Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism

LAB offers online submission . More details can be found below in the 'Submission' section and in the guidelines .

LAB is an international peer-reviewed journal which provides an outlet for cutting-edge studies on linguistic aspects of bilingualism. LAB assumes a broad definition of bilingualism, including work on: adult L2 acquisition/processing, simultaneous child bilingualism, child L2 acquisition/processing, adult and child heritage language bilingualism, L1 attrition in L2/Ln environments, and adult/child L3/Ln acquisition/processing. LAB publishes original research with a linguistic focus on the understanding of bilingual language acquisition and processing and the effects bilingualism has on cognition and the brain. LAB does not publish papers predominantly dealing with educational, psychological or social topics.

LABis celebrating its 10-year anniversary in 2020/2021. To mark this occasion, we granted the first Junior Researcher LAB award at EuroSLA 30 in Barcelona ( We will be offering the award again at EuroSLA 31 in 2022 (more information to follow soon).

Please visit the JBE platform where you can find our ten most cited papers:

LAB publishes its articles Online First.

Ranking 16/183 in Linguistics (JCR 2018)

ISSN 1879-9264 | E-ISSN 1879-9272
Sample issue: LAB 7:1
Holger Hopp | University of Braunschweig
Tanja Kupisch | University of Konstanz & UiT the Artic University of Norway
Editorial Assistant
Anika Lloyd-Smith | University of Konstanz
Associate Editors
Jennifer Cabrelli | University of Illinois at Chicago
Vicky Chondrogianni | University of Edinburgh
Ian Cunnings | University of Reading
Cristina Flores | University of Minho
Carrie N. Jackson | Pennsylvania State University
Margaret Kehoe | University of Zurich
Gerrit Jan Kootstra | Radboud University
Tania Leal | University of Nevada, Reno
Eleonora Rossi | University of Florida
Neal Snape | Gunma Prefectural Women’s University & Chuo University
Founding Editors
Jason Rothman | UiT the Artic University of Norway & Universidad Nebrija
Roumyana Slabakova | University of Southampton & University of Iowa
Editorial Board
Ellen Bialystok | York University
Mirjam Broersma | Radboud University Nijmegen
Emanuel Bylund | Stockholm University
Susanne Elizabeth Carroll | University of Calgary
Deborah Chen Pichler | Gallaudet University
Paola E. Dussias | Pennsylvania State University
María del Pilar García Mayo | Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU
Jorge González Alonso | UiT the Arctic University of Norway
Stefan Th. Gries | University of California at Santa Barbara
Theres Grüter | University of Hawaii
Ayşe Gürel | Bogazici University
Erika Hoff | Florida Atlantic University
Noriko Hoshino | Tsuda University
Tania Ionin | University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Alan Juffs | University of Pittsburgh
Edith Kaan | University of Florida at Gainesville
Tihana Kraš | University of Rijeka
Judith F. Kroll | University of California, Irvine
Donna Lardiere | Georgetown University
Li Wei | UCL IOE
Terje Lohndal | NTNU Trondheim
Viorica Marian | Northwestern University
Theodoros Marinis | University of Konstanz
David Miller | University of Illinois at Chicago
Mary Grantham O’Brien | University of Calgary
William O’Grady | University of Hawaii
Öner Özçelik | Indiana University
Johanne Paradis | University of Alberta
Maria Polinsky | University of Maryland
Michael T. Putnam | Pennsylvania State University
Yulia Rodina | UiT the Arctic University of Norway
Monika S. Schmid | University of Essex
Bonnie D. Schwartz | University of Hawaii
Ludovica Serratrice | University of Reading
Antonella Sorace | University of Edinburgh
Debra Titone | McGill University
Ianthi Maria Tsimpli | University of Cambridge
Sharon Unsworth | Radboud University Nijmegen
Bill VanPatten | Michigan State University
Shigenori Wakabayashi | Chuo University
Marit Westergaard | UiT the Arctic University of Norway
Lydia White | McGill University
Magdalena Wrembel | Adam Mickiewicz University
Stefanie Wulff | University of Florida at Gainesville
Subscription Info
Current issue: 11:4, available as of June 2021

General information about our electronic journals.

