Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism

Main information
Holger Hopp | University of Braunschweig
ORCID logoTanja Kupisch | University of Konstanz
Associate Editors
ORCID logoJennifer Cabrelli | University of Illinois at Chicago
Matthew T. Carlson | Pennsylvania State University
ORCID logoVicky Chondrogianni | University of Edinburgh
ORCID logoIan Cunnings | University of Reading
ORCID logoCristina Flores | University of Minho
Jorge González Alonso | Nebrija University & UiT The Arctic University of Norway
Carrie N. Jackson | Pennsylvania State University
ORCID logoMargaret M. Kehoe | University of Zurich
ORCID logoGerrit Jan Kootstra | Radboud University
ORCID logoTania Leal | University of Arizona
ORCID logoNeal Snape | Gunma Prefectural Women’s University & Chuo University

LAB offers online submission. More details can be found below in the Submission section and in the guidelines.

LAB is an international peer-reviewed journal which provides an outlet for cutting-edge studies on linguistic aspects of bilingualism. LAB assumes a broad definition of bilingualism, including work on: adult L2 acquisition/processing, simultaneous child bilingualism, child L2 acquisition/processing, adult and child heritage language bilingualism, L1 attrition in L2/Ln environments, and adult/child L3/Ln acquisition/processing. LAB publishes original research with a linguistic focus on the understanding of bilingual language acquisition and processing and the effects bilingualism has on cognition and the brain. LAB does not publish papers predominantly dealing with educational, psychological or social topics.

LAB granted the first Junior Researcher LAB Award at EuroSLA 30 in Barcelona in 2021 to mark its 10-year anniversary. We are offering this award again at EuroSLA 33 in Montpellier in 2024. Please see the EuroSLA 24 website for more information."

ISSN: 1879-9264 | E-ISSN: 1879-9272
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Latest articles

14 May 2024

  • Language processing in bilingual children : Why it matters, what we know and what is still missing
    Chantal van Dijk , Jasmijn Bosch Sharon Unsworth
  • 13 May 2024

  • Facilitation for non-identical cognates in L3 : The role of cross-language similarity and stimulus list composition
    Agnieszka Lijewska Robertus de Louw
  • 29 April 2024

  • Evaluation of the Multilingual Naming Test (MINT) as a quick and practical proxy for language proficiency
    Hong Liu Adel Chaouch-Orozco
  • 18 April 2024

  • Bilingual children’s online processing of relative clauses : Evidence from heritage Greek
    Kalliopi Katsika , Maria Lialiou Shanley E. M. Allen
  • 16 April 2024

  • Intonation of polar questions in German-dominant heritage speakers of Italian
    Svenja Krieger Miriam Geiss
  • 8 April 2024

  • Sentence processing in bilingual children : Evidence from garden-path sentences
    George Pontikas , Ian Cunnings Theodoros Marinis
  • 22 March 2024

  • Prediction in bilingual sentence processing : Is it linked to production?
    Natalia Meir , Olga Parshina Irina A. Sekerina
  • 15 March 2024

  • Protracted development in the heritage lexicon : Resultative verb compounds in school-age heritage Chinese children and their input
    Mengyao Shang , Lucy Zhao , Virginia Yip Ziyin Mai
  • 1 March 2024

  • Individual variation in contact effects – stability, convergence, and divergence
    Marie Barking , Maria Mos Ad Backus
  • 8 February 2024

  • Pronoun interpretation in Italian : Exploring the effects of prosody
    Lydia White , Heather Goad , Guilherme Duarte Garcia , Natália Brambatti Guzzo , Liz Smeets Jiajia Su
  • 1 February 2024

