Translation, Cognition & Behavior

Translation, Cognition & Behavior focuses on a broad area of research generally known as cognitive translation studies – a term that encompasses new conceptual paradigms being explored in cognitive translatology as well as traditional translation process research. Cognitive translation studies intersects with a number of disciplines, and the journal welcomes interdisciplinary research from philosophy, cognitive science, psychology, bilingualism studies, anthropology, artificial intelligence, ergonomics, and, indeed any discipline that can illuminate our understanding of the mental processes that underlie the complex observable behavior of cross-language communication.

The overall objective of the journal is to connect rigorous descriptions of the observable activities of translators and interpreters – as the result of ethnographic, experimental or corpus research – to conceptions of the translating mind and brain. Translation, Cognition & Behavior will thus publish empirical and theoretical contributions focusing on the cognitive and behavioral aspects of a broad range of cross-language activities including all kinds of translation and interpreting tasks and subtasks, but also other unique forms of communicative mediation, professional or otherwise.

Topics of specific interest include, but are not limited to (a) the extension of general cognitive research paradigms (e.g., computationalism, connectionism, embodied, embedded, extended, enacted, affective, distributed cognition) into cognitive translation studies; (b) the development and learning of translation skills (e.g., expertise, cognitive aspects of translation teaching and learning, translation competence); (c) cognitive research methods (eye tracking, keystroke logging, neuroimaging, and so on); and (d) explorations of how the environment influences people's behavior and cognitive processing when performing communicative tasks (ergonomics, human–computer interaction, usability studies).

Translation, Cognition & Behavior publishes its articles Online First.

ISSN 2542-5277 | E-ISSN 2542-5285
Sample issue: TCB 1:1
ORCID logoRicardo Muñoz Martín | University of Bologna, Italy | ricardo.munoz at
ORCID logoSharon O'Brien | Dublin City University, Ireland | sharon.obrien at
Consulting Editor
ORCID logoGregory M. Shreve | Kent State University, USA
Advisory Board
ORCID logoFabio Alves | Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil
ORCID logoEllen Bialystok | York University, Canada
ORCID logoBirgitta Englund Dimitrova | Stockholm University, Sweden
Daniel Gile | Université Paris 3 Sorbonne Nouvelle, France
Juliane House | Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary
ORCID logoArnt Lykke Jakobsen | Copenhagen Business School, Denmark
Paul Kussmaul | University of Mainz, Germany
ORCID logoBarbara Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk | State University of Applied Sciences in Konin, Poland
ORCID logoDefeng Li | CSTIC, University of Macau, Macau
ORCID logoBarbara Moser-Mercer | University of Geneva, Switzerland
Subscription Info
Current issue: 5:1, available as of October 2022
Next issue: 5:2, expected April 2023

General information about our electronic journals.

Subscription rates

All prices for print + online include postage/handling.

Online-only Print + online
Volume 6 (2023): 2 issues; ca. 320 pp. EUR 154.00 EUR 176.00
Volume 5 (2022): 2 issues; ca. 320 pp. EUR 154.00 EUR 173.00

Individuals may apply for a special subscription rate of EUR 60.00 (online‑only: EUR 55.00)
Private subscriptions are for personal use only, and must be pre-paid and ordered directly from the publisher.

Available back-volumes

Online-only Print + online
Complete backset
(Vols. 1‒4; 2018‒2021)
8 issues;
1,280 pp.
EUR 606.00 EUR 681.00
Volumes 3‒4 (2020‒2021) 2 issues; avg. 320 pp. EUR 154.00 each EUR 173.00 each
Volume 2 (2019) 2 issues; 320 pp. EUR 151.00 EUR 170.00
Volume 1 (2018) 2 issues; 320 pp. EUR 147.00 EUR 165.00

Volume 5 (2022)

Volume 4 (2021)

Volume 3 (2020)

Volume 2 (2019)

Volume 1 (2018)

Latest articles

20 January 2023

  • When and how to revise? Building a cognitive dyad of translator and reviser through workflow adjustment
    Annamari Korhonen | TCB 5:2 (2022) pp. 249–270
  • 17 January 2023

  • Innovative approaches to study Cognitive Translation and Interpreting Studies
    Elisabet Tiselius , Raphael Sannholm Laura Babcock | TCB 5:2 (2022) pp. 165–169
  • 3 January 2023

  • Translation of Allusive Literary Text in both directions : The cognitive efforts and influencing factors through eye-tracking technology
    Haimeng Ren | TCB 5:2 (2022) pp. 271–299
  • 28 November 2022

