Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism

Main information
Holger Hopp | University of Braunschweig
ORCID logoTanja Kupisch | University of Konstanz & UiT the Artic University of Norway
Associate Editors
ORCID logoJennifer Cabrelli | University of Illinois at Chicago
ORCID logoVicky Chondrogianni | University of Edinburgh
ORCID logoIan Cunnings | University of Reading
ORCID logoCristina Flores | University of Minho
Carrie N. Jackson | Pennsylvania State University
ORCID logoMargaret M. Kehoe | University of Zurich
Gerrit Jan Kootstra | Radboud University
ORCID logoTania Leal | University of Nevada, Reno
ORCID logoEleonora Rossi | University of Florida
ORCID logoNeal Snape | Gunma Prefectural Women’s University & Chuo University
Founding Editors
Jason Rothman | UiT the Artic University of Norway & Universidad Nebrija
ORCID logoRoumyana Slabakova | University of Southampton & University of Iowa

LAB offers online submission.More details can be found below in the Submissionsection and in the guidelines.

LAB is an international peer-reviewed journal which provides an outlet for cutting-edge studies on linguistic aspects of bilingualism. LAB assumes a broad definition of bilingualism, including work on: adult L2 acquisition/processing, simultaneous child bilingualism, child L2 acquisition/processing, adult and child heritage language bilingualism, L1 attrition in L2/Ln environments, and adult/child L3/Ln acquisition/processing. LAB publishes original research with a linguistic focus on the understanding of bilingual language acquisition and processing and the effects bilingualism has on cognition and the brain. LAB does not publish papers predominantly dealing with educational, psychological or social topics.

To mark its 10-year anniversary, LAB granted the first Junior Research LAB Award at EuroSLA 30 in Barcelona in 2021. We are offering this award again at EuroSLA 32 in Birmingham in 2023. Please see EuroSLA 32 website for more information.

ISSN: 1879-9264 | E-ISSN: 1879-9272
DOI logo
Latest articles

13 March 2023

  • Mixing adjectives : A variable equivalence hypothesis for bilingual word order conflicts
    Rena Torres Cacoullos Jessica Vélez Avilés
  • 8 March 2023

  • Frequency effects and aspect morphology with state verbs in heritage Spanish
    Patrick D. Thane
  • 2 February 2023

  • Carefully considering the need, precision, and usefulness of classifying bilingual speakers in language shift contexts
    Luiz Amaral Liliana Sánchez | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 45–50
  • What linguistic innovation tells us
    Joshua Bousquette , Robert Klosinski Michael T. Putnam | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 51–55
  • A complex solution to an unsolvable problem?
    Roberta D’Alessandro | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 40–44
  • Challenges in doing research to support language revitalization aims
    Kendall A. King | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 56–59
  • Embracing linguistic variation in shift ecologies : The dominant language varies too
    Oksana Laleko Olesya Kisselev | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 60–64
  • Methodological challenges in working with Indigenous communities
    Anika Lloyd-Smith Tanja Kupisch | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 65–69
  • Cultural attitudes and linguistic processes in Karajá
    Marcus Maia Juliana Novo Gomes | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 70–75
  • Quantifying the language dynamics of bilingual communities
    Felicity Meakins | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 76–82
  • The Roots of Endangerment
    William O’Grady , Raina Heaton Sharon Bulalang | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 83–87
  • Insights from the perspective of language ecologies and new contact languages in Australia
    Carmel O’Shannessy Denise Angelo | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 88–92
  • Expanding bilingualism research through fieldwork in language shift ecologies
    Jorge Emilio Rosés Labrada | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 93–99
  • How unique is the linguistic situation of endangered language speakers?
    Aldona Sopata , Esther Rinke Cristina Flores | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 100–105
  • Variationist sociolinguistic methods with Indigenous language communities
    James N. Stanford | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 106–111
  • Emergent bilingualism in language awakening ecologies
    Allison Taylor-Adams | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 112–116
  • Language shift ecologies in the Americas
    Rosa Vallejos-Yopán Josefina Bittar | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 117–121
  • The dynamics of bilingualism in language shift ecologies
    Lenore A Grenoble Boris Osipov | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 1–39
  • Understanding language shift
    Lenore A Grenoble Boris Osipov | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 122–132
  • 23 January 2023