  • Modelling multilingual ecologies beyond the L1-L2 Binary
    Enoch O. Aboh M. Carmen Parafita Couto | LAB 14:1 (2024) pp. 37–42
  • Feature-exponence mapping in language contact
    Artemis Alexiadou | LAB 14:1 (2024) pp. 43–47
  • Feature Reassembly is concerned with syntax, but its main goal is to account for the (second) language acquisition process
    Laura Domínguez Glyn Hicks | LAB 14:1 (2024) pp. 48–52
  • Where are features?
    Francesco Gardani | LAB 14:1 (2024) pp. 53–57
  • The role of the lexicon
    Becky Gonzalez | LAB 14:1 (2024) pp. 58–62
  • Number feature within generative grammar and its acquisition
    Pedro Guijarro-Fuentes Francesco Romano | LAB 14:1 (2024) pp. 63–68
  • A theory of Ln grammars : One size fits all?
    Ayşe Gürel | LAB 14:1 (2024) pp. 69–73
  • Transfer and learnability : Still a ‘primary’ consideration in L2 acquisition research
    Shunji Inagaki | LAB 14:1 (2024) pp. 74–78
  • An exoskeletal approach to grammatical gender : Initial predictions for bi/multilingual acquisition
    Ruth Kramer | LAB 14:1 (2024) pp. 79–84
  • The power paradox in bilingualism : Weighing what we gain and what we lose by espousing and eschewing hypotheses
    Tania Leal Elena Shimanskaya | LAB 14:1 (2024) pp. 85–89
  • From the child’s perspective
    Natascha Müller | LAB 14:1 (2024) pp. 90–95
  • On the compatibility of models with experiments
    Gregory Scontras | LAB 14:1 (2024) pp. 96–98
  • Multilingual grammars : The next frontier in comparative syntax
    Michelle Louise Sheehan | LAB 14:1 (2024) p. 99
  • Modeling multilingual grammars : Constraints and predictions
    Terje Lohndal Michael T. Putnam | LAB 14:1 (2024) pp. 104–114
  • The importance of features and exponents : Dissolving Feature Reassembly
    Terje Lohndal Michael T. Putnam | LAB 14:1 (2024) pp. 1–36
  • 22 December 2023

  • How syntactic gradience in L1 affects L3 acquisition : A longitudinal study
    Sylwiusz Żychliński , Anna Skałba , Magdalena Wrembel Kamil Kaźmierski
  • 12 December 2023

  • Heritage speaker pragmatics : The interplay of Russian and Hebrew in request formation
    Marina Avramenko Natalia Meir
  • 11 December 2023

  • Prediction during spoken language processing in monolingual and multilingual children : Investigating the role of literacy
    Jasmijn E. Bosch Francesca Foppolo
  • The acquisition of consonant clusters and word stress by early second language learners of German : Evidence for cross-linguistic influence?
    Angela Grimm Ulrike Domahs
  • 23 November 2023

  • Reviewers for Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism in 2022 and 2023
    LAB 13:6 (2023) pp. 873–875
  • 14 November 2023

  • Inter-generational attrition : Language transmission between long-term UK residents and heritage speakers of Italian on production of clitic pronouns
    Giuditta Smith , Roberta Spelorzi , Antonella Sorace Maria Garraffa
  • 20 October 2023

  • How cross–linguistic influence affects the use of duration in the production and perception of corrective and non–corrective focus types
    Farhat Jabeen Bettina Braun
  • Cognate facilitation in single- and dual-language contexts in bilingual children’s word processing
    Elly Koutamanis , Gerrit Jan Kootstra , Ton Dijkstra Sharon Unsworth
  • 17 October 2023

  • Verb placement in L3 French and L3 German : The role of language-internal factors in determining cross-linguistic influence from prior languages
    Guro Busterud , Anne Dahl , Dave Kush Kjersti Faldet Listhaug | LAB 13:5 (2023) pp. 693–716
  • Does your regional variety help you acquire an additional language? Spanish differential object marking in Northern and Southern Italians
    Sílvia Perpiñán Silvina Montrul | LAB 13:5 (2023) pp. 663–692
  • 10 October 2023

  • Lexical and morphosyntactic variation in Persian heritage language outcomes
    Khadij Gharibi , Fatih Bayram Gustavo Guajardo
  • Crosslinguistic influence in L3 acquisition : Evidence from artificial language learning
    Natalia Mitrofanova , Evelina Leivada Marit Westergaard | LAB 13:5 (2023) pp. 717–742
  • Shared syntax and cross-linguistic influence in bilingual children : Evidence from between- and within-language priming
    Sharon Unsworth
  • 22 September 2023

  • Structural similarity in third language acquisition
    Nadine Kolb , Natalia Mitrofanova Marit Westergaard | LAB 13:5 (2023) pp. 607–613
  • 14 September 2023

  • What looks native-like may not necessarily be native-like : Evidence from L2 Chinese covert objects
    Lilong Xu Boping Yuan
  • 28 August 2023

  • Heritage speakers’ processing of the Spanish subjunctive : A pupillometric study
    Priscila López-Beltrán Paola E. Dussias
  • 11 July 2023

  • Factors that moderate global similarity in initial L3 transfer : Intervocalic voiced stops in heritage Spanish/English bilinguals’ L3 Italian
    Jennifer Cabrelli , Carrie Pichan , Jessica Ward , Jason Rothman Ludovica Serratrice | LAB 13:5 (2023) pp. 638–662
  • 4 July 2023

