Blackwell Reference Online. < http://​www​.blackwellreference​.com​/subscriber​/tocnode​.html​?id​=g9780470659946​_chunk​_g978047065994623 (2 July 2015).Google Scholar
2013cThe role of mundane mobility and contact in dialect death and dialect birth. In English as a Contact Language, D. Schreier & M. Hundt (eds), 165–181. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
Britain, D. & Fox, S.
2009The regularisation of the hiatus resolution system in British English: A contact-induced ‘vernacular universal’? In Filppula, Klemola & Paulasto (eds), 177–205.Google Scholar
Britain, D. & Sudbury, A.
2002There’s sheep and there’s penguins: Convergence, ‘drift’ and ‘slant’ in New Zealand and Falkland Island English. In Language Change: The Interplay of Internal, External and Extra-Lingusitic Factors, M. C. Jones & E. Esch (eds), 209–240. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Britain, D. & Trudgill, P.
1999Migration, new dialect formation and sociolinguistic refunctionalisation: Reallocation as an outcome of dialect contact . Transactions of the Philological Society 97: 245–256.Google Scholar
Brockman, W. E.
2009Bermuda: Growth of a Naval Base 1795–1932. In W. R. Cooke (ed.). Bermuda: Bermuda Maritime Museum Press.Google Scholar
Brubaker, R.
2005The ‘diaspora’ diaspora. Ethnic and Racial Studies 28: 1–19.Google Scholar
Census of Population and Housing. Final Results
Chambers, J. K.
2002Dynamics of dialect convergence. Journal of Sociolinguistics 6: 117–130.Google Scholar
2003Sociolinguistic Theory: Linguistic Variation and Its Social Implications. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
2004Dynamic typology and vernacular universals. In Dialectology Meets Typology, B. Kortmann (ed.), 127–145. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
2012Global features of English vernaculars. In Areal Features of the Anglophone World, R. Hickey (ed.), 261–276. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Chambers, J. K., Trudgill, P. & Schilling-Estes, N.
(eds) 2002/2004The Handbook of Language Variation and Change. Malden MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Cheshire, J. & Fox S.
2009Was/were variation: A perspective from London. Language Variation and Change 21: 1–38.Google Scholar
Cheshire, J., Fox, S., Kerswill P. & Torgersen, E.
2008Ethnicity, friendship network and social practices as the motor of dialect change: Linguistic innovation in London. Sociolinguistica 22: 1–23.Google Scholar
Cheshire, J., Kerswill, P., Fox, S. & Torgersen, E.
2011Contact, the feature pool and the speech community: The emergence of Multicultural London English. Journal of Sociolinguistics 15: 151–196.Google Scholar
Childs, B., Reaser, J. & Wolfram, W.
2003Defining ethnic varieties in the Bahamas. Phonological accommodation in Black and White Enclave Communities. In Aceto & Williams (eds), 1–28.Google Scholar
Christian, D., Wolfram, W. & Dube, N.
1988Variation and Change in Geographically Isolated Communities: Appalachian and Ozark English. Tuscaloosa AL: University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
CIA
The World Factbook 2020. Washington DC: Central Intelligence Agency, <https://​www​.cia​.gov​/library​/publications​/the​-world​-factbook​/geos​/bd​.html (27 July 2020).
Collins, P. & Yao, X.
2012Modals and quasi-modals in New Englishes. In Mapping Unity and Diversity World-Wide [Varieties of English Around the World G43], M. Hundt & U. Gut (eds), 35–53. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Conyers Dill and Pearman
2013Bermuda Status and Permanent Residents’ Certificates. www​.conyersdill​.com​/publication​-files​/Pub​_BDA​_Bermuda​_Status​_and​_PRC​-0​.pdf (January 2016).Google Scholar
Coupland, N.
1984Accommodation at work: Some phonological data and their implications. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 46: 49–70.Google Scholar
Coupland, N. & Giles, H.
1988Introduction: The communicative contexts of accommodation. Language and Communication 3: 175–182.Google Scholar
Craven, W. F.
