Target | International Journal of Translation Studies

Target is a double-blind peer-reviewed journal aiming to promote the interdisciplinary scholarly study of translational phenomena from any part of the world and in any medium.
The journal presents research on various forms of translation and interpreting approached from historical, cultural, literary, sociological, linguistic, cognitive, philosophical, or other viewpoints that may be of relevance to the development of the discipline.
It aims to combine the highest scholarly standards with maximum transparency and reader-friendliness.
Target welcomes articles with a theoretical, empirical, or applied focus. It has a special preference for papers that somehow combine these dimensions and for those that position themselves at the cutting edge of the discipline. The purpose of the review section is to introduce and critically discuss the most important recent publications in the field and to reflect its evolution. The journal periodically zooms in on specific topics or areas by means of guest-edited special issues. It also welcomes shorter position papers to encourage open discussion in a “Forum” section of the journal.
To facilitate involvement of authors, referees, and readers from the whole world, the official language of publication of Target is English. To minimize the adverse effects of such a policy and honor the journal’s core topics of multilingualism and translation, Target runs an active and collaborative multilingual companion website, which welcomes translations into a wide range of languages of recent or older articles and reviews from the journal.

Target publishes its articles Online First.

See also: https://twitter.com/TargetJournal

ISSN 0924-1884 | E-ISSN 1569-9986
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/target
Sample issue: Target 29:1
Board
Editor
Haidee Kotze | Utrecht University
Associate Editors
Maureen Ehrensberger-Dow | Zurich University of Applied Sciences
Ting Guo | University of Exeter
Sameh Hanna | United Bible Societies
Luis Pérez-González | University of Agder
Founding Editors
Gideon Toury † | Tel Aviv University
José Lambert | CETRA, KU Leuven & UFC, Fortaleza
Review Editor
Maureen Ehrensberger-Dow | Zurich University of Applied Sciences
Multilingual Website Editor
Daria Dayter | Tampere University
Style Editor
Melanie Ann Law | North-West University
Editorial Board
Fabio Alves | The Federal University of Minas Gerais
Paul Bandia | Concordia University
Andrew Chesterman | University of Helsinki
Lieven D’hulst | KU Leuven/Kulak, Belgium
Dirk Delabastita | University of Namur
Stephen Doherty | University of New South Wales
Yves Gambier | University of Turku and Kaunas University of Technology (KTU)
Daniel Gile | Université Paris 3
Sandra L. Halverson | University of Agder
Rachel Lung | Lingnan University
Kirsten Malmkjær | University of Leicester
Kobus Marais | University of the Free State
Anna Matamala | Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona
Sharon O'Brien | Dublin City University
Koen Plevoets | Ghent University
Franz Pöchhacker | University of Vienna
Anthony Pym | University of Melbourne & Universitat Rovira i Virgili
Douglas Robinson | Hong Kong Baptist University
Heidi Salaets | KU Leuven
Christina Schäffner | Aston University
Jeroen Vandaele | Ghent Universit
Meifang Zhang | University of Macau
Subscription Info
Current issue: 34:1, available as of March 2022
Next issue: 34:2, expected May 2022, published online on 3 May 2022

General information about our electronic journals.

Subscription rates

All prices for print + online include postage/handling.

Online-only Print + online
Volume 34 (2022): 4 issues; ca. 640 pp. EUR 312.00 EUR 360.00

Individuals may apply for a special subscription rate of EUR 80.00 (online‑only: EUR 75.00)
Private subscriptions are for personal use only, and must be pre-paid and ordered directly from the publisher.

Available back-volumes

Online-only Print + online
Complete backset
(Vols. 1‒33; 1989‒2021)
75 issues;
13,400 pp.
EUR 7,808.00 EUR 8,281.00
Volumes 32‒33 (2020‒2021) 3 issues; avg. 500 pp. EUR 294.00 each EUR 342.00 each
Volume 31 (2019) 3 issues; 500 pp. EUR 288.00 EUR 335.00
Volume 30 (2018) 3 issues; 500 pp. EUR 280.00 EUR 325.00
Volume 29 (2017) 3 issues; 500 pp. EUR 272.00 EUR 316.00
Volume 28 (2016) 3 issues; 500 pp. EUR 272.00 EUR 307.00
Volume 27 (2015) 3 issues; 500 pp. EUR 272.00 EUR 298.00
Volume 26 (2014) 3 issues; 450 pp. EUR 251.00 EUR 267.00
Volume 25 (2013) 3 issues; 450 pp. EUR 251.00 EUR 259.00
Volumes 7‒24 (1995‒2012) 2 issues; avg. 400 pp. EUR 237.00 each EUR 244.00 each
Volumes 1‒6 (1989‒1994) 2 issues; avg. 300 pp. EUR 178.00 each EUR 183.00 each
IssuesOnline-first articles