  • Using a contrastive hierarchy to formalize structural similarity as I-proximity in L3 phonology
    John Archibald | LAB 13:5 (2023) pp. 614–637
  • 29 June 2023

  • Second language learners acquire reduced word forms just like they acquire full forms : From exposure
    Lisa Morano , Louis ten Bosch Mirjam Ernestus
  • 9 June 2023

  • Foreign accent in L1 (first language) : Case of Korean immigrants in North America
    Jeong-Im Han , Joo-Yeon Kim Kimiko Tsukada
  • 2 June 2023

  • Telicity judgments in L2 English by L1 Slovak speakers : The role of proficiency and exposure in telicity interpretations
    Zuzana Nadova María del Pilar García Mayo
  • 11 April 2023

  • Prosodic interaction in Cantonese-English bilingual children’s speech production
    Jonathan Him Nok Lee , Regine Yee King Lai , Stephen Matthews Virginia Yip
  • 28 March 2023

  • Proficient L2 readers do not have a risky reading strategy
    Leigh B. Fernandez , Agnesa Xheladini Shanley E. M. Allen | LAB 13:6 (2023) pp. 854–872
  • 13 March 2023

  • Mixing adjectives : A variable equivalence hypothesis for bilingual word order conflicts
    Rena Torres Cacoullos Jessica Vélez Avilés
  • 8 March 2023

  • Frequency effects and aspect morphology with state verbs in heritage Spanish
    Patrick D. Thane
  • 2 February 2023

  • Carefully considering the need, precision, and usefulness of classifying bilingual speakers in language shift contexts
    Luiz Amaral Liliana Sánchez | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 45–50
  • What linguistic innovation tells us
    Joshua Bousquette , Robert Klosinski Michael T. Putnam | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 51–55
  • A complex solution to an unsolvable problem?
    Roberta D’Alessandro | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 40–44
  • Challenges in doing research to support language revitalization aims
    Kendall A. King | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 56–59
  • Embracing linguistic variation in shift ecologies : The dominant language varies too
    Oksana Laleko Olesya Kisselev | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 60–64
  • Methodological challenges in working with Indigenous communities
    Anika Lloyd-Smith Tanja Kupisch | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 65–69
  • Cultural attitudes and linguistic processes in Karajá
    Marcus Maia Juliana Novo Gomes | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 70–75
  • Quantifying the language dynamics of bilingual communities
    Felicity Meakins | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 76–82
  • The Roots of Endangerment
    William O’Grady , Raina Heaton Sharon Bulalang | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 83–87
  • Insights from the perspective of language ecologies and new contact languages in Australia
    Carmel O’Shannessy Denise Angelo | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 88–92
  • Expanding bilingualism research through fieldwork in language shift ecologies
    Jorge Emilio Rosés Labrada | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 93–99
  • How unique is the linguistic situation of endangered language speakers?
    Aldona Sopata , Esther Rinke Cristina Flores | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 100–105
  • Variationist sociolinguistic methods with Indigenous language communities
    James N. Stanford | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 106–111
  • Emergent bilingualism in language awakening ecologies
    Allison Taylor-Adams | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 112–116
  • Language shift ecologies in the Americas
    Rosa Vallejos-Yopán Josefina Bittar | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 117–121
  • The dynamics of bilingualism in language shift ecologies
    Lenore A Grenoble Boris Osipov | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 1–39
  • Understanding language shift
    Lenore A Grenoble Boris Osipov | LAB 13:1 (2023) pp. 122–132
  • 23 January 2023

  • The LexTALE as a measure of L2 global proficiency : A cautionary tale based on a partial replication of Lemhöfer and Broersma (2012)
    Eloi Puig-Mayenco , Adel Chaouch-Orozco , Hong Liu Fernando Martín-Villena | LAB 13:3 (2023) pp. 299–314
  • 10 January 2023

  • Null and overt pronoun interpretation in L2 Mandarin resultative constructions
    Roumyana Slabakova , Lucy Zhao , Lewis Baker , James Turner Elina Tuniyan | LAB 14:2 (2024) pp. 178–217
  • IssuesOnline-first articles

    Volume 14 (2024)

    Volume 13 (2023)

    Volume 12 (2022)

    Volume 11 (2021)

    Volume 10 (2020)

    Volume 9 (2019)

    Volume 8 (2018)

    Volume 7 (2017)

    Volume 6 (2016)

    Volume 5 (2015)

    Volume 4 (2014)

    Volume 3 (2013)

    Volume 2 (2012)

    Volume 1 (2011)