1937An introduction to the history of Bermuda, I/II. The William and Mary Quarterly 17: 176–215.Google Scholar
1937An introduction to the history of Bermuda, III/IV. The William and Mary Quarterly 17: 317–362.Google Scholar
1938An introduction to the history of Bermuda, VI. The William and Mary Quarterly 18: 13–63.Google Scholar
Cutler, C.
2003English in the Turks and Caicos Islands: A look at Grand Turk. In Aceto & Williams (eds), 51–80.Google Scholar
Cutler, C., Hackert, S. & Seymour, C.
2006Bermuda and the Bahamas. In Sociolinguistics: An International Handbook of the Science of Language and Society, Vol. 3, 2nd edn, U. Ammon, N. Dittmar, K. J. Mattheier & P. Trudgill (eds), 2066–2073. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Daleszynska, A.
n.d. Analysing linguistic variation with Rbrul – A step-by-step guide. <http://​www​.danielezrajohnson​.com​/daleszynska​_rbrul​.pdf (May 2017).
Davenport, M. & Hannahs, S. J.
2005Introducing Phonetics and Phonology, 2nd edn. London: Hodder Arnold.Google Scholar
Davydova, J., Hilbert, M., Pietsch, L. & Siemund, P.
2011Comparing varieties of English: Problems and perspectives. In Linguistic Universals and Language Variation, P. Siemund (ed.), 291–323. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Deuber, D.
2014English in the Caribbean: Variation, Style and Standards in Jamaica and Trinidad. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
Eberle, N. & Schreier, D.
2013African Bermudian English and the Caribbean connection. English World-Wide 34: 279–304.Google Scholar
Eckert, P.
2000Language Variation as Social Practice. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Eisikovits, E.
1991Variation in subject-verb agreement in Inner Sydney English. In English around the World: Sociolinguistic Perspectives, J. Cheshire (ed.), 235–255. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
Esman, M. J.
1996Diasporas and international relations. In Ethnicity, J. Hutchinson & A. Smith (eds), 316–320. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
Fasold, R. W.
1972Tense Marking in Black English: A Linguistic and Social Analysis. Arlington VA: Center for Applied Linguistics.Google Scholar
Feagin, C.
1979Variation and Change in Alabama English: A Sociolinguistic Study of the White Community. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
Filppula, M., Klemola, J. & Paulasto, H.
2009Vernacular universals and language contacts: An overview. In Filppula, Klemola & Paulasto (eds), 1–16.Google Scholar
(eds) 2009Vernacular Universals and Language Contacts. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Fletcher, L.
2008Reading the news: Pitcairn Island at the beginning of the 21st century. Island Studies Journal 3: 57–72.Google Scholar
Fubler, B.
Forthcoming. PhD dissertation.
Games, A.
1997The English Atlantic world: A view from London. Pennsylvania History 64: 46–72.Google Scholar
2006aAtlantic history: Definitions, challenges, and opportunities. American Historical Review 111: 741–757.Google Scholar
2006bBeyond the Atlantic: English globetrotters and transoceanic connections. The William and Mary Quarterly 63: 675–692.Google Scholar
Gillis, J.
2004Islands of the Mind. How the Human Imagination Created the Atlantic World. New York NY: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Görlach, M.
1987Colonial lag? The alleged conservative character of American English and other ‘colonial’ varieties. English World-Wide 8: 41–60.Google Scholar
Graff, G. & Phelan, J.
(eds) 2000 William Shakespeare . The Tempest. A Case Study in Critical Controversy. Boston MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s.Google Scholar
Greene, J. M.
1901Bermuda (alias Somers Islands). Historical sketch. Bulletin of the American Geographical Society 33: 220–242.Google Scholar
Gries, S. T.
2013 Statistics for Linguistics with R . A Practical Introduction, 2nd edn. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.Google Scholar
Guy, G.
1980Variation in the group and the individual: The case of final stop deletion. In Locating Language in Time and Space, W. Labov (ed.), 1–36. New York NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
1991Explanation in variable phonology: An exponential model of morphological constraints. Language Variation and Change 3: 1–22.Google Scholar
Hackert, S.