Subscription rates

All prices for print + online include postage/handling.

Online-only Print + online
Volume 12 (2022): 6 issues; ca. 900 pp. EUR 339.00 EUR 392.00
Volume 11 (2021): 6 issues; ca. 900 pp. EUR 339.00 EUR 392.00

Individuals may apply for a special subscription rate of EUR 60.00 (online‑only: EUR 55.00)
Private subscriptions are for personal use only, and must be pre-paid and ordered directly from the publisher.

Available back-volumes

Online-only Print + online
Complete backset
(Vols. 1‒10; 2011‒2020)
50 issues;
6,500 pp.
EUR 2,544.00 EUR 2,825.00
Volume 10 (2020) 6 issues; 900 pp. EUR 339.00 EUR 392.00
Volume 9 (2019) 6 issues; 900 pp. EUR 322.00 EUR 373.00
Volume 8 (2018) 6 issues; 900 pp. EUR 313.00 EUR 362.00
Volume 7 (2017) 6 issues; 750 pp. EUR 276.00 EUR 319.00
Volume 6 (2016) 6 issues; 750 pp. EUR 276.00 EUR 310.00
Volume 5 (2015) 4 issues; 500 pp. EUR 221.00 EUR 241.00
Volume 4 (2014) 4 issues; 500 pp. EUR 221.00 EUR 234.00
Volume 3 (2013) 4 issues; 500 pp. EUR 196.00 EUR 202.00
Volumes 1‒2 (2011‒2012) 4 issues; avg. 400 pp. EUR 190.00 each EUR 196.00 each
IssuesOnline-first articles

Volume 11 (2021)

Volume 10 (2020)

Volume 9 (2019)

Volume 8 (2018)

Volume 7 (2017)

Volume 6 (2016)

Volume 5 (2015)

Volume 4 (2014)

Volume 3 (2013)

Volume 2 (2012)

Volume 1 (2011)

Latest articles

16 September 2021

  • Storytelling in bilingual Turkish-Swedish children : Effects of language, age and exposure on narrative macrostructure
    Ute Bohnacker , Josefin Lindgren & Buket Öztekin
  • 14 September 2021

  • Grammatical gender in Spanish child heritage speakers : Incomplete or different acquisition?
    Lourdes Martinez-Nieto & Maria Adelaida Restrepo
  • 7 September 2021

  • Macrostructure in narratives produced by Lebanese Arabic-French bilingual children : Developmental trends and links with language dominance, exposure to narratives and lexical skills
    Rachel Fiani , Guillemette Henry & Philippe Prévost
  • 20 August 2021

  • Who did what to whom, and what did we already know? Word order and information structure in heritage and L2 Russian
    Tania Ionin , Maria Goldshtein , Tatiana Luchkina & Sofya Styrina
  • The role of existing language knowledge in bilingual and multilingual toddlers’ repetition of cross-linguistic and language-specific nonwords
    Josje Verhagen & Sible Andringa
  • 16 July 2021

  • Native language, L2 experience, and pitch processing in music
    Ao Chen , Melis Çetinçelik , M. Paula Roncaglia-Denissen & Makiko Sadakata
  • Re-examining the role of mood selection type in Spanish heritage speakers’ subjunctive production
    Silvia Perez-Cortes
  • 6 July 2021

  • Constraints on subject-verb agreement marking in Turkish-German bilingual speakers
    Serkan Uygun & Claudia Felser
  • 24 June 2021

  • Bilingualism and the declining brain
    Christos Pliatsikas , Ana Inés Ansaldo & Toms Voits | LAB 11:4 (2021) pp. 453–458
  • 14 June 2021

  • Electrophysiological insights into the role of proficiency in bilingual novel and conventional metaphor processing
    Xin Wang & Katarzyna Jankowiak
  • 28 May 2021