  • The LexTALE as a measure of L2 global proficiency : A cautionary tale based on a partial replication of Lemhöfer and Broersma (2012)
    Eloi Puig-Mayenco , Adel Chaouch-Orozco , Hong Liu Fernando Martín-Villena
  • 10 January 2023

  • Null and overt pronoun interpretation in L2 Mandarin resultative constructions
    Roumyana Slabakova , Lucy Zhao , Lewis Baker , James Turner Elina Tuniyan
  • 31 October 2022

  • Syntactic outcomes of socially (un)restricted bilingualism in Spain : Word order with unergative and unaccusative verbs across two generations of Basque speakers
    Ager Gondra
  • Bilinguals produce language-specific voice onset time in two true-voicing languages : The case of Basque-Spanish early bilinguals
    Christoforos Souganidis , Nicola Molinaro Antje Stoehr
  • 13 October 2022

  • The Bilingual Code-Switching Profile (BCSP) : Assessing the reliability and validity of the BCSP questionnaire
    Daniel J. Olson
  • 8 September 2022

  • L2 acquisition of the Chinese plural marker -men by English and Korean speakers
    Jiajia Su
  • 6 September 2022

  • Proficiency in a second language influences processing of print-to-sound mappings
    Mona Roxana Botezatu , Maya Misra Judith F. Kroll
  • Subject pronouns in Spanish-English code-switching : A test of two models
    Amy Bustin , Antje Muntendam Gretchen Sunderman
  • 9 August 2022

  • Storytelling in bilingual children : How organization of narratives is (not) affected by linguistic skills and environmental factors
    Natalia Gagarina Ute Bohnacker | LAB 12:4 (2022) pp. 407–412
  • 29 July 2022

  • Naïve English-speaking learners’ use of indirect positive evidence : The case of Mandarin plural marking
    Ying Li Heather Goad
  • 7 July 2022

  • The effects of using two varieties of one language on cognition : Evidence from bidialectalism and diglossia
    Najla Alrwaita , Carmel Houston-Price Christos Pliatsikas
  • 9 June 2022

  • L2 tolerance of pragmatic violations of informativeness : Evidence from ad hoc implicatures and contrastive inference
    Shuo Feng
  • 31 May 2022

  • The impact of language dominance on Russian-Hebrew bilingual children’s narrative production : Microstructure, macrostructure, and Internal State Terms
    Sveta Fichman , Joel Walters , Sharon Armon-Lotem Carmit Altman | LAB 12:4 (2022) pp. 509–539
  • 12 May 2022

  • Variation versus deviation : Early bilingual acquisition of Spanish Differential Object Marking
    Pablo E. Requena
  • 7 March 2022

  • Relative clauses in child heritage speakers of Turkish in the United States
    Aylin Coşkun Kunduz Silvina Montrul
  • 2 March 2022

  • L2 processing of filled gaps : Non-native brain activity not modulated by proficiency and working memory
    Zhiyin Renee Dong , Chao Han , Arild Hestvik Gabriella Hermon
  • 21 February 2022

  • Codeswitching and the Egyptian Arabic construct state : Evidence for the wordhood of a complex syntactic unit
    Yourdanis Sedarous
  • 3 February 2022

  • Phonological parsing via an integrated I-language : The emergence of property-by-property transfer effects in L3 phonology
    John Archibald
  • 20 January 2022

  • Crosslinguistic influence from Catalan and Yucatec Maya on judgments and processing of Spanish focus
    Bradley Hoot Tania Leal
  • 13 December 2021