  • Self-care strategies of professional community interpreters : An interview-based study
    Paweł Korpal Christopher D. Mellinger | TCB 5:2 (2022) pp. 224–248
  • 14 November 2022

  • Testing the impact of remote interpreting settings on interpreter experience and performance : Methodological challenges inside the virtual booth
    Agnieszka Chmiel Nicoletta Spinolo | TCB 5:2 (2022) pp. 199–223
  • 21 October 2022

  • Employing retrospective process tracing in an international exploratory study
    Ewa Gumul Rachel E. Herring | TCB 5:2 (2022) pp. 170–198
  • 13 September 2022

  • How useful? How important? How difficult? Triangulating factors to determine expertise in English-to-French questionnaire translation difficulty
    Brita Dorer | TCB 5:1 (2022) pp. 144–164
  • 6 September 2022

  • Workload and cognitive architecture in translation : Merging models of bilingual language processing
    Robert M. Maier | TCB 5:1 (2022) p. 84
  • 11 July 2022

  • Videogame localisation, spelling errors and player reception
    Mikołaj Deckert Krzysztof Hejduk | TCB 5:1 (2022) pp. 27–49
  • 8 July 2022

  • Considerations of ecological validity in cognitive translation and interpreting studies
    Christopher D. Mellinger Thomas A. Hanson | TCB 5:1 (2022) pp. 1–26
  • 1 July 2022

  • Working memory tasks in interpreting studies : A meta-analysis
    Serena Ghiselli | TCB 5:1 (2022) pp. 50–83
  • 28 June 2022

  • Analyzing the effects of entrenched grammatical constructions on translation
    Arndt Heilmann , Jonas Freiwald , Stella Neumann Zoë Miljanović | TCB 5:1 (2022) pp. 110–143
  • 14 March 2022

  • Eyetracking the impact of subtitle length and line number on viewers’ allocation of visual attention
    Saber Zahedi Masood Khoshsaligheh | TCB 4:2 (2021) pp. 331–352
  • Introduction : Advancing experimental research in audiovisual translation
    Stephen Doherty | TCB 4:2 (2021) pp. 244–252
  • 20 December 2021

  • Translation/Interpreting psychological mechanism as embodied bilingual processing
    Lin Zhu | TCB 4:2 (2021) pp. 212–243
  • 14 December 2021

  • Norms, affect and evaluation in the reception of literary translations in multilingual online reading communities : Deriving cognitive-evaluative templates from big data
    Haidee Kotze , Berit Janssen , Corina Koolen , Luka van der Plas Gys-Walt van Egdom | TCB 4:2 (2021) pp. 147–186
  • 8 December 2021

  • A systematic review of experimental research in audiovisual translation 1992–2020
    Zhiwei Wu Zhuojia Chen | TCB 4:2 (2021) pp. 281–304
  • 3 December 2021

  • The ‘hookability’ of multimodal impact captions : A mixed-methods exploratory study of Japanese TV viewers
    Ryoko Sasamoto , Stephen Doherty Minako O’Hagan | TCB 4:2 (2021) pp. 253–280
  • Effects of subtitle speed on proportional reading time : Re-analysing subtitle reading data with mixed effects models
    Agnieszka Szarkowska , Breno Silva David Orrego-Carmona | TCB 4:2 (2021) pp. 305–330
  • Towards a higher order thinking skills-oriented translation competence model
    Shuxin Tan Young Woo Cho | TCB 4:2 (2021) pp. 187–211
  • Guidelines


    Translation, Cognition & Behavior (TCB) welcomes papers on all aspects of cognitive translation and interpreting studies. A typical article may be a full-fledged paper that presents novel data on research questions or hypotheses that are embedded in an extensive theoretical framework. Another kind of welcomed article may consist of a thorough review or discussion of the literature summarizing existing work in order to prompt future research. Authors wishing to submit articles for publication in TCB are requested to send inquiries to the editors at ricardo.munoz at and sharon.obrien at Contacting the editors in advance may be a good idea, in order to request access to an online cover page form for your draft. 

    Only full-length papers are reviewed, i.e., the journal does not provide preliminary feedback on whether a paper is acceptable for publication (even in principle) only based on its title, planned topic or (extended) abstract. Any material submitted to TCB must be original work, not published or under review elsewhere, and contributors may not submit this work elsewhere while it is under review here. If related material is published, under consideration, or in press elsewhere, that must be disclosed to the TCB editors. Similarly, if part of a contribution has appeared or will appear elsewhere, contributors must specify the details when submitting their work to TCB. More information in the JB Ethics Statement.