  • Variable V2 in Norwegian heritage language : An effect of crosslinguistic influence?
    Marit Westergaard , Terje Lohndal & Björn Lundquist
  • 15 April 2021

  • Facilitative use of grammatical gender in Heritage Spanish
    Zuzanna Fuchs
  • Properties of child-directed speech in bilingual parents : A study on partial repetitions
    Yezhou Li & Luca Onnis
  • Variation and stability of American Norwegian /r/ in contact
    David Natvig
  • 30 March 2021

  • Gender assignment strategies and L1 effects in the elicited production of mixed Spanish-Basque DPs
    Amaia Munarriz-Ibarrola , Maria-José Ezeizabarrena , Varun DC Arrazola & M. Carmen Parafita Couto
  • 4 March 2021

  • Focus prosody by Korean learners of English
    Jun Liu & Yong-cheol Lee
  • 1 March 2021

  • On transfer and third language acquisition : A commentary on Schwartz & Sprouse
    Ute Bohnacker | LAB 11:1 (2021) pp. 37–44
  • The Parasitic Model : Lexical acquisition and its impact on morphosyntactic transfer
    Peter Ecke & Christopher J. Hall | LAB 11:1 (2021) pp. 45–49
  • Transfer patterns in L3 learning discussed
    Ylva Falk & Camilla Bardel | LAB 11:1 (2021) pp. 50–53
  • Vindicating the need for a principled theory of language acquisition
    Éva Fernández-Berkes & Suzanne Flynn | LAB 11:1 (2021) pp. 30–36
  • You know more than you say : Methodological choices in L3 transfer research
    Jorge González Alonso & Eloi Puig-Mayenco | LAB 11:1 (2021) pp. 54–59
  • Expanding the scope of L3 transfer study designs
    M. Juncal Gutierrez-Mangado | LAB 11:1 (2021) pp. 60–64
  • Sources of knowledge in L3 acquisition
    Tania Ionin & Hélade Scutti Santos | LAB 11:1 (2021) pp. 65–69
  • What about partial access to UG?
    Carol Jaensch | LAB 11:1 (2021) pp. 70–74
  • Some challenges of relating wholesale transfer approaches to L3 linguistic behavior
    Sol Lago | LAB 11:1 (2021) pp. 75–78
  • When there’s no mirror image, and other L3 research design challenges
    Heather Marsden | LAB 11:1 (2021) pp. 79–83
  • Retrodiction in science : With great power comes great responsibility
    David Miller & Michael Iverson | LAB 11:1 (2021) pp. 84–88
  • Cognitive states in third language acquisition and beyond : Theoretical and methodological paths forward
    Sergio Miguel Pereira Soares & Jason Rothman | LAB 11:1 (2021) pp. 89–95
  • Does Full Transfer Endure in L3A?
    Roumyana Slabakova | LAB 11:1 (2021) p. 96
  • The plausibility of wholesale vs. property-by-property transfer in L3 acquisition
    Marit Westergaard | LAB 11:1 (2021) pp. 103–108
  • Transfer vs. dynamic cross-linguistic interactions : Exploring alternative avenues in L3 research
    Magdalena Wrembel | LAB 11:1 (2021) pp. 109–115
  • Prosodic transfer across constructions and domains in L2 inflectional morphology
    Gavin Austin , Heejin Chang , Nayoung Kim & Eoin Daly
  • The Full Transfer/Full Access model and L3 cognitive states
    Bonnie D. Schwartz & Rex A. Sprouse | LAB 11:1 (2021) pp. 1–29
  • Making models, making predictions
    Bonnie D. Schwartz & Rex A. Sprouse | LAB 11:1 (2021) pp. 116–129
  • 19 February 2021

  • How to mix : Confronting “mixed” NP models and bilinguals’ choices
    Rena Torres Cacoullos , Nathalie Dion , Dora LaCasse & Shana Poplack
  • 18 February 2021