2010ICE Bahamas: Why and how? ICAME Journal 34: 41–53.Google Scholar
2012Bahamian Creole. In The Mouton World Atlas of Variation in English, B. Kortmann & K. Lunkenheimer (eds), 180–196. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Hall, R.
2018Staging Language in Bermuda: Phonology and Parodic Performance of Bermudian English. PhD dissertation, University of Oxford.Google Scholar
2019The MOUTHS of others: The linguistic performance of race in Bermuda. Journal of Sociolinguistics 23: 223–243.Google Scholar
Hay, J. & Schreier, D.
2004Reversing the trajectory of language change: Subject-verb agreement with BE in New Zealand English. Language Variation and Change 16: 209–235.Google Scholar
Hazen, K.
1998The birth of a variant: Evidence for a tripartite negative past be paradigm . Language Variation and Change 10: 221–244.Google Scholar
2000Subject-verb concord in a post-insular dialect: The gradual persistence of dialect patterning. Journal of English Linguistics 28: 127–144.Google Scholar
2014A new role for an ancient variable in Appalachia: Paradigm leveling and standardization in West Virginia. Language Variation and Change 26: 77–102.Google Scholar
Hickey, R.
2003aHow do dialects get the features they have? On the process of new dialect formation. In Motives for Language Change, R. Hickey (ed.), 213–239. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
2003bHow and why supraregional varieties arise. In Insights into Late Modern English, M. Dossena & C. Jones (eds), 351–373. Bern: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
2004English dialect input to the Caribbean. In Legacies of Colonial English. Studies in Transported Dialects, R. Hickey (ed.), 326–359. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
2012Introduction. In Areal Features of the Anglophone World, R. Hickey (ed.), 1–19. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Higgins, C.
2017Space, place, and language. In The Routledge Handbook of Migration and Language, S. Canagarajah (ed.), 102–116. New York NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Holliday, N. R.
2016Bermudian English: An acoustic analysis of vowels with implications for sociolinguistic variation. Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics 29: 1–10.Google Scholar
Holm, J.
1986The spread of English in the Caribbean area. In Focus on the Caribbean [Varieties of English Around the World G8], M. Görlach & J. Holm (eds), 1–22. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Holmes, J. & Bell, A.
1994Consonant cluster reduction in New Zealand English. Wellington Working Papers in Linguistics 6: 56–82.Google Scholar
Huber, M.
1999On the origin and diffusion of Atlantic English Creoles: First attestations from Krio. In Baker & Bruyn (eds), 365–378.Google Scholar
Hundt, M.
2014Zero articles in Indian Englishes: A comparison of primary and secondary diaspora situations. In English in the Indian Diaspora [Varieties of English Around the World G50], M. Hundt & D. Sharma (eds), 131–170. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Imami, M.
Forthcoming. PhD dissertation.
Jackson, J. H.
1988Bermuda. Newton Abbot: David and Charles.Google Scholar
Jarvis, M. J.
2002Maritime masters and seafaring slaves in Bermuda, 1680–1783. The William and Mary Quarterly 59: 585–622.Google Scholar
2010aIn the Eye of All Trade: Bermuda, Bermudians and the Maritime Atlantic World, 1680–1783. Chapel Hill NC: Published for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, Virginia, by the University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
2010bThe binds of the anxious mariner: Patriarchy, paternalism, and the maritime culture of eighteenth-century Bermuda. Journal of Early Modern History 14: 75–117.Google Scholar
Johnson, D. E.
2009Getting off the GoldVarb standard: Introducing rbrul for mixed-effects variable rule analysis. Language and Linguistics Compass 3: 359–383.Google Scholar
2010-2014Progress in regression: Why natural language data calls for mixed-effects models. <http://​www​.danielezrajohnson​.com​/johnson​_2014​.pdf (August 2017).Google Scholar
Johnstone, B., Andrus, J. & Danielson, A. E.
2006Mobility, indexicality, and the enregisterment of ‘Pittsburghese’. Journal of English Linguistics 34: 77–104.Google Scholar
Kerswill, P.
