NOWELE | North-Western European Language Evolution

NOWELE: North-Western European Language Evolution is an interdisciplinary journal devoted not only to the study of the early and more recent history of a locally determined group of languages, but also to the study of purely theoretical questions concerning language development.

NOWELE welcomes submissions dealing with all aspects of the histories of – and with intra- and extra-linguistic factors contributing to change and variation within – Icelandic, Faroese, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Frisian, Dutch, German, English, Gothic and the Early Runic language. Accordingly, studies involving past and present neighbouring languages such as Celtic, Finnish, Lithuanian, Russian and French, in so far as these have played and are playing a role in the development or present status of north-western European languages through contact, will be accepted.

NOWELE accepts, after peer review, papers within the outlined framework analyses based on classical philological principles, studies of a minute detail, be it a socio-historical phenomenon or a theoretical concept, as well as analyses dealing with a larger group of phenomena or with the problems which a theory may present. NOWELE welcomes reviews and review articles.

ISSN 0108-8416 | E-ISSN 2212-9715
Sample issue: NOWELE 70:1
Managing Editor
Stephen Laker | Kyushu University, Fukuoka | laker.stephen at
Consulting Editor
Hans Frede Nielsen † | University of Southern Denmark
Michael Barnes | University College London
Rolf H. Bremmer, Jr. | Leiden University
Kurt Gustav Goblirsch | University of South Carolina
Robert Mailhammer | University of Western Sydney, Penrith NSW
Advisory Editorial Board
John Ole Askedal | University of Oslo
Hans Basbøll | University of Southern Denmark
Bernard Comrie | University of California, Santa Barbara
Andreas Dufter | Universität München
Lars-Erik Edlund | Umeå University
Carla Falluomini | University of Perugia
R.D. Fulk | Indiana University, Bloomington
Elvira Glaser | Universität Zürich
Erik W. Hansen | University of Southern Denmark
Odd Einar Haugen | University of Bergen
Eugen Hill | Universität Köln
Jarich Hoekstra | Universität Kiel
Petri Kallio | University of Helsinki
Yuri A. Kleiner | University of St. Petersburg
Steffen Krogh | Aarhus University
Anatoly Liberman | University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
Bernard Mees | RMIT University of Melbourne
Robert Nedoma | Universität Wien
Terttu Nevalainen | University of Helsinki
Michael Lerche Nielsen | University of Copenhagen
Birgit Anette Olsen | University of Copenhagen
Sara M. Pons-Sanz | Cardiff University
Don Ringe | University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
Elke Ronneberger-Sibold | Katholische Universität Eichstätt-Ingolstadt
Peter C.H. Schrijver | Utrecht University
Michael Schulte | University of Agder
Elena Smirnova | University of Neuchâtel
Patrick V. Stiles | University College London
Seiichi Suzuki | Kansai Gaidai University, Hirakata
Michiel de Vaan | University of Lausanne
Subscription Info
Current issue: 75:1, available as of March 2022

General information about our electronic journals.

Subscription rates

All prices for print + online include postage/handling.

Online-only Print + online
Volume 75 (2022): 2 issues; ca. 240 pp. EUR 147.00 EUR 170.00

Individuals may apply for a special subscription rate of EUR 55.00 (online‑only: EUR 50.00)
Private subscriptions are for personal use only, and must be pre-paid and ordered directly from the publisher.