  • The Mandarin ba-construction in school-age heritage speakers and their parental input
    Ziyin Mai , Lucy Zhao & Virginia Yip
  • 16 February 2021

  • Mapping different L1 dialects to L2 words
    Christine Shea
  • Macrostructure in the narratives of Indonesian-Dutch bilinguals : Relation to age and exposure
    Elena Tribushinina , Mila Irmawati & Pim Mak
  • 5 February 2021

  • Cross-linguistic influence in the second language processing of Korean morphological and syntactic causative constructions
    Sun Hee Park & Hyunwoo Kim
  • 28 January 2021

  • How do age, language, narrative task, language proficiency and exposure affect narrative macrostructure in German-Swedish bilingual children aged 4 to 6?
    Josefin Lindgren & Ute Bohnacker
  • 18 January 2021

  • Shared syntactic representations in bilinguals : Evidence from the constituent-structure-independent passive priming between Cantonese and English
    Yoonsang Song & Ryan K. Y. Lai
  • 30 November 2020

  • To hón ich imma insistieat : Syntactic stability in heritage Hunsrückisch German spoken in Brazil
    Cristina Flores , Esther Rinke & Claudia Wagner
  • 26 November 2020

  • Second language immersion impacts native language lexical production and comprehension
    Mona Roxana Botezatu , Judith F. Kroll , Morgan I. Trachsel & Taomei Guo
  • 19 November 2020

  • Simultaneous bilinguals who do not speak a tone language show enhancement in pitch sensitivity but not in executive function
    Liquan Liu , Ao Chen & René Kager
  • 9 October 2020

  • Asymmetrical cross-language phonetic interaction : Phonological implications
    Geoffrey Schwartz
  • 6 October 2020

  • Online processing and offline judgments of L2-English articles
    Jacee Cho
  • 30 September 2020

  • L1 Phonetic permeability and phonetic path towards a potential merger : The case of Galician mid vowels in bilingual production
    Monica de la Fuente Iglesias & Susana Pérez Castillejo
  • 24 September 2020

  • An investigation into utterance-fluency patterns of advanced L2 bilinguals : Afrikaans and Spanish in Patagonia
    Lorenzo García-Amaya
  • 3 July 2020

  • Dimensions of bilingualism promoting cognitive control : Impacts of language context and onset age of active bilingualism on mixing and switching costs
    Iryna Khodos & Christo Moskovsky
  • 22 June 2020

  • A usage-based approach to productive use of inflectional patterns and level of lemma sophistication in adult heritage speakers’ performance : Convergence on the immigrant variety
    Tuğba Karayayla
  • The effect of animacy on object pronoun distinctions in L2 Spanish
    Michael Kevin Olsen & Alan Juffs
  • 3 June 2020

  • Mental representations in receptive multilingual grammars
    Bonnie C. Holmes & Michael T. Putnam | LAB 10:3 (2020) pp. 309–314
  • 25 May 2020

  • How do Spanish heritage speakers in the US assign gender to English nouns in Spanish-English code-switching? The effect of noun canonicity and codeswitcher type
    Nofiya Denbaum & Ana de Prada Pérez
  • What transfers (or doesn’t) in the second language acquisition of English articles by learners from article-less native languages?
    Tania Ionin , Sea Hee Choi & Qiufen Liu
  • 15 May 2020

  • The syntactic status of English dative alternation structures in bilingual and in monolingual acquisition data
    Raquel Fernández Fuertes & Silvia Sánchez Calderón
  • 12 May 2020

  • Type of early bilingualism effect on the delateralization of /ʎ/ in Basque and Spanish
    Ander Beristain
  • Cross-linguistic influence in word order : Effects of age, dominance and surface overlap
    Jasmijn E. Bosch & Sharon Unsworth
  • 29 April 2020

  • A classification of receptive bilinguals : Why we need to distinguish them, and what they have in common
    Marina Sherkina-Lieber | LAB 10:3 (2020) pp. 412–440
  • 23 March 2020

  • Children’s thinking-for-speaking : Bidirectional effects of L1 Turkish and L2 English for motion events
    Asli Aktan-Erciyes , Tilbe Göksun , Ali İzzet Tekcan & Ayhan Aksu-Koç
  • Submission

    Four types of articles appear in LAB:

    Linguistic Approached to Bilingualism offers online submission

    Before submitting, please consult the guidelines and the Short Guide to EM for Authors.

