Formulaic Sequences

Acquisition, processing and use

Editor
| University of Nottingham
HardboundAvailable
ISBN 9789027217073 (Eur) | EUR 98.00
ISBN 9781588114990 (USA) | USD 147.00
 
PaperbackAvailable
ISBN 9789027217080 (Eur) | EUR 36.00
ISBN 9781588115003 (USA) | USD 54.00
 
e-Book
ISBN 9789027295750 | EUR 98.00/36.00*
| USD 147.00/54.00*
 
Formulaic sequences (FS) are now recognized as an essential element of language use. However, research on FS has generally been limited to a focus on description, or on the place of FS in L1 acquisition. This volume opens new directions in FS research, concentrating on how FS are acquired and processed by the mind, both in the L1 and L2. The ten original studies in the volume illustrate the L2 acquisition of FS, the relationship between L1 and L2 FS, the relationship between corpus recurrence of FS and their psycholinguistic reality, the processes involved in reading FS, and pedagogical issues in teaching FS. The studies use a wide range of methodologies, many of them innovative, and thus the volume serves as a model for future research in the area. The volume begins with three survey chapters offering a background on the characteristics and measurement of FS.
[Language Learning & Language Teaching, 9]  2004.  x, 304 pp.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Preface
viii
Formulaic sequences in action: An introduction
Norbert Schmitt and Ronald Carter
1–22
Measurement of formulaic sequences
John Read and I.S.P. Nation
23–35
Formulaic performance in conventionalised varieties of speech
Koenraad Kuiper
37–54
Knowledge and acquisition of formulaic sequences: A longitudinal study
Norbert Schmitt, Zoltán Dörnyei, Svenja Adolphs and Valerie Durow
55–86
Individual differences and their effects on formulaic sequence acquisition
Zoltán Dörnyei, Valerie Durow and Khawla Zahran
87–106
Social-cultural integration and the development of formulaic sequences
Svenja Adolphs and Valerie Durow
107–126
Are corpus-derived recurrent clusters psycholinguistically valid?
Norbert Schmitt, Sarah Grandage and Svenja Adolphs
127–151
The eyes have it: An eye-movement study into the processing of formulaic sequences
Geoffrey Underwood, Norbert Schmitt and Adam Galpin
153–172
Exploring the processing of formulaic sequences through a self-paced reading task
Norbert Schmitt and Geoffrey Underwood
173–189
Comparing knowledge of formulaic sequences across L1, L2, L3, and L4
Carol Spöttl and Michael McCarthy
191–225
The effect of typographic salience on the look up and comprehension of unknown formulaic sequences
Hugh Bishop
227–248
‘Here’s one I prepared earlier’: Formulaic language learning on television
Alison Wray
249–268
Facilitating the acquisition of formulaic sequences: An exploratory study in an EAP context
Martha Jones and Sandra Haywood
269–300
Index
“Second Language teachers and researchers have demonstrated a growing interest in formulaic language in recent years, and Schmitt's edited collection presents a welcome, stimulating range of studies on the acquisition and processing of formulaic sequences by L2 learners.”
“This book can be read with some pleasure by most classroom teachers, and there is much that they, as well as scholars in applied linguistics, can learn from it.”
“This tome presents an interesting array of research that furthers our developing understanding of the acquisition and processing of formulaic sequences. Because it focuses predominantly on L2 learning, Schmitt's volume will be of considerable interest to both researchers and L2 educators. It makes a significant contribution to the field: the studies within it raise a myriad of complex questions to guide future studies on the acquisition and processing of formulaic sequences, and they encourage readers to consider a wider range of methods and contexts in their search for answers.”
“The volume as a whole is a very accessible collection of papers that show a good range of empirical studies on the acquisition and processing of formulaic sequences.”