1993Rural dialect speakers in an urban speech community: The role of dialect contact in defining a sociolinguistic concept. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 3: 33–56.Google Scholar
1996Milton Keynes and dialect levelling in South-Eastern British English. In English: History, Diversity and Change, D. Graddol, D. Leith & J. Swann (eds), 292–300. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
2004Koineization and accommodation. In Chambers, Trudgill & Schilling-Estes (eds), 669–702.Google Scholar
2006Migration and language / Migration und Sprache. In Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft. Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science, Vol. 3.3, E. Wiegand (ed.), 2271–2285. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
2013Contact and new varieties. In The Handbook of Language Contact, R. Hickey (ed.), 230–251. Malden MA: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
Kerswill, P. & Trudgill, P.
2005The birth of new dialects. In Dialect Change: Convergence and Divergence in European Languages, P. Auer, F. Hinskens & P. Kerswill (eds), 196–220. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
Kerswill, P. & Williams, A.
1992Some principles of dialect contact: Evidence from the new town of Milton Keynes. In Working Papers 1992, I. Philippaki-Warburton & R. Ingham (eds), 68–90. Reading: Department of Linguistic Science, University of Reading.Google Scholar
2005New towns and koineisation: Linguistic and social correlates. Linguistics 43: 1023–1048.Google Scholar
Kerswill, P., Cheshire, J., Fox, S. & Torgersen, E.
2013English as a contact language: The role of children and adolescents. In English as a Contact Language, D. Schreier & M. Hundt (eds), 258–282. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
Kirkpatrick, A.
2007 World Englishes . Implications for International Communication and English Language Teaching. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
Kortmann, B.
2004Introduction. In Dialectology Meets Typology, B. Kortmann (ed.), 1–10. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Kortmann, B. & Lunkenheimer, K.
2011The Electronic World Atlas of Varieties of English. http://​www​.ewave​-atlas​.org/ (August 2017).Google Scholar
2012The Mouton World Atlas of Variation in English. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Kortmann, B. & Szmrecsanyi, B.
2004Global synopsis – Morphological and syntactic variation in English. In A Handbook of Varieties of English, Vol. II: Morphology and Syntax, B. Kortmann, E. W. Schneider, K. Burridge, R. Mesthrie & C. Upton (eds), 1122–1182. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
2011Parameters of morphosyntactic variation in World Englishes: Prospects and limits of searching for universals. In Linguistic Universals and Language Variation, P. Siemund (ed.), 264–290. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Kortmann, B., Schneider, E. W., Burridge, K., Mesthrie, R. & Upton, C.
(eds) 2004 A Handbook of Varieties of English , Vol. II: Morphology and Syntax. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Labov, W.
1963The social motivation of a sound change. Word 19: 273–307.Google Scholar
(ed.) 1972Sociolinguistic Patterns. Philadelphia PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
1995Resyllabification. In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Language Variation and Linguistic Theory, R. van Hout & F. Hinskens (eds). <http://​www​.ling​.upenn​.edu​/~wlabov​/Papers​/Resyllab​/Resyllabification​.html (2 January 2015).Google Scholar
2004Quantitative analysis of linguistic variation. Quantitative Analyse sprachlicher Variation. In Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft. Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science, Vol. 3.1, E. Wiegand (ed.), 7–21. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Le Page, R. & Tabouret-Keller, A.
1985Acts of Identity: Creole-Based Approaches to Language and Ethnicity. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
Llamas, C., Watt, D. & Johnson, D. E.
2009Linguistic accommodation and the salience of national identity markers in a border town. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 28: 381–407.Google Scholar
Mair, C.
2003Kreolismen und verbales Identitätsmanagement im geschriebenen jamaikanischen Englisch. In Zwischen Ausgrenzung und Hybridisierung: Zur Konstruktion von Identitäten aus kulturwissenschaftlicher Perspektive [Identitäten und Alteritäten 14], E. Vogel, A. Napp & W. Lutterer (eds), 79–96. Würzburg: Ergon.Google Scholar
Mallinson, C. & Wolfram, W.