  • The differential impact of age of onset of bilingualism and language exposure for bilingual children with DLD and ASD
    Sharon Armon-Lotem Natalia Meir | LAB 12:1 (2022) pp. 33–38
  • Bringing together autism and bilingualism research: Language matters
    Bérengère G. Digard Antonella Sorace | LAB 12:1 (2022) pp. 44–47
  • Expanding contexts for exploring the intersection of autism and bilingualism
    Megan C. Gross Helen Tager-Flusberg | LAB 12:1 (2022) pp. 48–53
  • The “what” and “how” of measuring
    Maria Teresa Guasti | LAB 12:1 (2022) pp. 54–58
  • Language competence and beyond : Understanding the lived experience of bilingualism for autistic people
    Napoleon Katsos Jenny L. Gibson | LAB 12:1 (2022) pp. 65–70
  • A constellation of continua : Reconceptualising bilingualism, autism and language research
    Draško Kašćelan Cécile De Cat | LAB 12:1 (2022) pp. 59–64
  • Pragmatic disorder of monolingual and bilingual children with autism
    Rama Novodgrodsky | LAB 12:1 (2022) pp. 71–75
  • Language-developmental trajectory in autism : Data collection, social communication, statistical learning and autistic traits
    Jeannette Schaeffer Ileana Grama
  • Heterogeneity in bilingualism and autism : Two of a kind?
    Petra Schulz | LAB 12:1 (2022) pp. 76–81
  • On how linguistically-informed research can further address heterogeneity in bilingualism and autism
    Ianthi M. Tsimpli | LAB 12:1 (2022) pp. 82–86
  • The role of emotion in language development among bilingual children with autism spectrum disorders : A critical void
    Chenggang Wu Juan Zhang | LAB 12:1 (2022) pp. 87–91
  • Bilingualism and autism : The importance of studying language control as part of bilingual language development
    Angela de Bruin Marianna E. Hayiou-Thomas | LAB 12:1 (2022) pp. 39–43
  • Bilingual language development in autism
    Philippe Prévost Laurice Tuller | LAB 12:1 (2022) pp. 1–32
  • Response to Commentaries on bilingual language development in autism
    Philippe Prévost Laurice Tuller | LAB 12:1 (2022) p. 92
  • 26 November 2021

  • Asymmetric transfer and development of temporal-aspectual sentence-final particles in English-Cantonese bilinguals’ L3 Mandarin grammars
    Yanyu Guo Boping Yuan
  • The use of default forms in codeswitching : Mood selection in Spanish
    Ana de Prada Pérez , Nicholas Feroce Lillian Kennedy
  • 18 November 2021

  • Reviewers for Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism in 2020 and 2021
    LAB 11:6 (2021) pp. 909–914
  • 16 November 2021

  • Comprehension and production of non-canonical word orders in Mandarin-speaking child heritage speakers
    Jiuzhou Hao Vasiliki Chondrogianni
  • L2 acquisition of definiteness in Japanese floating numeral quantifiers : Can overt L1 morphology help?
    Keisuke Kume Heather Marsden
  • 2 November 2021

  • How explicit instruction improves phonological awareness and perception of L2 sound contrasts in younger and older adults
    Emily Felker , Esther Janse , Mirjam Ernestus Mirjam Broersma
  • IssuesOnline-first articles

    Volume 13 (2023)

    Volume 12 (2022)

    Volume 11 (2021)

    Volume 10 (2020)

    Volume 9 (2019)

    Volume 8 (2018)

    Volume 7 (2017)

    Volume 6 (2016)

    Volume 5 (2015)

    Volume 4 (2014)

    Volume 3 (2013)

    Volume 2 (2012)

    Volume 1 (2011)