Volume 34 (2022)

Volume 33 (2021)

Volume 32 (2020)

Volume 31 (2019)

Volume 30 (2018)

Volume 29 (2017)

Volume 28 (2016)

Volume 27 (2015)

Volume 26 (2014)

Volume 25 (2013)

Volume 24 (2012)

Volume 23 (2011)

Volume 22 (2010)

Volume 21 (2009)

Volume 20 (2008)

Volume 19 (2007)

Volume 18 (2006)

Volume 17 (2005)

Volume 16 (2004)

Volume 15 (2003)

Volume 14 (2002)

Volume 13 (2001)

Volume 12 (2000)

Volume 11 (1999)

Volume 10 (1998)

Volume 9 (1997)

Volume 8 (1996)

Volume 7 (1995)

Volume 6 (1994)

Volume 5 (1993)

Volume 4 (1992)

Volume 3 (1991)

Volume 2 (1990)

Volume 1 (1989)

Latest articles

11 April 2022

  • Source language classification of indirect translations
    Ilmari Ivaska Laura Ivaska
  • 4 April 2022

  • Anticipation and timing of turn-taking in dialogue interpreting : A quantitative study using mobile eye-tracking data
    Jelena Vranjes Bert Oben
  • 1 March 2022

  • Message from the editor
    TARGET 34:1 (2022) pp. 1–2
  • 27 January 2022

  • Translatophilia
    Tong King Lee
  • 10 January 2022

  • Time pressure in translation : Psychological and physiological measures
    Yu Weng , Binghan Zheng Yanping Dong
  • 7 December 2021

  • Paradoxes of translation : On the exceedance of the unspoken
    Angelo Vannini | TARGET 34:2 (2022) pp. 175–195
  • 26 November 2021

  • Appearances : Character description as a network of signification in Russian translations of Jane Eyre
    Eugenia Kelbert | TARGET 34:2 (2022) pp. 219–250
  • 23 November 2021

  • The impact of text presentation on translator performance
    Samuel Läubli , Patrick Simianer , Joern Wuebker , Geza Kovacs , Rico Sennrich Spence Green | TARGET 34:2 (2022) pp. 309–342
  • 16 November 2021

  • Prefaces in Soviet translations of Robert Burns’s poetry as ideological tools
    Natalia Kaloh Vid | TARGET 34:2 (2022) pp. 251–277
  • 4 October 2021

  • A methodology of translatological and sociological cooperation in data collection, analysis, and interpretation
    Jitka Zehnalová Helena Kubátová | TARGET 34:2 (2022) pp. 196–218
  • 8 September 2021

  • Can a corpus-driven lexical analysis of human and machine translation unveil discourse features that set them apart?
    Ana Frankenberg-Garcia | TARGET 34:2 (2022) pp. 278–308
  • 2 September 2021

  • Klaus Kaindl, Waltraud KolbDaniela Schlager (eds.). 2021. Literary Translator Studies
    Reviewed by Lin Chen
  • 30 July 2021

  • Legal and institutional translation : Functions, processes, competences
    Fernando Prieto Ramos | TARGET 33:2 (2021) pp. 175–182
  • 13 July 2021

  • Theorising translation as a process of ‘cultural repatriation’ : A promising merger of narrative theory and Bourdieu’s theory of cultural transfer
    Kalliopi Pasmatzi | TARGET 34:1 (2022) pp. 37–66
  • 5 July 2021

  • “Good translating is very hard work” : Karl Popper, translation theorist in spite of himself
    Spencer Hawkins | TARGET 34:1 (2022) pp. 3–36
  • 4 June 2021

  • A case study of unquiet translators : Relating legal translators’ subservient and subversive habitus to socialization
    Esther Monzó-Nebot | TARGET 33:2 (2021) pp. 282–307
  • 25 May 2021