2002Dialect accommodation in a bi-ethnic mountain enclave community: More evidence on the development of African American Vernacular English. Language in Society 31: 743–775.Google Scholar
Meechan, M. & Foley, M.
1994On resolving disagreement: Linguistic theory and variation – There’s bridges. Language Variation and Change 6(1): 63–85.Google Scholar
Mesthrie, R. & Bhatt, R. M.
2010World Englishes: The Study of New Linguistic Varieties. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
Meyerhoff, M.
2006aIntroducing Sociolinguistics. New York NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
2006bLinguistic change, sociohistorical context, and theory-building in variationist linguistics: New dialect-formation in New Zealand. English Language and Linguistics 10: 173–194.Google Scholar
Meyerhoff, M. & Walker, J. A.
2013An existential problem: The sociolinguistic monitor and variation in existential constructions on Bequia (St Vincent and the Grenadines). Language in Society 42: 407–428.Google Scholar
Milroy, L.
1987Observing and Analysing Natural Language: A Critical Account of Sociolinguistic Method. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Milroy, J., Milroy, L. & Hartley, S.
1994Local and supra-local change in British English: The case of glottalisation. English World-Wide 15: 1–15.Google Scholar
Montgomery, M.
1989Exploring the roots of Appalachian English. English World-Wide 10: 227–278.Google Scholar
Moore, E.
2011Interaction between social category and social practice: Explaining was/were variation. Language Variation and Change 22: 347–371.Google Scholar
Mufwene, S. S.
1996The founder principle in creole genesis. Diachronica 13: 83–134.Google Scholar
2000Some sociohistorical inferences about the development of African American English. In The English History of African American English, S. Poplack (ed.), 233–263. Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
2001The Ecology of Language Evolution. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
2007Population movements and contacts in language evolution. Journal of Language Contact 1: 63–92.Google Scholar
2008Colonization, population contacts, and the emergence of new language varieties: A response to Peter Trudgill. Language in Society 37: 254–258.Google Scholar
Myrick, C.
2014Putting Saban English on the map: A descriptive analysis of English language variation on Saba. English World-Wide 35: 161–192.Google Scholar
Myrick, C., Eberle, N., Schneier, J. & Reaser, J.
2019Mapping linguistic diversity in the English-Speaking Caribbean. In Handbook of the Changing World Language Map, S. D. Brunn & R. Kehrein (eds). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
Neu, H.
1980Ranking of constraints on /t,d/ deletion in American English: A statistical analysis. In Locating Language in Time and Space, W. Labov (ed.), 1–36. New York NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Packwood, C. O.
1975Chained on the Rock: Slavery in Bermuda. Hamilton, Bermuda: E. Torres.Google Scholar
Patrick, P.
1991Creoles at the intersection of variable processes: -t,d deletion and past-marking in the Jamaican mesolect. Language Variation and Change 3: 171–189.Google Scholar
2004Jamaican Creole: Morphology and syntax. In A Handbook of Varieties of English, Vol. 2: Morphology and Syntax, B. Kortmann, E. W. Schneider, K. Burridge, R. Mesthrie & C. Upton (eds), 407–438. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Paul, M.
1983Black Families in Modern Bermuda. Göttingen: Herodot.Google Scholar
R Core Team
2012R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. <https://​www​.R​-project​.org/>.Google Scholar
Reaser, J.
2004A quantitative sociolinguistic analysis of Bahamian copula absence: Morphosyntactic evidence from Abaco Island, the Bahamas. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 19: 1–40.Google Scholar
Reaser, J. & Torbert, B.
2004Bahamian English: Morphology and syntax. In A Handbook of Varieties of English, Vol. 2: Morphology and Syntax, B. Kortmann, E. W. Schneider, K. Burridge, R. Mesthrie & Upton, C. (eds), 391–406. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Rich, N. & Ives, V. A.
1984The Rich Papers: Letters from Bermuda 1615–1645: Eyewitness Accounts Sent by the Early Colonists to Sir Nathaniel Rich. Toronto: Published for the Bermuda National Trust by the University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
Richards, H.