Available back-volumes

Online-only Print + online
Complete backset
(Vols. 1‒74; 1983‒2021)
72 issues;
11,395 pp.
EUR 6,488.00 EUR 6,800.00
Volumes 73‒74 (2020‒2021) 2 issues; avg. 240 pp. EUR 147.00 each EUR 170.00 each
Volume 72 (2019) 2 issues; 240 pp. EUR 144.00 EUR 167.00
Volume 71 (2018) 2 issues; 240 pp. EUR 140.00 EUR 162.00
Volume 70 (2017) 2 issues; 240 pp. EUR 136.00 EUR 157.00
Volume 69 (2016) 2 issues; 240 pp. EUR 136.00 EUR 152.00
Volume 68 (2015) 2 issues; 240 pp. EUR 136.00 EUR 148.00
Volume 67 (2014) 2 issues; 240 pp. EUR 136.00 EUR 144.00
Volume 66 (2013) 2 issues; 240 pp. EUR 136.00 EUR 140.00
Volume 64 (2012) 1 issue; 250 pp. EUR 142.00 EUR 146.00
Volume 62 (2011) 1 issue; 450 pp. EUR 255.00 EUR 263.00
Volume 60 (2011) 1 issue; 250 pp. EUR 142.00 EUR 146.00
Volume 58 (2010) 1 issue; 450 pp. EUR 255.00 EUR 263.00
Volume 56 (2009) 1 issue; 250 pp. EUR 142.00 EUR 146.00
Volume 54 (2008) 1 issue; 350 pp. EUR 199.00 EUR 205.00
Volumes 52‒53 (2007‒2008) 1 issue; avg. 120 pp. EUR 68.00 each EUR 70.00 each
Volume 50 (2007) 1 issue; 250 pp. EUR 142.00 EUR 146.00
Volumes 48‒49 (2006‒2006) 1 issue; avg. 140 pp. EUR 80.00 each EUR 82.00 each
Volume 46 (2005) 1 issue; 275 pp. EUR 155.00 EUR 160.00
Volumes 43‒45 (2003‒2004) 1 issue; avg. 140 pp. EUR 80.00 each EUR 82.00 each
Volumes 37‒42 (2000‒2003) 1 issue; avg. 120 pp. EUR 68.00 each EUR 70.00 each
Volumes 35‒36 (1999‒2000) 1 issue; avg. 140 pp. EUR 80.00 each EUR 82.00 each
Volumes 33‒34 (1998‒1998) 1 issue; avg. 150 pp. EUR 85.00 each EUR 88.00 each
Volume 31 (1997) 1 issue; 530 pp. EUR 300.00 EUR 310.00
Volume 30 (1997) 1 issue; 150 pp. EUR 85.00 EUR 88.00
Volume 28 (1996) 1 issue; 600 pp. EUR 340.00 EUR 350.00
Volumes 23‒27 (1994‒1996) 1 issue; avg. 140 pp. EUR 80.00 each EUR 82.00 each
Volume 21 (1993) 1 issue; 450 pp. EUR 255.00 EUR 263.00
Volume 20 (1992) 1 issue; 140 pp. EUR 80.00 EUR 82.00
Volumes 1‒19 (1983‒1992) 1 issue; avg. 100 pp. EUR 56.00 each EUR 58.00 each
Volumes and issues

Volume 75 (2022)

Volume 74 (2021)

Volume 73 (2020)

Volume 72 (2019)

Volume 71 (2018)

Volume 70 (2017)

Volume 69 (2016)

Volume 68 (2015)

Volume 67 (2014)

Volume 66 (2013)

Volume 64/65 (2012)  NOWELE Volume 64/65 (April 2012)

Volume 62/63 (2011)  NOWELE Volume 62/63 (October 2011)

Volume 60/61 (2011)  NOWELE Volume 60/61 (January 2011)

Volume 58/59 (2010)  NOWELE Volume 58/59 (June 2010)

Volume 56/57 (2009)  NOWELE Volume 56/57 (June 2009)

Volume 54/55 (2008)  NOWELE Volume 54/55 (October 2008)

Volume 53 (2008)  NOWELE Volume 53 (May 2008)

Volume 52 (2007)  NOWELE Volume 52 (October 2007)

Volume 50/51 (2007)  NOWELE Volume 50/51 (February 2007)

Volume 49 (2006)  NOWELE Volume 49 (August 2006)

Volume 48 (2006)  NOWELE Volume 48 (January 2006)

Volume 46/47 (2005)  NOWELE Volume 46/47 (June 2005)

Volume 45 (2004)  NOWELE Volume 45 (October 2004)