    Editorial Assistant
    ORCID logoAnika Lloyd-Smith | University of Konstanz
    Editorial Board
    ORCID logoEllen Bialystok | York University
    ORCID logoMirjam Broersma | Radboud University Nijmegen
    Emanuel Bylund | Stockholm University
    ORCID logoSusanne Elizabeth Carroll | University of Calgary
    Deborah Chen Pichler | Gallaudet University
    Paola E. Dussias | Pennsylvania State University
    ORCID logoMaría del Pilar García Mayo | Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU
    Jorge González Alonso | UiT the Arctic University of Norway
    ORCID logoStefan Th. Gries | University of California at Santa Barbara
    Theres Grüter | University of Hawaii
    Ayşe Gürel | Bogazici University
    Erika Hoff | Florida Atlantic University
    Noriko Hoshino | Tsuda University
    ORCID logoTania Ionin | University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
    ORCID logoAlan Juffs | University of Pittsburgh
    Edith Kaan | University of Florida at Gainesville
    Tihana Kraš | University of Rijeka
    Judith F. Kroll | University of California, Irvine
    Donna Lardiere | Georgetown University
    ORCID logo Li Wei | UCL IOE
    ORCID logoTerje Lohndal | NTNU Trondheim
    Viorica Marian | Northwestern University
    ORCID logoTheodoros Marinis | University of Konstanz
    ORCID logoDavid Miller | University of Illinois at Chicago
    ORCID logoMary Grantham O’Brien | University of Calgary
    William O’Grady | University of Hawaii
    Öner Özçelik | Indiana University
    Johanne Paradis | University of Alberta
    ORCID logoMaria Polinsky | University of Maryland
    ORCID logoMichael T. Putnam | Pennsylvania State University
    ORCID logoYulia Rodina | UiT the Arctic University of Norway
    ORCID logoMonika S. Schmid | University of Essex
    Bonnie D. Schwartz | University of Hawaii
    ORCID logoLudovica Serratrice | University of Reading
    Antonella Sorace | University of Edinburgh
    ORCID logoDebra Titone | McGill University
    ORCID logoIanthi Maria Tsimpli | University of Cambridge
    Sharon Unsworth | Radboud University Nijmegen
    Bill VanPatten | Michigan State University
    ORCID logoShigenori Wakabayashi | Chuo University
    ORCID logoMarit Westergaard | UiT the Arctic University of Norway
    ORCID logoLydia White | McGill University
    ORCID logoMagdalena Wrembel | Adam Mickiewicz University
    ORCID logoStefanie Wulff | University of Florida at Gainesville
    Subscription Info
    Current issue: 13:1, available as of February 2023
    Next issue: 13:2, expected April 2023

    General information about our electronic journals.

    Subscription rates

    All prices for print + online include postage/handling.

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    Volume 13 (2023): 6 issues; ca. 900 pp. EUR 339.00 EUR 400.00

    Individuals may apply for a special subscription rate of EUR 60.00 (online‑only:  EUR 55.00)
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    Available back-volumes

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    Volumes 10‒12 (2020‒2022) 6 issues; avg. 900 pp. EUR 339.00 per volume EUR 392.00 per volume
    Volume 9 (2019) 6 issues; 900 pp. EUR 322.00 EUR 373.00
    Volume 8 (2018) 6 issues; 900 pp. EUR 313.00 EUR 362.00
    Volume 7 (2017) 6 issues; 750 pp. EUR 276.00 EUR 319.00
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    Volume 5 (2015) 4 issues; 500 pp. EUR 221.00 EUR 241.00
    Volume 4 (2014) 4 issues; 500 pp. EUR 221.00 EUR 234.00
    Volume 3 (2013) 4 issues; 500 pp. EUR 196.00 EUR 202.00
    Volumes 1‒2 (2011‒2012) 4 issues; avg. 400 pp. EUR 190.00 per volume EUR 196.00 per volume

    Types of articles

    The default review policy for LAB is double blind review. All author names, affiliations and other references to the authors' identity must be removed from the manuscript.

    General research articles: 8,000-10,000 word articles (including tables, figures, and references) that present original empirical research pertinent to the study of cognitive-linguistic bilingualism.

    Birdseye article: 8,000-10,000 word articles that present authoritative overviews, narrative syntheses, or meta-analyses of a relevant topic.

    Squibs and Research Reports: These small articles should not exceed 5,000 words (including tables, figures, and references) and should present research on ongoing theoretical projects or subsets of data sets making significant contributions that are time sensitive. Accelerated review will be conducted.

    Epistemological articles: These articles on topics of general epistemological interest in the sub-disciplines that contribute research to the journal will be between 8,000 and 12,000 words and will be by invitation only.