2010Preterite be: A new perspective? English World-Wide 31: 62–81.Google Scholar
Ronström, O.
2011In or on? Island words, island worlds, II. Island Studies Journal 6: 227–244.Google Scholar
Ruch, H.
2015Vowel convergence and divergence between two Swiss German dialects. In Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, (ed.). Glasgow: The University of Glasgow.Google Scholar
Salih, S.
(ed.) 2004The History of Mary Prince. A West Indian Slave. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
Santa Ana, O.
1996Sonority and syllable structure in Chicano English. Language Variation and Change 8: 63–89.Google Scholar
Schilling-Estes, N.
2002On the nature of isolated and post-isolated dialects: Innovation, variation and differentiation. Journal of Sociolinguistics 6: 64–85.Google Scholar
Schilling-Estes, N. & Wolfram, W.
1994Convergent explanation and alternative regularization patterns: Were/weren’t leveling in a vernacular English variety. Language Variation and Change 6: 273–302.Google Scholar
1999Alternative models of dialect death: Dissipation vs. concentration. Language 75: 486–521.Google Scholar
Schleef, E., Meyerhoff, M. & Clark, L.
2011Teenagers’ acquisition of variation: A comparison of locally-born and migrant teens’ realisation of English (ing) in Edinburgh and London. English World-Wide 32: 206–236.Google Scholar
Schneider, E. W.
2003The dynamics of New Englishes: From identity construction to dialect birth. Language 79: 233–281.Google Scholar
2004Introduction: Varieties of English in the Americas and the Caribbean. In A Handbook of Varieties of English, Vol. 1: Phonology, B. Kortmann, E. W. Schneider, K. Burridge, R. Mesthrie & C. Upton (eds), 247–256. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
2007Postcolonial English: Varieties around the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
2008Accommodation versus identity? A response to Trudgill. Language in Society 37: 262–267.Google Scholar
2011English around the World. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
2013Contact Englishes and creoles in the Caribbean. In The Handbook of Language Contact, R. Hickey (ed.), 478–497. Malden MA: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
Schreier, D.
2002Past be in Tristan da Cunha: The rise and fall of categoricality in language change. American Speech 77: 70–99.Google Scholar
2003Isolation and Language Change: Sociohistorical and Contemporary Evidence from Tristan da Cunha English. New York NY: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
2005Consonant Change in English Worldwide: Synchrony meets Diachrony. New York NY: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
2008St Helenian English. Origins, Evolution and Variation [Varieties of English Around the World G37]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
2009How diagnostic are English universals? In Filppula, Klemola & Paulasto (eds), 57–79. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
2010The consequences of migration and colonialism, II: Overseas varieties. In Language and Space: An International Handbook of Linguistic Variation, P. Auer & J. E. Schmidt (eds), 451–467. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
2013English as a contact language: Lesser-known varieties. In English as a Contact Language, D. Schreier & M. Hundt (eds), 149–164. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
2014Variation and Change in English. An Introduction. Berlin: Erich Schmidt.Google Scholar
2016aA true split? Typological and sociolinguistic considerations on contact intensity effects. In Complexity, Isolation, and Variation, R. Baechler & G. Seiler (eds), 139–157. Berlin: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
2016bSuper-leveling, fraying-out, internal restructuring: A century of present be concord in Tristan da Cunha English. Language Variation and Change 28: 203–224.Google Scholar
2017Dialect formation in isolated communities. Annual Review of Linguistics 3: 347–362.Google Scholar
Schreier, D., Eberle, N. & Perez, D.
2017Settler varieties. In The Routledge Handbook of Migration and Language, S. Canagarajah (ed.), 243–257. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Schreier, D., Trudgill, P., Schneider, E. W. & Williams, J. P.
(eds) 2010The Lesser-Known Varieties of English: An Introduction. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
Sharma, D.
2014Transnational flows, language variation, and ideology. In English in the Indian Diaspora [Varieties of English Around the World G50], M. Hundt & D. Sharma (eds), 215–242. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Sheller, M.
2011Mobility. Sociopedia.isa.Google Scholar
Siegel, J.