    Editorial Assistant
    ORCID logoRebecca Carroll | University of Braunschweig
    Editorial Board
    ORCID logoEllen Bialystok | York University
    ORCID logoMirjam Broersma | Radboud University Nijmegen
    Emanuel Bylund | Stockholm University
    ORCID logoSusanne Elizabeth Carroll | University of Calgary
    Paola E. Dussias | Pennsylvania State University
    Alison Gabriele | University of Kansas
    ORCID logoMaría del Pilar García Mayo | Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU
    ORCID logoStefan Th. Gries | University of California at Santa Barbara
    Theres Grüter | University of Hawaii
    ORCID logoAyşe Gürel | Bogazici University
    Noriko Hoshino | Tsuda University
    ORCID logoTania Ionin | University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
    Edith Kaan | University of Florida at Gainesville
    Tihana Kraš | University of Rijeka
    Judith F. Kroll | University of California, Irvine
    Donna Lardiere | Georgetown University
    ORCID logo Li Wei | UCL IOE
    ORCID logoAnika Lloyd-Smith | University of Konstanz
    ORCID logoTerje Lohndal | NTNU Trondheim
    ORCID logoTheodoros Marinis | University of Konstanz
    ORCID logoDavid Miller | University of Illinois at Chicago
    ORCID logoMary Grantham O’Brien | University of Calgary
    William O’Grady | University of Hawaii
    Öner Özçelik | Indiana University
    Johanne Paradis | University of Alberta
    ORCID logoMaria Polinsky | University of Maryland
    ORCID logoMichael T. Putnam | Pennsylvania State University
    ORCID logoYulia Rodina | UiT the Arctic University of Norway
    ORCID logoEleonora Rossi | University of Florida
    Jason Rothman | UiT the Artic University of Norway & Universidad Nebrija
    ORCID logoMonika S. Schmid | University of York
    Bonnie D. Schwartz | University of Hawaii
    ORCID logoLudovica Serratrice | University of Reading
    ORCID logoRoumyana Slabakova | University of Southampton & University of Iowa
    Antonella Sorace | University of Edinburgh
    ORCID logoDebra Titone | McGill University
    ORCID logoIanthi Maria Tsimpli | University of Cambridge
    ORCID logoSharon Unsworth | Radboud University Nijmegen
    ORCID logoShigenori Wakabayashi | Chuo University
    ORCID logoMarit Westergaard | UiT the Arctic University of Norway
    ORCID logoLydia White | McGill University
    ORCID logoMagdalena Wrembel | Adam Mickiewicz University
    ORCID logoStefanie Wulff | University of Florida at Gainesville
    Subscription Info
    Current issue: 14:3, available as of March 2024
    Next issue: 14:4, expected August 2024

    General information about our electronic journals.

    Subscription rates

    All prices for print + online include postage/handling.

    Online-only Print + online
    Volume 15 (2025): 6 issues; ca. 900 pp. EUR 359.00 EUR 484.00
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    Individuals may apply for a special online-only subscription rate of EUR 55.00 per volume.
    Private subscriptions are for personal use only, and must be pre-paid and ordered directly from the publisher.

    Available back-volumes

    Online-only Print + online
    Complete backset
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    EUR 3,561.00 EUR 4,009.00
    Volume 13 (2023) 6 issues; 900 pp. EUR 339.00 EUR 400.00
    Volumes 10‒12 (2020‒2022) 6 issues; avg. 900 pp. EUR 339.00 per volume EUR 392.00 per volume
    Volume 9 (2019) 6 issues; 900 pp. EUR 322.00 EUR 373.00
    Volume 8 (2018) 6 issues; 900 pp. EUR 313.00 EUR 362.00
    Volume 7 (2017) 6 issues; 750 pp. EUR 276.00 EUR 319.00
    Volume 6 (2016) 6 issues; 750 pp. EUR 276.00 EUR 310.00
    Volume 5 (2015) 4 issues; 500 pp. EUR 221.00 EUR 241.00
    Volume 4 (2014) 4 issues; 500 pp. EUR 221.00 EUR 234.00
    Volume 3 (2013) 4 issues; 500 pp. EUR 196.00 EUR 202.00
    Volumes 1‒2 (2011‒2012) 4 issues; avg. 400 pp. EUR 190.00 per volume EUR 196.00 per volume

    Types of articles

    The default review policy for LAB is double blind review. All author names, affiliations and other references to the authors' identity must be removed from the manuscript.

    General research articles: 8,000-10,000 word articles (including tables, figures, and references) that present original empirical research pertinent to the study of cognitive-linguistic bilingualism.

    Birdseye article: 8,000-10,000 word articles that present authoritative overviews, narrative syntheses, or meta-analyses of a relevant topic.