Cited by

Cited by other publications

No author info given
2014.  In Lexical Bundles in Native and Non-native Scientific Writing [Studies in Corpus Linguistics, 65], Crossref logo
No author info given
2015. Time and again: The changing effect of word and multiword frequency on phonetic duration for highly frequent sequences. The Mental Lexicon 9:3  pp. 377 ff. Crossref logo
No author info given
2020. Methodological issues in contrastive lexical bundle research. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 25:2 Crossref logo
No author info given
2020. OUP accepted manuscript. International Journal Of Lexicography Crossref logo
Abdollahpour, Zeinab & Javad Gholami
2019. Embodiment of rhetorical moves in lexical bundles in abstracts of the medical sciences. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 37:4  pp. 339 ff. Crossref logo
Alharthi, Thamer
2015. Adding More Fuel to the Fire: A Study of Attrition in Formulaic Sequences by Adult Learners. SSRN Electronic Journal Crossref logo
Allan, Rachel
2017. From Do You Know to I Don’t Know: An Analysis of the Frequency and Usefulness of Lexical Bundles in Five English Language Self-Study Books. Corpus Pragmatics 1:4  pp. 351 ff. Crossref logo
Arnon, Inbal & Morten H. Christiansen
2017. The Role of Multiword Building Blocks in Explaining L1-L2 Differences. Topics in Cognitive Science 9:3  pp. 621 ff. Crossref logo
Assassi, Tarek
2016. Formulaic Language for Improving Communicative Competence. SSRN Electronic Journal Crossref logo
Astruc, Lluïsa & Lina Adinolfi
2015. An exploration of the phonology of lexical chunks in L2 speech. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching 9:1  pp. 10 ff. Crossref logo
Athira, U. & Sabu M. Thampi
2015.  In Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Women in Computing and Informatics - WCI '15,  pp. 284 ff. Crossref logo
Babaei, Sarah, Siros Izadpanah & Gustavo Cunha Araújo
2019. Comparing the effects of different advance organizers on EFL learners’ listening comprehension: Key vocabularies, previewing comprehension questions, and multimedia annotations. Cogent Education 6:1 Crossref logo
Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen
2013. Developing L2 Pragmatics. Language Learning 63  pp. 68 ff. Crossref logo
Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen & David Stringer
2017. Unconventional Expressions: Productive syntax in the L2 acquisition of formulaic language. Second Language Research 33:1  pp. 61 ff. Crossref logo
Boers, Frank
2013. Cognitive Linguistic approaches to teaching vocabulary: Assessment and integration. Language Teaching 46:2  pp. 208 ff. Crossref logo
Boers, Frank, Tu Cam Thi Dang & Brian Strong
2017. Comparing the effectiveness of phrase-focused exercises: A partial replication of Boers, Demecheleer, Coxhead, and Webb (2014). Language Teaching Research 21:3  pp. 362 ff. Crossref logo
Boers, Frank, Murielle Demecheleer, Averil Coxhead & Stuart Webb
2014. Gauging the effects of exercises on verb–noun collocations. Language Teaching Research 18:1  pp. 54 ff. Crossref logo
Boers, Frank, June Eyckmans, Jenny Kappel, Hélène Stengers & Murielle Demecheleer
2006. Formulaic sequences and perceived oral proficiency: putting a Lexical Approach to the test. Language Teaching Research 10:3  pp. 245 ff. Crossref logo
Boers, Frank & Seth Lindstromberg
2012. Experimental and Intervention Studies on Formulaic Sequences in a Second Language. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 32  pp. 83 ff. Crossref logo
Brook O'Donnell, Matthew, Ute Römer & Nick C. Ellis
2015.  In Current Issues in Phraseology [Benjamins Current Topics, 74],  pp. 83 ff. Crossref logo
Buerki, Andreas
2020.  In Formulaic Language and Linguistic Change, Crossref logo
Bui, Thuy, Frank Boers & Averil Coxhead
2019. Extracting multiword expressions from texts with the aid of online resources. ITL - International Journal of Applied Linguistics Crossref logo
Chan, Tun-pei & Hsien-Chin Liou
2005. Effects of Web-based Concordancing Instruction on EFL Students' Learning of Verb – Noun Collocations. Computer Assisted Language Learning 18:3  pp. 231 ff. Crossref logo
Chen, Hao-Jan Howard
2011. Developing and evaluating a web-based collocation retrieval tool for EFL students and teachers. Computer Assisted Language Learning 24:1  pp. 59 ff. Crossref logo
Chen, Howard Hao-Jan, Jian-Cheng Wu, Christine Ting-Yu Yang & Iting Pan
2016. Developing and evaluating a Chinese collocation retrieval tool for CFL students and teachers. Computer Assisted Language Learning 29:1  pp. 21 ff. Crossref logo
Cieślicka, Anna B.