Volume 44 (2004)  NOWELE Volume 44 (March 2004)

Volume 43 (2003)  NOWELE Volume 43 (September 2003)

Volume 42 (2003)  NOWELE Volume 42 (March 2003)

Volume 41 (2002)  NOWELE Volume 41 (October 2002)

Volume 40 (2002)  NOWELE Volume 40 (April 2002)

Volume 39 (2001)  NOWELE Volume 39 (September 2001)

Volume 38 (2001)  NOWELE Volume 38 (March 2001)

Volume 37 (2000)  NOWELE Volume 37 (September 2000)

Volume 36 (2000)  NOWELE Volume 36 (January 2000)

Volume 35 (1999)  NOWELE Volume 35 (May 1999)

Volume 34 (1998)  NOWELE Volume 34 (December 1998)

Volume 33 (1998)  NOWELE Volume 33 (March 1998)

Volume 31/32 (1997)  NOWELE Volume 31/32 (November 1997)

Volume 30 (1997)  NOWELE Volume 30 (March 1997)

Volume 28/29 (1996)  NOWELE Volume 28/29 (August 1996)

Volume 27 (1996)  NOWELE Volume 27 (March 1996)

Volume 26 (1995)  NOWELE Volume 26 (August 1995)

Volume 25 (1995)  NOWELE Volume 25 (March 1995)

Volume 24 (1994)  NOWELE Volume 24 (August 1994)

Volume 23 (1994)  NOWELE Volume 23 (January 1994)

Volume 21/22 (1993)  NOWELE Volume 21/22 (April 1993)

Volume 20 (1992)  NOWELE Volume 20 (September 1992)

Volume 19 (1992)  NOWELE Volume 19 (March 1992)

Volume 18 (1991)  NOWELE Volume 18 (September 1991)

Volume 17 (1991)  NOWELE Volume 17 (March 1991)

Volume 16 (1990)  NOWELE Volume 16 (September 1990)

Volume 15 (1990)  NOWELE Volume 15 (March 1990)

Volume 14 (1989)  NOWELE Volume 14 (October 1989)

Volume 13 (1989)  NOWELE Volume 13 (April 1989)

Volume 12 (1988)  NOWELE Volume 12 (May 1988)

Volume 11 (1988)  NOWELE Volume 11 (February 1988)

Volume 10 (1987)  NOWELE Volume 10 (October 1987)

Volume 9 (1987)  NOWELE Volume 9 (April 1987)

Volume 8 (1986)  NOWELE Volume 8 (September 1986)

Volume 7 (1986)  NOWELE Volume 7 (March 1986)

Volume 6 (1985)  NOWELE Volume 6 (September 1985)

Volume 5 (1985)  NOWELE Volume 5 (March 1985)

Volume 4 (1984)  NOWELE Volume 4 (October 1984)

Volume 3 (1984)  NOWELE Volume 3 (June 1984)

Volume 2 (1983)  NOWELE Volume 2 (December 1983)

Volume 1 (1983)  NOWELE Volume 1 (August 1983)


Notes for Contributors


Accepted languages: English and German.

Electronic copy

Always submit two copies of your submission to NOWELE: one in editable format (.docx is preferred) and one in .pdf.

Initial submission

It is not essential that your manuscript follow all the rules of this style sheet on first submission. However, if your paper is accepted for publication, your paper must be changed accordingly.

Title, running header, name and affiliation

If the title (and subtitle) of the article is longer than 55 characters (including spaces), please provide a shortened title to be used as a running header.

The title is followed by the author’s name(s) and affilation(s).


Each article should start with an abstract, which should be a single block of text not exceeding 150 words. Make sure that it is:


Below the abstract, please list up to 10 keywords, identifying the main concepts, eras, languages, etc. that are the focus of your article.


Use 12 pt Times New Roman for the main text.

Do not justify the text on the right side.

Use Unicode fonts for any symbols or special characters.