    If you are not able to submit online, or for any other editorial correspondence, please contact the editors via e-mail: editorial at

    Information about Open Access options can be found on our OA Policy page.



    The default review policy for LAB is double blind review. All author names, affiliations and other references to the authors' identity must be removed from the manuscript.

    Guidelines for Contributors

    Types of articles:

    General Research articles: 8,000-10,000 word articles that present original empirical research pertinent to the study of cognitive-linguistic bilingualism.

    Squibs and Research Reports: These small articles should not exceed 5,000 words and should present research on ongoing theoretical projects or subsets of data sets making significant contributions that are time sensitive. Accelerated review will be conducted.

    Epistemological Topics: these articles on topics of general epistemological interest in the sub-disciplines that contribute research to the journal will be between 8,000 and 12,000 words and will be by invitation only.

    Spotlight issue: Annually, one Spotlight issue will be published focusing on research of one particular language, language family or a cohort of articles addressing the same theoretical questions within the remit of the journal. Proposals for guest editing this issue should be sent to the editors and not exceed 3 pages.

    1. All inquiries should be directed towards the editors by e-mailing the journal at editorial at

    2. Contributions must be in English and spelling should be either American English or British English and should be consistent throughout the paper. If not written by a native speaker, it is advisable to have the paper checked by a native speaker prior to submission.

    3. All articles published in LAB are double-blind peer reviewed. For initial submission, authors should therefore deliver their MANUSCRIPT in electronic form (Word or rtf, accompanied by an identical PDF file), double-spaced with 3 cm/1 inch margins.

    4. Upon acceptance, the author will be requested to furnish the FINAL VERSION in electronic form (Word or rtf), accompanied by an identical PDF file. For the final accepted version the following standards MUST be followed:

    5. Authors are responsible for observing copyright laws when quoting or reproducing material. The copyright of articles published in LAB is held by the publisher. Permission for the author to use the article elsewhere will be granted by the publisher provided full acknowledgement is given to the source.

    6. Papers should be reasonably divided into sections and, if appropriate subsections. The headings of these subsections should be numbered in Arabic numerals (1.; 1.1.; 1.1.1.).

    7. Line drawings (FIGURES) should be submitted as reproducible originals. They should be numbered consecutively, and appropriate captions should be provided. Reference to any FIGURES should be given in the appropriate place where they should appear.

    8. TABLES should be numbered consecutively and should be referred to in the main text.

    9. NOTES should appear as FOOTNOTES and should be concise, kept to a minimum, and numbered consecutively throughout the paper.

    10. REFERENCES and all formatting in general, including for the reporting of STATISTICS, should follow the guidelines set out by the APA. Please consult the style sheet for a summary of the main points to which you should pay particular attention.

    11. Authors are kindly requested to check their manuscripts very carefully before submission in order to avoid delays in publication. The first author will receive a PDF file with page proofs for final correction. One set must be returned with corrections by the dates determined by the publication schedule. Any author’s alterations other than typographical corrections in the page proofs may be charged to the author.

    12. Authors of main articles as well as reviews will receive a complementary copy of the issue in which their paper appears.

    13. Manuscripts should be submitted through the journal’s online submission and manuscript tracking site.

    14. Information about Open Access options can be found on our OA Policy page.

    If you are not able to submit online, or for any other editorial correspondence, please contact the editors: editorial at



    Main BIC Subject

    CFDM: Bilingualism & multilingualism

    Main BISAC Subject

    LAN009000: LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General