    Special issue: Annually, one special issue will be published on a topic of current interest within the remit of the journal. Proposals for guest editing this issue should be sent to the editors and not exceed 3 pages. On top of information on how the SI relates to the remit of LAB, the proposal should outline the scope and the content of the SI, give a list of potential contributors, and provide information on how a Call for Papers will be disseminated.

    All manuscripts need to conform to the APA7 guidelines and to the LAB style sheet, or they will be returned to the authors. Please consult the style sheet and the guidelines section for more information.

    All inquiries should be directed towards the editors by e-mailing the journal at editorial at


    Submissions to LAB should consist of original work that has not been previously published and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. LAB will consider submissions that make novel theoretical or empirical contributions to one or more of the areas and domains within the remit of LAB, as laid out on the website. Consideration will only be given to papers conforming to the following requirements:

    1. Contributions must be in English and spelling should be either American English or British English and should be consistent throughout the paper. If not written by a native speaker, please have the paper proof-read prior to submission. There will be no further language proofing after acceptance.
    2. All submissions need to accompanied by a cover letter. In the cover letter, authors need to:
      - Explain how the submission fits the remit of LAB.
      - Outline the novelty of the submission and its theoretical and/or empirical contribution.
      - Provide five highlights of the submission that outline the core findings of the submission. Highlights consist of 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point).
      - Address all points required in the section “Reseach standards and public availability of study data, and code”.
    3. All manuscripts need to conform to the APA7 guidelines and to the LAB style sheet, or they will be returned to the authors. Please consult the style sheet for more information.
    4. Manuscripts should be submitted through the journal’s online submission and manuscript tracking site.
    5. If you are unable to submit online, or for any other editorial correspondence, please contact the editors: editorial at

    Research standards and public availability of data and code

    LAB looks for high standards of research, including samples with enough statistical power to test the hypotheses, appropriate methods of statistical analysis, and public availability of data. In your cover letter provided during the submission process, please indicate how these standards have been achieved. At a minimum, you should provide information on your choice of statistical analysis and how you have made available public and free access to a repository with the data used for the analysis, and analysis code.

    In cases where authors do not own data or code, please state where and how readers can access these elements (anonymized during the review process). In cases where authors cannot share data due to participant privacy concerns or other issues, provide a clear explanation of why the data cannot be sufficiently anonymized for the purpose of responsible sharing, and/or why they are otherwise not shareable. All manuscripts submitted will be subject to an initial check to make sure that the above requirements are met. Missing, incomplete, or otherwise inadequate information will lead to administrative rejection of the manuscript.

    LAB accepts links to trusted online repositories, such as the Open Science Framework, Dataverse, a university repository, or other database on the Registry of Research Data Repositories.

    To ensure author anonymity during the review process, authors must ensure that the material shared in repositories does not reveal author identity. This can be achieved, for instance, through OSF's review only link option.


    John Benjamins journals are committed to maintaining the highest standards of publication ethics and to supporting ethical research practices. Please read this Ethics Statement.

    Rights and Permissions

    Authors must ensure that they have permission to use any third-party material in their contribution; the permission should include perpetual (not time-limited) world-wide distribution in print and electronic format.

    For information on authors' rights, please consult the rights information page.

    Open Access

    Information about Open Access options can be found on our OA Policy page.

    For information about permission to post a version of your article online or in an institutional repository ('green' open access or self-archiving), please consult the rights information page.

    This journal offers the possibility for accepted papers to be published Open Access through payment of an Article Publication Charge (APC) of EUR 1800 (excl. tax); more information can be found on the publisher's Open Access Policy page.

    Corresponding authors from institutions with which John Benjamins has a Read & Publish arrangement can publish Open Access without paying a fee; information on the institutions and which articles qualify, can be found on this page.


    John Benjamins Publishing Company has an agreement in place with Portico for the archiving of all its online journals and e-books.


    Main BIC Subject

    CFDM: Bilingualism & multilingualism

    Main BISAC Subject

    LAN009000: LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General