    Manuscripts may be submitted at any time. There are no fixed deadlines. Papers in line with the journal’s standards, aims and scope, will undergo a double-blind peer-review procedure. The two referees are usually given six to eight weeks to give their assessment, so that the time from submission to decision should be below 90 days. Submissions will not be returned; authors should keep a complete copy of their manuscript. More than one editing round may sometimes be necessary, especially for papers in thematic sections with guest editors. In any and all editing rounds, the first author or the corresponding author of a contribution will receive a PDF of first proofs of the article for correction via email and will be requested to return the corrections to the journal editor within 7 days of receipt.

    To make the editing process efficient, smooth and quick, the publisher and the editors urge you to strictly follow the journal’s style. Please read it through and try to be as careful and thorough as you can. Papers that do not conform to the following guidelines cannot be considered for publication. Please use a minimum of layout settings apart from those included in this style guide, and take advantage of electronic styles to ensure consistency. At this point in the process, clear and consistent presentation are paramount. In principle, TCB observes text conventions outlined in The Chicago Manual of Style. For all editorial problems not specifically addressed below, please refer to it.

    The copyright of articles published in TCB is held by the Publisher (see JB's copyright policy). Permission for the author to use the article elsewhere will be granted upon request, provided full acknowledgement is given to the source. More information, here. Authors will receive a complimentary copy of the issue in which their paper appears.

    1. Language and spelling

    2. Text structure and length

    2.1. Cover page

    (a)   title

    (b)   for articles with long titles (which in general should be avoided), include a shortened version (up to 55 characters + spaces), to be used later as running head.

    (c)   author(s) full name and ORCID id (indicate corresponding author with an asterisk)

    (d)   authors' affiliations

    (e)   corresponding author's email and postal address

    2.2. Text body

    (f)    title

    (g)   abstract of 100–150 words

    (h)   4–6 keywords.

    (i)    article's body of text

    (j)    acknowledgments, if any

    (k)   references

    (l)    appendices, if any

    (m)  a biosketch (a single paragraph of up to 80 words) for each author

    2.3. Length

    The word count total of sections (a) through (l) above should be at least 6,000 words long and not exceed a total of ca. 8,000 words. Please refer to the call for papers for the issue or thematic section you are targeting or else write to the editor, in case there is some variation on the general arrangements.

    3. Submission of materials

    4. Lay-out of article content and graphics

    Any formatting not called for by this stylesheet should be kept to a minimum. Please be consistent for all formatting or style conventions used. In particular, examples, quotations, tables, headings, etc. should be presented in a clear and consistent way, so that they can be identified and formatted in the style of our journal.

    4.1. Fonts and font sizes

    4.2. Typographical emphasis


    Use them for words in languages other than English as well as for emphasis. Use them sparingly to introduce unconventional terms or expressions (e.g., context of situation).


    should be used only for headings and for highlighting words within italicized stretches.


    Please refrain from using them except for focal stress and abbreviations.


    Do not use it except within examples, as an alternative to boldface for highlighting.

     4.3. Capitalization in titles and subtitles

    4.4. Headings

    Articles should be conveniently divided into numbered sections and, if necessary, sub-sections. Numbering should be in Arabic numerals. The first sub-section is 1, not 0. Numbering should only be used for the main text and the appendices, not for the abstract, Reference section, Notes sections, etc. Please

    1. Level 1 bold

    Enter two blank lines before the heading. Text starts immediately below.

    1.1. Level 2 bold italics

    Enter one blank line before the heading. Text starts immediately below.

    1.1.1. Level 3 italics. Enter one blank line before the heading. End it with period, start text in the same line.

    4.5. Numbering lists

    1. (or a. .......................)

    2. (or b. .......................)

    4.6. Examples

    4.7. Tables and figures




    Please note that the exact position of graphics will depend on typesetting needs, but we will make an effort to place the graphic as close as possible to the position you indicated.


    5. Citations and references

    6. References section

    Begin the References on a new page. The section should include all (and only!) references actually mentioned in the text. Subdivisions (e.g., Primary sources; Other references) may exceptionally be envisaged in certain cases, but in principle a single list is preferred. It is essential that the references are formatted to the specifications given in these guidelines, as these cannot be formatted automatically.