2017.  In Psychology of Bilingualism,  pp. 75 ff. Crossref logo
Conklin, Kathy & Norbert Schmitt
2008. Formulaic Sequences: Are They Processed More Quickly than Nonformulaic Language by Native and Nonnative Speakers?. Applied Linguistics 29:1  pp. 72 ff. Crossref logo
Conklin, Kathy & Norbert Schmitt
2012. The Processing of Formulaic Language. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 32  pp. 45 ff. Crossref logo
Cortes, Viviana
2008. A comparative analysis of lexical bundles in academic history writing in English and Spanish. Corpora 3:1  pp. 43 ff. Crossref logo
Cortes, Viviana
2012.  In The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics, Crossref logo
Coxhead, Averil
2018. Replication research in pedagogical approaches to formulaic sequences: Jones & Haywood (2004) and Alali & Schmitt (2012). Language Teaching 51:1  pp. 113 ff. Crossref logo
Crawford, William J.
2005. Verb Agreement and Disagreement. Journal of English Linguistics 33:1  pp. 35 ff. Crossref logo
Csomay, Eniko
2013. Lexical Bundles in Discourse Structure: A Corpus-Based Study of Classroom Discourse. Applied Linguistics 34:3  pp. 369 ff. Crossref logo
Cubukcu, Feryal & Serkan Turan
2019. Dil Öğretiminde Sözcüksel Yaklaşım ve Türkçede Eşdizimli Sözcüklere Altulamsal Bir Bakış. Ana Dili Eğitimi Dergisi  pp. 486 ff. Crossref logo
Driessen, Carla, Gerard Westhoff, Jacques Haenen & Mieke Brekelmans
2008. A qualitative analysis of language learning tasks: the design of a tool. Journal of Curriculum Studies 40:6  pp. 803 ff. Crossref logo
Durrant, Philip & Norbert Schmitt
2010. Adult learners’ retention of collocations from exposure. Second Language Research 26:2  pp. 163 ff. Crossref logo
Edmonds, Amanda
2014. CONVENTIONAL EXPRESSIONS. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 36:1  pp. 69 ff. Crossref logo
Eerdmans, Susan L. & Micaela Di Candia
2007. Watching paint dry: the sequentiality of idiomatic expressions in NS-NS and NS-NNS talk-in-interaction. Discourse Studies 9:5  pp. 579 ff. Crossref logo
El-Dakhs, Dina Abdel Sala
2015. Collocational Competence in English Language Teaching: An Overview. SSRN Electronic Journal Crossref logo
Ellis, Nick C.
2006. Language Acquisition as Rational Contingency Learning. Applied Linguistics 27:1  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Ellis, Rod
2007. Editorial. Language Teaching Research 11:4  pp. 389 ff. Crossref logo
Erman, Britt, Annika Denke, Lars Fant & Fanny Forsberg Lundell
2015. Nativelike expression in the speech of long-residency L2 users: A study of multiword structures in L2 English, French and Spanish. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 25:2  pp. 160 ff. Crossref logo
Farr, Fiona
2008. Evaluating the Use of Corpus-based Instruction in a Language Teacher Education Context: Perspectives from the Users. Language Awareness 17:1  pp. 25 ff. Crossref logo
Filippas, Apostolos
2017. Strength in Numbers: Using Big Data to Simplify Sentiment Classification. SSRN Electronic Journal Crossref logo
Filippas, Apostolos & Theodoros Lappas
2017. Strength in Numbers: Using Big Data to Simplify Sentiment Classification. Big Data 5:3  pp. 256 ff. Crossref logo
Fitzpatrick, Tess & Alison Wray
2006. Breaking up is not so Hard to do: Individual Differences in L2 Memorization. Canadian Modern Language Review 63:1  pp. 35 ff. Crossref logo
Garnier, Mélodie & Norbert Schmitt
2015. The PHaVE List: A pedagogical list of phrasal verbs and their most frequent meaning senses. Language Teaching Research 19:6  pp. 645 ff. Crossref logo
Gavins, Joanna & Peter Stockwell