  • The mediated voice : A discursive study of interpreter-mediated closing statements in Chinese criminal trials
    Biyu (Jade) Du | TARGET 33:2 (2021) pp. 341–367
  • Translators’ and revisers’ competences in legal translation : Revision foci in prototypical scenarios
    Silvia Parra-Galiano | TARGET 33:2 (2021) pp. 228–253
  • On norms and taboo : An analysis of professional subtitling through data triangulation
    Catarina Xavier | TARGET 34:1 (2022) pp. 67–97
  • Laura Fólica, Diana Roig-SanzStefania Caristia (eds). 2020. Literary Translation in Periodicals: Methodological Challenges for a Transnational Approach
    Reviewed by Dirk Delabastita | TARGET 34:2 (2022) pp. 343–347
  • 7 May 2021

  • Lieven D’hulstKaisa Koskinen (eds.). 2020. Translating in Town: Local Translation Policies During the European 19th Century
    Reviewed by Yuxia Gao Riccardo Moratto | TARGET 34:1 (2022) pp. 168–173
  • 20 April 2021

  • An intermodal approach to cohesion in constrained and unconstrained language
    Marta Kajzer-Wietrzny | TARGET 34:1 (2022) pp. 130–162
  • 9 April 2021

  • Simple and complex cognitive modelling in oblique translation strategies in a corpus of English–Spanish drama film titles
    María Sandra Peña-Cervel Carla Ovejas-Ramírez | TARGET 34:1 (2022) p. 98
  • 8 April 2021

  • Łucja Biel, Jan Engberg, M. Rosario Martín RuanoVilelmini Sosoni (eds.). 2019. Research Methods in Legal Translation and Interpreting: Crossing Methodological Boundaries
    Reviewed by Catherine Way | TARGET 33:2 (2021) pp. 374–379
  • 6 April 2021

  • Legal meta-comments in the think-aloud protocols of legal translators and lawyers : A qualitative analysis
    Cornelia Griebel | TARGET 33:2 (2021) pp. 183–206
  • 18 March 2021

  • Legal translation into a non-mother tongue : The role of L1 revision
    Tomáš Duběda | TARGET 33:2 (2021) pp. 207–227
  • 4 March 2021

  • Ingrid SimonnæsMarita Kristiansen (eds.). 2019. Legal Translation: Current Issues and Challenges in Research, Methods and Applications
    Reviewed by Jan Engberg | TARGET 33:2 (2021) pp. 368–373
  • 2 March 2021

  • Examining institutional translation through a legal lens : A comparative analysis of multilingual text production at international organizations
    Fernando Prieto Ramos Diego Guzmán | TARGET 33:2 (2021) pp. 254–281
  • 16 February 2021

  • Estimating literary translators’ earnings penalty : A cultural economics approach to translator studies
    Leila Mirsafian , Hossein Pirnajmuddin Dariush Nejadansari | TARGET 33:3 (2021) pp. 436–463
  • 12 February 2021

  • The translation landscape of Thessaloniki’s Kastra neighbourhood : Qualitative findings from a cross-disciplinary approach to translated texts in public spaces
    Christopher Lees | TARGET 33:3 (2021) pp. 464–493
  • The retranslation of Chinese political texts : Ideology, norms, and evolution
    Feng Pan Tao Li | TARGET 33:3 (2021) pp. 381–409
  • 5 February 2021

  • Intercultural translation of vague legal language : The right to silence in the Northern Territory of Australia
    Alex Bowen | TARGET 33:2 (2021) pp. 308–340
  • 28 January 2021

  • Between the translator and norms : A habitus-mediated case study of a Chinese translation of Looking Backward: 2000–1887
    Huarui Guo | TARGET 33:3 (2021) pp. 410–435
  • 21 January 2021

  • Leah GerberLintao Qi (eds.). 2021. A Century of Chinese Literature in Translation (1919–2019): English Publication and Reception
    Reviewed by Quangong Feng | TARGET 34:1 (2022) pp. 163–167
  • 15 January 2021

  • Audiovisual translation as orchestration of multimodal synergies : Expendability of interjections in intralingual film subtitling
    Yi Jing | TARGET 33:1 (2021) pp. 26–46
  • 17 December 2020