Anything longer than a squib is best divided into sections (beginning with 1.) and subsections (2.1, 2.1.1 etc.). Level one headings should be in bold; other headings are in plain text: 

            1. Level 1 heading
            1.1 Level 2 heading
            1.1.1 Level 3 heading 

Use footnotes not endnotes, and keep them to a minimum. Superscript numbers in the main text should usually appear at the end of sentences and follow punctuation marks.

Spelling and punctuation

Both British and American spelling conventions are acceptable, but be consistent.

Long en-dash (–) should be used with page, number, and date ranges (e.g. 1400–1425).


Tables, figures and other images should be embedded as well as referenced in the text (e.g. see Figure 5); avoid relative indicators such as “see the table below” or “in the table”.

Give all visuals a caption in the following manner (note that there is no period at the end of the caption):

Table 1. Numbers of Romance loans with initial /s-/ and /f-/ in Early Middle Dutch
Figure 1. Runic inscription on the Loveden Hill urn 
Map 1. North Frisian dialects

Notes in tables and figures should not be regular footnotes. Standard note indicators in tables are *, **, †, ‡; these are then inserted directly below the table/figure.

Ensure that the resolution of any images is fit for publication (the eye sees at about 300 dpi; however, because the electronic version allows zoom, at least 600 dpi is recommended for plates).

Examples and glosses

Use italics for cited forms, highlighting and emphasis. Bold should only be used for highlighting within italics and for headings. Avoid FULL CAPS (except for focal stress and acronyms) and underlining (except for highlighting within examples, as an alternative to boldface), unless this is part of a notational convention in your field.

Examples should be numbered with Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3 etc.) in parenthesis and indented. Every next level in the example (a, b etc.) gets one indent.

Glosses are given in ‘single’ quotation marks (e.g. OE bāt ‘boat’). The source of interlinear morpheme-by-morpheme glosses should usually be given and should follow the Leipzig Glossing Rules:

(3) a. Ed en Floor gaan samen-wonen
    Ed and Floor go together-live.INF
     ‘Ed and Floor are going to live together’
         b.    Ed      en           Floor         zijn       uit       elkaar
    Ed and Floor be out RECP
     ‘Ed and Floor have split up’


For standard grammatical abbreviations, refer to the Leipzig Glossing Rules. When abbreviating languages, the follow three methods usually apply: 

OE or MHG  = Old English, Middle High German (first letters are capitalised)
Ice. or Kent.  = Icelandic, Kentish (Icelandic and Kentish are abbreviated mid-word, so a period is added to show this)
PGmc or Skt = Proto-Germanic (Germanic and Sanskrit are abbreviated, but they are singular and end in -c and -t, so a period is not needed)


Text quotations of up to three lines should be given within the text in double quotation marks (quotation marks within double quotation marks appear in single quotation marks).

For longer quotations, use an indented block quotation (i.e. have a blank line above and below the quotation, indent left, and do not use quotation marks).

Use square brackets with three dots for omissions ([...])

Spellings may be specified using angled brackets < > (avoid the more obtuse type ⟨ ⟩  because they cannot usually be searched electronically).


References (main text)

Use the name+date(+page number) style. Examples: (Nielsen 1985: 58), Laing & Williamson (1994), Stenroos et al. (2012), Braune/Reiffenstein (2004: §100), de Vaan (2014: 10).

When referencing dictionary entries, it is advisable to use the abbreviation s.v. or s.vv. rather than page numbers. Examples: (Kluge/Seebold 2002: s.v. Haus) or MED (s.vv. nimen, taken).

References section

Use the header “References” (or in German articles use “Literatur”).

List references first alphabetically and then chronologically. Include all (and only!) references that are mentioned in the text.

Referencing closely follows the rules outlined in the Unified Style Sheet for Linguistics Journals with only a few modifications. One difference, however, is that initials replace all given names, another is that ampersand is not needed, and surname and given names are listed in the same order to allow search engines to electronically parse the names correctly.

Articles written in German must naturally adopt German terms: ed. > Hrsg., edn > Aufl. etc.