2012. About the heart, where it hurt exactly, and how often. Language and Literature: International Journal of Stylistics 21:1  pp. 33 ff. Crossref logo
Geluso, Joe
2013. Phraseology and frequency of occurrence on the web: native speakers’ perceptions of Google-informed second language writing. Computer Assisted Language Learning 26:2  pp. 144 ff. Crossref logo
Ghanbaran, Samira & Saeed Ketabi
2014. Multimedia Games and Vocabulary Learning. Theory and Practice in Language Studies 4:3 Crossref logo
González Fernández, Beatriz & Norbert Schmitt
2015. How much collocation knowledge do L2 learners have?. ITL - International Journal of Applied Linguistics 166:1  pp. 94 ff. Crossref logo
Gómez Burgos, Eric
2015. First Year University Students’ Use of Formulaic Sequences in Oral and Written Descriptions. PROFILE Issues in Teachers' Professional Development 17:1  pp. 25 ff. Crossref logo
Karabacak, Erkan & Jingjing Qin
2013. Comparison of Lexical Bundles used by Turkish, Chinese, and American University Students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 70  pp. 622 ff. Crossref logo
Kashiha, Hadi & Swee Heng Chan
2015. A Little Bit About: Differences in Native and Non-native Speakers’ Use of Formulaic Language. Australian Journal of Linguistics 35:4  pp. 297 ff. Crossref logo
Konzett, Carmen
2011. Book review: Olga Dontcheva-Navratilova and Renata Povolná (eds), Coherence and Cohesion in Spoken and Written Discourse. Discourse Studies 13:6  pp. 826 ff. Crossref logo
Krummes, Cedric & Astrid Ensslin
2015. Formulaic language and collocations in German essays: from corpus-driven data to corpus-based materials. The Language Learning Journal 43:1  pp. 110 ff. Crossref logo
Kuiper, Koenraad, Georgie Columbus & Norbert Schmitt
2009.  In Language Acquisition,  pp. 216 ff. Crossref logo
Lenko-Szymanska, Agnieszka
2014. The acquisition of formulaic language by EFL learners: A cross-sectional and cross-linguistic perspective. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 19:2  pp. 225 ff. Crossref logo
Lessard-Clouston, Michael
2006. Breadth and Depth Specialized Vocabulary Learning in Theology among Native and Non-native English Speakers. Canadian Modern Language Review 63:2  pp. 175 ff. Crossref logo
Lin, Yen-Liang
2013.  In Yearbook of Corpus Linguistics and Pragmatics 2013 [Yearbook of Corpus Linguistics and Pragmatics, 1],  pp. 105 ff. Crossref logo
Lindstromberg, Seth & Frank Boers
2008. The Mnemonic Effect of Noticing Alliteration in Lexical Chunks. Applied Linguistics 29:2  pp. 200 ff. Crossref logo
Lindstromberg, Seth & June Eyckmans
2014. How big is the positive effect of assonance on the recall of L2 collocations?. ITL - International Journal of Applied Linguistics 165:1  pp. 19 ff. Crossref logo
Martinez, Ron & Norbert Schmitt
2012. A Phrasal Expressions List. Applied Linguistics 33:3  pp. 299 ff. Crossref logo
Mirzaei, Azizullah, Masoud Rahimi Domakani & Sedigheh Rahimi
2016. Computerized lexis-based instruction in EFL classrooms: Using multi-purpose LexisBOARD to teach L2 vocabulary. ReCALL 28:1  pp. 22 ff. Crossref logo
Molinaro, Nicola, Paolo Canal, Francesco Vespignani, Francesca Pesciarelli & Cristina Cacciari
2013. Are complex function words processed as semantically empty strings? A reading time and ERP study of collocational complex prepositions. Language and Cognitive Processes 28:6  pp. 762 ff. Crossref logo
Mutlu, Gizem & Özlem Kaşlıoğlu
2016. İngilizceyi Yabancı Dil Olarak Öğrenen Türk Öğrencilerin ve Türk İngilizce Öğretmenlerinin Eşdizimlilik Algısı. Sakarya University Journal of Education  pp. 90 ff. Crossref logo
Nagy, William, Dianna Townsend, Nonie Lesaux & Norbert Schmitt