    A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a permanent ID that, when appended to in the address bar of an Internet browser, will lead to the site of a permanent electronic source or reference. Please include a DOI if the publisher lists one. You will be able to find most DOI at Crossref. In electronic publications, if no DOI is available, list a URL and include an access date.

    6.1. References should

    6.2. Special care with names

    This is a journal for Translation Studies. Special attention should be devoted to enter the correct spelling of any and all names of authors and editors. Also, please make sure that you understand the naming conventions in languages other than English so that you don't list or name an author with an incorrect name or surname. Finally, do not forget to include the names of translators in any entry of a reference that has them.

    6.3. Ordering references

    6.4. Examples


    Butler, Judith. 2006. Gender Trouble. 3rd ed. London: Routledge.

    Görlach, Manfred. 2003. English Words Abroad. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

    Spear, Norman E., and Ralph R. Miller, eds. 1981. Information Processing in Animals: Memory Mechanisms. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Special issue of journal

    Pym, Anthony, ed. 2000. The Return to Ethics. Special issue of The Translator 7 (2). Manchester: St Jerome.

    Articles/chapters in book

    Adams, Clare A., and Anthony Dickinson. 1981. “Actions and Habits: Variation in Associative Representation during Instrumental Learning.” In Information Processing in Animals: Memory Mechanisms, edited by Norman E. Spear, and Ralph R. Miller, 143–186. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Articles in printed journals

    Bassnett, Susan. 2012. “Translation Studies at Cross-roads.” In The Known Unknowns of Translation Studies, ed. by Elke Brems, Reine Meylaerts, and Luc van Doorslaer, special issue of Target 24 (1): 15–25.

    Claes, Jeroen, and Luis A. Ortiz López. 2011. “Restricciones pragmáticas y sociales en la expresión de futuridad en el español de Puerto Rico [Pragmatic and social restrictions in the expression of the future in Puerto Rican Spanish].” Spanish in Context 8: 50–72.

    Rayson, Paul, Geoffrey N. Leech, and Mary Hodges. 1997. “Social Differentiation in the Use of English Vocabulary: Some Analyses of the Conversational Component of the British National Corpus.” International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 2 (1): 120–132.

    Articles in online journals

    Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. 2009. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115: 405–50. Accessed February 28, 2010. DOI 10.1086/599247.

    Dynamic Language. 2010. “Google Puts Pressure on Interpreting Industry?” Dynamic Language Blog. Accessed 1 June 2012. industry/.

    Dissertations and Theses

    Atkinson, David P. 2007. Some Psychological Competences That Predict Freelance Translator Success and Wellbeing in the Demanding Globalised Business Context. Masters Thesis, University of Auckland.

    Internet sites

    European Observatory for Plurilingualism. Accessed 22 April 2013.

    7. Style

    Please use a reader-friendly style! Manuscripts submitted to TCB must be written in clear, concise and grammatical English.

    7.1. Anonymity

    In order to permit double-blind refereeing, submissions should not carry author information. In particular, please note the following:

    7.2. Miscellanea


    Please contact both the editors by e-mail: ricardo.munoz at and sharon.obrien at

    Thematic sections

    Thematic sections currently under preparation:

    issue 4:2 (2021): Stephen Doherty (ed.), Consolidating experimental research in audiovisual translation

    issue 5:2 (2022): Helle Dam Jensen, Anne Schjoldager, Kristine Bundgaard and Tina Paulsen Christensen (eds), Cognitive aspects of Human-Computer Interaction


    John Benjamins journals are committed to maintaining the highest standards of publication ethics and to supporting ethical research practices. Please read this Ethics Statement.

    Rights and Permissions

    Authors must ensure that they have permission to use any third-party material in their contribution; the permission should include perpetual (not time-limited) world-wide distribution in print and electronic format.

    For information on authors' rights, please consult the rights information page.

    Open Access

    For information about permission to post a version of your article online or in an institutional repository ('green' open access or self-archiving), please consult the rights information page.

    This journal offers the possibility for accepted papers to be published Open Access through payment of an Article Publication Charge (APC) of EUR 1800 (excl. tax); more information can be found on the publisher's Open Access Policy page.

    Corresponding authors from institutions with which John Benjamins has a Read & Publish arrangement can publish Open Access without paying a fee; information on the institutions and which articles qualify, can be found on this page.


    John Benjamins Publishing Company has an agreement in place with Portico for the archiving of all its online journals and e-books.




    Translation & Interpreting Studies

    Translation Studies

    Main BIC Subject

    CFP: Translation & interpretation

    Main BISAC Subject

    LAN023000: LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Translating & Interpreting