Examples of books/volumes:

Braune, W. 2004. Althochdeutsche Grammatik I: Laut und Formenlehre, 15th edn by I. Reiffenstein. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
Laing, M., Williamson, K. (eds.). 1994. Speaking our tongues: Medieval dialectology and related disciplines. Cambridge: Brewer.
Nielsen, H. F. 1985. Old English and the Continental Germanic languages: A survey of morphological and phonological interrelations. 2nd edn. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Innsbruck.
Stenroos, M., Mäkinen, M., Særheim, I. (eds.). 2012. Language contact and development around the North Sea. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 

Examples of articles in journals and volumes:

de Vaan, M. 2014. West Germanic *þþ and *þm in Dutch. Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik 72. 1–34.
Fox, B. 2007. The P-Celtic place-names of north-east England and south-east Scotland. The Heroic Age 10. (accessed 15 June 2016).
Hoekstra, J. F. 1996. Transitive pronouns and gender syncretism in Fering-Öömrang (North Frisian). NOWELE 27. 45–66.
Versloot, A. 2001. Grundzüge ostfriesiche Sprachgeschichte. In H. H. Munske et al. (eds.), Handbuch des Friesischen/Handbook of Frisian studies, 734–740. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

Examples of reviews:

Coates, R. 2010. Review of: Filppula, M., J. Klemola, H. Paulasto. 2008. English and Celtic in contact. Language 86(2). 441–444
Haas, F. 2012. Review of: Pfenninger, S. E. 2009. Grammaticalization paths of English and High German existential constructions: A corpus-based study. Bern: Peter Lang. LinguistList 23.1215. (accessed 15 June 2015).

Examples of online resources (dictionaries, corpora, atlases etc.):

LAEME = A Linguistic Atlas of Early Middle English, 1150–1325. 2007–. Compiled by M. Laing. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh.
MED = Middle English Dictionary, 1952–2001. H. Kurath, S. Kuhn & R. E. Lewis (eds.). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
OED = Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Examples of theses:

Harris, D. P. 1954. The phonemic patterning of the initial and final consonant clusters of English from late Old English to the present. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. (Doctoral dissertation)
Jekiel, M. 2012. The evolution of English dental fricatives: Variation and change. Poznan: Adam Mickiewicz University. (MA thesis)


Appendices should follow the References section. Make sure you refer to the appendix/appendices in the main text.

Author’s or Reviewer's Address

Provide a correspondence address and e-mail for the author(s)/reviewer(s) at the very end of your article (i.e. after any references or appendices). The following format may serve as a model.

Name of author/reviewer
Name of department (or institute or faculty)
Name of university
Street address
Place and postcode (or postcode and place)
Email address

Editorial correspondence should be addressed to:

Dr. Stephen Laker
Faculty of Languages and Cultures 
Kyushu University
744 Motooka, Nishi-ku 
FUKUOKA 819-0395 

e-mail: laker.stephen at


Please consult the journal's Guidelines page for guidelines and contact information.


John Benjamins journals are committed to maintaining the highest standards of publication ethics and to supporting ethical research practices. Please read this Ethics Statement.

Rights and Permissions

Authors must ensure that they have permission to use any third-party material in their contribution; the permission should include perpetual (not time-limited) world-wide distribution in print and electronic format.

For information on authors' rights, please consult the rights information page.

Open Access

For information about permission to post a version of your article online or in an institutional repository ('green' open access or self-archiving), please consult the rights information page.

This journal offers the possibility for accepted papers to be published Open Access through payment of an Article Publication Charge (APC) of EUR 1800 (excl. tax); more information can be found on the publisher's Open Access Policy page.

Corresponding authors from institutions with which John Benjamins has a Read & Publish arrangement can publish Open Access without paying a fee; information on the institutions and which articles qualify, can be found on this page.


John Benjamins Publishing Company has an agreement in place with Portico for the archiving of all its online journals and e-books.


Main BIC Subject

CFF: Historical & comparative linguistics

Main BISAC Subject

LAN009000: LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General