2012. Words as Tools: Learning Academic Vocabulary as Language Acquisition. Reading Research Quarterly 47:1  pp. 91 ff. Crossref logo
Nini, Andrea
2018. An authorship analysis of the Jack the Ripper letters. Digital Scholarship in the Humanities 33:3  pp. 621 ff. Crossref logo
Olive, Thierry & Georgeta Cislaru
2015.  In Writing(s) at the Crossroads,  pp. 99 ff. Crossref logo
Onoda, Sakae
2014.  In Exploring EFL Fluency in Asia,  pp. 120 ff. Crossref logo
Pan, Yi-Chun, Tzung-Hung Tsai, Yueh-Kuey Huang & Dilin Liu
2018. Effects of expanded vocabulary support on L2 listening comprehension. Language Teaching Research 22:2  pp. 189 ff. Crossref logo
Paquot, Magali
2019. The phraseological dimension in interlanguage complexity research. Second Language Research 35:1  pp. 121 ff. Crossref logo
Pauwels, Paul
2010. Review of Randall, Mick (2007)Memory, Psychology and Second Language Learning. Language Learning and Language Teaching, Volume 19.. ITL - International Journal of Applied Linguistics 160  pp. 138 ff. Crossref logo
Pettitt, Nicole M. & Elaine Tarone
2015. Following Roba: What happens when a low-educated adult immigrant learns to read. Writing Systems Research 7:1  pp. 20 ff. Crossref logo
Pérez Serrano, Mercedes
2018. Which type of instruction fosters chunk learning? Preliminary conclusions. Revista de Lingüística y Lenguas Aplicadas 13:1  pp. 133 ff. Crossref logo
Rafatbakhsh, Elaheh & Alireza Ahmadi
2019. A thematic corpus-based study of idioms in the Corpus of Contemporary American English. Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education 4:1 Crossref logo
Rafieyan, Vahid
2018. Role of knowledge of formulaic sequences in language proficiency: significance and ideal method of instruction. Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education 3:1 Crossref logo
Rott, Susanne
2012.  In The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics, Crossref logo
Ruan, Zhoulin
2017. Lexical Bundles in Chinese Undergraduate Academic Writing at an English Medium University. RELC Journal 48:3  pp. 327 ff. Crossref logo
Römer, Ute
2016. Teaming up and mixing methods: collaborative and cross-disciplinary work in corpus research on phraseology. Corpora 11:1  pp. 113 ff. Crossref logo
Römer, Ute & Cynthia M. Berger
2019. OBSERVING THE EMERGENCE OF CONSTRUCTIONAL KNOWLEDGE. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 41:5  pp. 1089 ff. Crossref logo
Sarygez, Ol'ga Vladimirovna
2018. THE TURKISH CLICHÉ AS AN AUTONOMOUS CATEGORY. Philological Sciences. Issues of Theory and Practice :4-2  pp. 382 ff. Crossref logo
Schmitt, Norbert
2008. Review article: Instructed second language vocabulary learning. Language Teaching Research 12:3  pp. 329 ff. Crossref logo
Schmitt, Norbert
2012.  In The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics, Crossref logo
SCHMITT, NORBERT, XIANGYING JIANG & WILLIAM GRABE
2011. The Percentage of Words Known in a Text and Reading Comprehension. The Modern Language Journal 95:1  pp. 26 ff. Crossref logo
Schmitt, Norbert, Suhad Sonbul, Laura Vilkaitė‐Lozdienė & Marijana Macis
2019.  In The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics,  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Simpson-Vlach, Rita & Nick C. Ellis
2010. An Academic Formulas List: New Methods in Phraseology Research. Applied Linguistics 31:4  pp. 487 ff. Crossref logo
Stengers, Hélène, Julie Deconinck, Frank Boers & June Eyckmans
2016. Does copying idioms promote their recall?. Computer Assisted Language Learning 29:2  pp. 289 ff. Crossref logo
Strik, Helmer, Micha Hulsbosch & Catia Cucchiarini