1985Koines and koineization. Language in Society 14: 357–378.Google Scholar
1993Dialect contact and koineisation. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 99: 105–121.Google Scholar
1997Mixing, leveling and pidgin/creole development. In The Structure and Status of Pidgins and Creoles [Creole Language Library 19], A. K. Spears & D. Winford (eds), 111–149. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Siemund, P.
2009Linguistic universals and vernacular data. In Filppula, Klemola & Paulasto (eds), 323–348.Google Scholar
2013Varieties of English: A Typological Approach. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
Slayton, M. I.
(ed.) 2009Four Centuries of Friendschip. America-Bermuda Relations 1609–2009. Bermuda: Bermuda Maritime Museum Press.Google Scholar
Smith, J. & Tagliamonte, S.
1998 We was all thegither, I think we were all thegither: Was regularization in Buckie English. World Englishes 17: 105–126.Google Scholar
Smith, P. A. & Barritt, F. M.
2005Bermewjan Vurds. A Dictionary of Conversational Bermudian. Bermuda: Lizard Press.Google Scholar
Strode, H.
1932The Story of Bermuda. New York NY: Random House.Google Scholar
Sudbury, A.
2000Dialect Contact and Koineization in the Falkland Islands: Development of a Southern Hemisphere Variety? PhD dissertation, University of Essex.Google Scholar
2001Falkland Islands English: A southern hemisphere variety? English World-Wide 22: 55–80.Google Scholar
Szmrecsanyi, B.
2011Corpus-based dialectometry: A methodological sketch. Corpora 6: 45–76.Google Scholar
Szmrecsanyi, B. & Kortmann, B.
2009aThe morphosyntax of varieties of English worldwide: A quantitative perspective. Lingua 119: 1643–1663.Google Scholar
2009bVernacular universals and angloversals in a typologial perspective. In Filppula, Klemola & Paulasto (eds), 33–53.Google Scholar
Tagliamonte, S. A.
1998 Was/were variation across the generations: View from the city of York. Language Variation and Change 10: 153–191.Google Scholar
2009There was universals; then there weren’t . A comparative sociolinguistic perspective on ‘default singulars’. In Filppula, Klemola & Paulasto (eds), 103–129.Google Scholar
2012Variationist Sociolinguistics. Change, Observation, Interpretation. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
Tagliamonte, S.A & Baayen R. H.
2012Models, forests, and trees of York English: Was/were variation as a case study for statistical practice. Language Variation and Change 24: 135–178.Google Scholar
Tagliamonte, S. A. & Smith, J.
1999Analogical leveling in Samaná English: The case of was and were . Journal of English Linguistics 27: 8–26.Google Scholar
Tagliamonte, S. A. & Temple, R.
2005New perspectives on an ol’ variable: (t,d) in British English. Language Variation and Change 17: 281–302.Google Scholar
Thomason, S. G.
2001aContact-induced typological change. In Language Typology and Language Universals. An International Handbook, M. Haspelmath, E. König, W. Oesterreicher & W. Raible (eds), 1640–1648. Berlin: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
2001bLanguage Contact: An Introduction. Edinburgh: EUP.Google Scholar
Torbert, B.
2001Tracing Native American language history through consonant cluster reduction: The case of Lumbee English. American Speech 76: 361–387.Google Scholar
Trudgill, P.
1986Dialects in Contact. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
1989Contact and isolation in linguistic change. In Language Change: Contributions to the Study of its Causes, L. E. Breivik & E. H. Jahr (eds), 227–237. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
1999A window on the past: ‘Colonial lag’ and New Zealand evidence for the phonology of nineteenth century English. American Speech 74: 227–239.Google Scholar
2002The history of the lesser-known varieties of English. In Alternative Histories of English, R. Watts & P. Trudgill (eds), 29–44. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
2004aNew Dialect Formation: The Inevitability of Colonial Englishes, 2nd edn. Edinburgh: EUP.Google Scholar
2004bThe impact of language contact and social structure on linguistic structure: Focus on the dialects of Modern Greek. In Dialectology Meets Typology, B. Kortmann (ed.), 435–451. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
2008Colonial dialect contact in the history of European languages: On the irrelevance of identity to new-dialect formation. Language in Society 37: 241–280.Google Scholar
2009Vernacular universals and the sociolinguistic typology of English dialects. In Filppula, Klemola & Paulasto (eds), 304–322.Google Scholar
2011Sociolinguistic Typology: Social Determinants of Linguistic Complexity. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
Tucker, T.