  • Exploring the impact of word order asymmetry on cognitive load during Chinese–English sight translation : Evidence from eye-movement data
    Xingcheng Ma , Dechao Li Yu-Yin Hsu | TARGET 33:1 (2021) pp. 103–131
  • 26 November 2020

  • Automatic speech recognition in the booth : Assessment of system performance, interpreters’ performances and interactions in the context of numbers
    Bart Defrancq Claudio Fantinuoli | TARGET 33:1 (2021) p. 73
  • 17 November 2020

  • Lawrence Venuti. 2019. Contra Instrumentalism: A Translation Polemic
    Reviewed by Gary Massey | TARGET 33:3 (2021) pp. 500–504
  • Guidelines

    GENERAL

    In principle Target observes text conventions outlined in the latest edition of The Chicago Manual of Style (hereafter CMS). For all editorial problems not specifically addressed below, please refer to CMS.

    SUBMISSION

    Authors wishing to submit articles for publication in Target are requested to do so through the journal’s online submission and manuscript tracking site. Please consult the Short Guide to EM for Authors before you submit your paper.

    As all manuscripts are double-blind peer-reviewed, please ensure that all identifying markings in the text and in the document properties are removed from one of the electronic versions. If works cited in the manuscript are identifiable as your own, please mark them as NN in the citation and in the list of references.

    FORMAT

    Articles are typically between 7,000 and 9,000 words (footnotes, references and appendices included).

    Please use Word. If you use any special characters, tables or figures, please supply a PDF file as well.

    Please number all pages consecutively.

    Please use font size Times New Roman 12 point and double line spacing throughout, quotations, notes and references included. Please define margins so as to obtain a text area of 13 x 22 cm (or 5 x 8.6 inches).

    Begin the References on a new page.

    Notes should be kept to a minimum. Note indicators in the text should appear at the end of sentences or phrases, and follow the respective punctuation marks.

    Contributions should be consistent in their use of language and spelling; for instance, articles should be in British English or American English throughout.

    Please use a reader-friendly style! Manuscripts submitted to Target must be written in clear, concise and grammatical English. If not written by a native speaker, it is advisable to have the paper checked by a native speaker.

    Illustrations and tables

    Tables and figures should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals, provided with appropriate captions, and be referred to in the main text in this manner: “in Table 2…” (and never like this: “in the following table…”). Figure captions should be placed below the figure, while table captions should be placed above the relevant table. Please indicate the preferred position of the table or figure in the text in this way:

    ----------------------------

    INSERT FIG 1 HERE

    ---------------------------

    Quotations

    Editorial interventions in quotations (indications such as sic, or interpolated comments) need to be signaled by the use of square brackets. Ellipsis points used to indicate a deleted passage in a quotation, too, need to be bracketed (CMS par. 13.56).

    Quotations in the main text should be given in double quotation marks with the appropriate reference to the source. Following CMS (par. 6.9–11), periods and commas should precede closing quotation marks. If the quotation does not include closing punctuation and is followed by the in-text reference, then the closing punctuation follows the in-text reference (CMS par. 15.25).

    Quotations longer than 3 lines should be indented, without quotation marks and with the appropriate reference to the source. They should be set off from the main text by a line of space above and below.

    Lists

    Lists should not be indented. If numbered, please number as follows:

    1. ..................... or a. .......................

    2. ..................... or b. .......................

    Lists that run on with the main text can be numbered in parentheses: (1).............., (2)............., etc.

    Examples and glosses

    Examples should be numbered with Arabic numerals in parentheses: (1), (2), (3), etc.

    Examples in languages other than English should be in italics with an approximate translation. Between the original and the translation, glosses should be added. This interlinear gloss gets no punctuation and no highlighting.

    Fonts

    Use italics for foreign language, highlighting and emphasis. Bold should be used only for highlighting within italics and for headings. Please refrain from the use of small caps, FULL CAPS (except for focal stress and acronyms) and underlining (except for highlighting within examples, as an alternative to boldface). For terms or expressions (e.g., ‘context of situation’), please use single quotes. For glosses of citation forms use double quotes.

    Sections and headings

    Articles should be reasonably divided into sections and, if necessary, into sub-sections; these have to be numbered, beginning with 1 (not 0). Numbering should be in Arabic numerals; no italics; no dot after the last number, except for level-one headings.