    Squibs and Research Reports: These small articles should not exceed 5,000 words (including tables, figures, and references) and should present research on ongoing theoretical projects or subsets of data sets making significant contributions that are time sensitive. Accelerated review will be conducted.

    Epistemological articles: These articles on topics of general epistemological interest in the sub-disciplines that contribute research to the journal will be between 8,000 and 12,000 words and will be by invitation only.

    Special issue: Annually, one special issue will be published on a topic of current interest within the remit of the journal. Proposals for guest editing this issue should be sent to the editors and not exceed 3 pages. On top of information on how the SI relates to the remit of LAB, the proposal should outline the scope and the content of the SI, give a list of potential contributors, and provide information on how a Call for Papers will be disseminated.

    All manuscripts need to conform to the APA7 guidelines and to the LAB style sheet, or they will be returned to the authors. Please consult the style sheet and the guidelines section for more information.

    Manuscripts should be submitted through the journal’s online submission and manuscript tracking site.

    All inquiries should be directed towards the editors by e-mailing the journal at editorial at


    Submissions to LAB should consist of original work that has not been previously published and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. LAB will consider submissions that make novel theoretical or empirical contributions to one or more of the areas and domains within the remit of LAB, as laid out on the website. Consideration will only be given to papers conforming to the following requirements:

    1. Contributions must be in English and spelling should be either American English or British English and should be consistent throughout the paper. If not written by a native speaker, please have the paper proof-read prior to submission. There will be no further language proofing after acceptance.
    2. All submissions need to be accompanied by a cover letter. In the cover letter, authors need to:
      - Explain how the submission fits the remit of LAB.
      - Outline the novelty of the submission and its theoretical and/or empirical contribution.
      - Provide five highlights of the submission that outline the core findings of the submission. Highlights consist of 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point).
      - Address all points required in the section “Research standards and public availability of study data, and code”.
    3. All manuscripts need to conform to the APA7 guidelines and to the LAB style sheet, or they will be returned to the authors. Please consult the style sheet for more information.
    4. Manuscripts should be submitted through the journal’s online submission and manuscript tracking site.
    5. If you are unable to submit online, or for any other editorial correspondence, please contact the editors: editorial at

    Research standards and public availability of data and code

    LAB looks for high standards of research, including samples with enough statistical power to test the hypotheses, appropriate methods of statistical analysis, and public availability of data. In your cover letter provided during the submission process, please indicate how these standards have been achieved. At a minimum, you should provide information on your choice of statistical analysis and how you have made available public and free access to a repository with the data used for the analysis, and analysis code.

    In cases where authors do not own data or code, please state where and how readers can access these elements (anonymized during the review process). In cases where authors cannot share data due to participant privacy concerns or other issues, provide a clear explanation of why the data cannot be sufficiently anonymized for the purpose of responsible sharing, and/or why they are otherwise not shareable. All manuscripts submitted will be subject to an initial check to make sure that the above requirements are met. Missing, incomplete, or otherwise inadequate information will lead to administrative rejection of the manuscript.

    LAB accepts links to trusted online repositories, such as the Open Science Framework, Dataverse, a university repository, or other database on the Registry of Research Data Repositories.

    To ensure author anonymity during the review process, authors must ensure that the material shared in repositories does not reveal author identity. This can be achieved, for instance, through OSF's review only link option.


    John Benjamins journals are committed to maintaining the highest standards of publication ethics and to supporting ethical research practices.

    Authors and reviewers are kindly requested to read this Ethics Statement .

    Please also note the guidance on the use of (generative) AI in the statement.

    Rights and Permissions

    Authors must ensure that they have permission to use any third-party material in their contribution; the permission should include perpetual (not time-limited) world-wide distribution in print and electronic format.

    For information on authors' rights, please consult the rights information page.

    Open Access

    Articles accepted for this journal can be made Open Access through payment of an Article Publication Charge (APC) of EUR 1800 (excl. tax); more information can be found on the publisher's Open Access Policy page. There is no fee if the article is not to be made Open Access and thus available only for subscribers.

    Corresponding authors from institutions with which John Benjamins has a Read & Publish arrangement can publish Open Access without paying a fee; information on the institutions and which articles qualify, can be found on this page.

    For information about permission to post a version of your article online or in an institutional repository ('green' open access or self-archiving), please consult the rights information page.


    John Benjamins Publishing Company has an agreement in place with Portico for the archiving of all its online journals and e-books.


    Main BIC Subject

    CFDM: Bilingualism & multilingualism

    Main BISAC Subject

    LAN009000: LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General