2010. Analyzing and identifying multiword expressions in spoken language. Language Resources and Evaluation 44:1-2  pp. 41 ff. Crossref logo
Szudarski, Pawel
2012.  In The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics, Crossref logo
Taguchi, Naoko
2007. Chunk learning and the development of spoken discourse in a Japanese as a foreign language classroom. Language Teaching Research 11:4  pp. 433 ff. Crossref logo
Thomson, Haidee, Frank Boers & Averil Coxhead
2019. Replication research in pedagogical approaches to spoken fluency and formulaic sequences: A call for replication of Wood (2009) and Boers, Eyckmans, Kappel, Stengers & Demecheleer (2006). Language Teaching 52:3  pp. 406 ff. Crossref logo
Tremblay, Antoine, Bruce Derwing, Gary Libben & Chris Westbury
2011. Processing Advantages of Lexical Bundles: Evidence From Self-Paced Reading and Sentence Recall Tasks. Language Learning 61:2  pp. 569 ff. Crossref logo
Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana, JiHee Choi, Amy Alken & John J. Sidtis
2015. Formulaic Language in Parkinson's Disease and Alzheimer's Disease: Complementary Effects of Subcortical and Cortical Dysfunction. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 58:5  pp. 1493 ff. Crossref logo
Van Moere, Alistair
2012. A psycholinguistic approach to oral language assessment. Language Testing 29:3  pp. 325 ff. Crossref logo
Verdaguer, Isabel & Judy Noguchi
2018. Identifying verb collocational patterns in a specialized medical journal corpus. Revista Española de Lingüística Aplicada/Spanish Journal of Applied Linguistics 31:2  pp. 660 ff. Crossref logo
Vetchinnikova, Svetlana
2019.  In Phraseology and the Advanced Language Learner, Crossref logo
Vilkaitė, Laura & Norbert Schmitt
2019. Reading Collocations in an L2: Do Collocation Processing Benefits Extend to Non-Adjacent Collocations?. Applied Linguistics 40:2  pp. 329 ff. Crossref logo
Wang, Lei & Chan Chen
2016.  In Assessing Chinese Learners of English,  pp. 101 ff. Crossref logo
Westhoff, Gerard J.
2009. A prioriassessment of language learning tasks by practitioners. Language Teaching 42:4  pp. 504 ff. Crossref logo
WIECHMANN, DANIEL & ELMA KERZ
2016. Formulaicity as a determinant of processing efficiency: investigating clause ordering in complex sentences. English Language and Linguistics 20:3  pp. 421 ff. Crossref logo
Wierzbicka, Anna
2009. Exploring English Phraseology with Two Tools. Journal of English Linguistics 37:2  pp. 101 ff. Crossref logo
WOLTER, BRENT & JUNKO YAMASHITA
2015. Processing collocations in a second language: A case of first language activation?. Applied Psycholinguistics 36:5  pp. 1193 ff. Crossref logo
Yan, Xun
2020. Unpacking the Relationship Between Formulaic Sequences and Speech Fluency on Elicited Imitation Tasks: Proficiency Level, Sentence Length, and Fluency Dimensions. TESOL Quarterly 54:2  pp. 460 ff. Crossref logo
YILMAZ, Nihan & Didem KOBAN KOÇ
2020. Developing pragmatic comprehension and production: corpus-based teaching of formulaic sequences in an EFL setting. Dil ve Dilbilimi Çalışmaları Dergisi 16:1  pp. 474 ff. Crossref logo
YULDASHEV, AZIZ, JULIETA FERNANDEZ & STEVEN L. THORNE
2013. Second Language Learners' Contiguous and Discontiguous Multi-Word Unit Use Over Time. The Modern Language Journal 97:S1  pp. 31 ff. Crossref logo
Çubukçu, Feryal
2019. Assessment and final reports in foreign language lessons. EduLingua 5:1  pp. 57 ff. Crossref logo

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 02 july 2020. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.

Subjects
BIC Subject: CF – Linguistics
BISAC Subject: LAN009000 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  2004041065