2011Treasure! A Diver’s Life. Bermuda: Capstan Publications.Google Scholar
1975Bermuda. Today and Yesterday. 1503-1978. London: Robert Hale Limited.Google Scholar
Walker, J. A.
2007There’s bears back there. English World-Wide 28: 147–166.Google Scholar
Watt, D., Llamas, C. & Johnson, D. E.
2010Levels of linguistic accommodation across a national border. Journal of English Linguistics 38: 270–289.Google Scholar
Watts, E.
2006Mobility-Induced Dialect Contact: A Sociolinguistic Investigation of Speech Variation in Wilmslow, Cheshire. PhD dissertation, University of Essex.Google Scholar
Werkin, H.
1977Onion Patch English. In From Our Kitchen to Yours: A Collection of Recipes from the Elbow Beach Hotel, Bermuda, 91–95. Bermuda: Engravers.Google Scholar
Wilkinson, H. C.
1973Bermuda from Sail to Steam: The History of the Island from 1784 to 1901. London: OUP.Google Scholar
Williams, J. P., Schneider, E. W., Trudgill, P. & Schreier, D.
(eds) 2015The Lesser-Known Varieties of English: Further Case Studies. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
Winford, D.
1997Re-examining Caribbean English creole continua. World Englishes 16: 233–279.Google Scholar
2009The interplay of ‘universals’ and contact-induced change in the emergence of New Englishes. In Filppula, Klemola & Paulasto (eds), 206–230.Google Scholar
Wolfram, W.
1984Unmarked tense in American Indian English. American Speech 59: 31–50.Google Scholar
2004The sociolinguistic construction of remnant dialects. In Sociolinguistic Variation, C. Fought (ed.), 84–106. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
2008Urban African American Vernacular English: Morphology and syntax. In The Americas and the Caribbean, E. W. Schneider (ed.), 510–533. Berlin: de Gruyter.Google Scholar
2011Fieldwork methods in language variation. In The SAGE Handbook of Sociolinguistics, R. Wodak, B. Johnstone & P. Kerswill (eds), 296–311. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Wolfram, W. & Fasold, R. W.
1974The Study of Social Dialects in American English. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
Wolfram, W. & Schilling-Estes, N.
1997Hoi Toide on the Outer Banks. The Story of the Ocracoke Brogue. Chapel Hill NC: The University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
2003Language change in ‘conversative’ dialects: The case of past tense be in Southern enclave communities. American Speech 78: 208–227.Google Scholar
Wolfram, W. & Sellers, J.
1999Ethnolinguistic marking of past be in Lumbee Vernacular English. Journal of English Linguistics 27: 94–114.Google Scholar
Wolfram, W. & Thomas, E. R.
2002The Development of African American English. Malden MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Wolfram, W., Childs, B. & Torbert, B.
2000Tracing language history through consonant cluster reduction: Evidence from isolated dialects. Southern Journal of Linguistics 24: 17–40.Google Scholar
Wolfram, W., Hazen, K. & Schilling-Estes, N.
1999Dialect Change and Maintenance on the Outer Banks. Tuscaloosa AL: University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
Young, R. & Bailey, R.
1996VARBRUL analysis for second language acquisition research. In Second Language Acquisition and Linguistic Variation [Studies in Bilingualism 10], R. Bailey & D. Preston (eds), 253–306. Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar
Zuill, W. S.
1983The Story of Bermuda and her People, 2nd edn. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
1999The Story of Bermuda and her People, 3rd edn. Oxford: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Subjects
BIC Subject: CF/2AB – Linguistics/English
BISAC Subject: LAN009000 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  2020055008 | Marc record