    Do not go beyond three levels. Please mark the headings as follows: level one (bold), level two (roman), level three (italic).

    Inclusive numbers

    Target prefers the foolproof system of giving the full form of numbers everywhere (CMS, par. 9.61). In other words, inclusive page numbers and years should not be abbreviated: e.g., 210-212 (rather than 210-2), the war of 1914-1918 (rather than 1914-18). This also applies to references.

    Funding information

    Funding information should be provided if funding was received through a grant for the research that is discussed in the article, including funder name and grant number, in a separate section called "Funding information" before (an Acknowledgment section and) the References.

    Acknowledgments

    Acknowledgments (other than funding information, see above) should be added in a separate, unnumbered section entitled "Acknowledgments", placed before the References.

    Appendices

    Appendices should follow the References section.

    REFERENCES

    It is essential that the references be formatted to the specifications given in these guidelines.

    References in the text:

    Target uses the Author–Date reference system. A comma is used between the date and the page number. References should be as precise as possible, giving page references where necessary; for example (Clahsen 1991, 252) or: as in Brown et al. (1991, 252).

    All references in the text should appear in the references section.

    For repeated consecutive references to the same source, and where no confusion is possible, it suffices to provide the page reference between brackets; for example (252).

    References section:

    References should be listed first alphabetically and then chronologically, in ascending order.

    Subdivisions (e.g., Primary sources; Other references) may exceptionally be envisaged in certain cases, but in principle a single list is preferred.

    The section should include all (and only!) references that are actually mentioned in the text.

    A note on capitalization in titles:

    For titles in English, Target uses headline-style capitalization (CMS, par. 8.157). In titles and subtitles, capitalize the first and last words, and all other major words (nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, some conjunctions). Do not capitalize articles; prepositions (unless used adverbially or adjectivally, or as part of a Latin expression used adverbially or adjectivally); the conjunctions ‘and,’ ‘but,’ ‘for,’ ‘or’ and ‘nor’; ‘to’ as part of an infinitive; ‘as’ in any grammatical function; parts of proper names that would be lower case in normal text. For more details and examples, consult CMS.

    For titles in any other languages, as well as for English translations of titles given in square brackets, Target follows CMS in using sentence-style capitalization: capitalization as in normal prose, i.e., the first word in the title, the subtitle, and any proper names or other words normally given initial capitals in the language in question.

    When giving publisher place information, give only the first place name if two or more are available, e.g., Amsterdam: John Benjamins (CMS par. 14.35).

    EXAMPLES OF REFERENCES

    Monograph

    Butler, Judith. 2006. Gender Trouble. 3rd ed. London: Routledge.

    O’Hagan, Minako, and Carmen Mangiron. 2013. Game Localization: Translating for the Global Digital Entertainment Industry. Benjamins Translation Library 106. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

    Edited volume

    Spear, Norman E., and Ralph R. Miller, eds. 1981. Information Processing in Animals: Memory Mechanisms. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Scholarly edition

    James, Henry. 1962-1964. The Complete Tales of Henry James. Edited by Leon Edel. 12 vols. London: Rupert Hart-Davis.

    Special issue of journal

    Pym, Anthony, ed. 2000. The Return to Ethics. Special issue of The Translator 7 (2).

    Translated work

    Mitchell, David. 2010. De niet verhoorde gebeden van Jacob de Zoet [orig. The Thousand Autumns of Jacob de Zoet]. Translated by Harm Damsma and Niek Miedema. S.l.: Nieuw Amsterdam Uitgevers.

    Shakespeare, William. 1947. Henri V. Translated by M.J. Lavelle. Collection bilingue des Classiques étrangers. Paris: Montaigne.

    Article in book

    Adams, Clare A., and Anthony Dickinson. 1981. “Actions and Habits: Variation in Associative Representation during Instrumental Learning.” In Information Processing in Animals: Memory Mechanisms, edited by Norman E. Spear and Ralph R. Miller, 143–186. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Article in journal

    Bassnett, Susan. 2012. “Translation Studies at Cross-roads.” In The Known Unknowns of Translation Studies, edited by Elke Brems, Reine Meylaerts, and Luc van Doorslaer, special issue of Target 24 (1): 15–25.

    Claes, Jeroen, and Luis A. Ortiz López. 2011. “Restricciones pragmáticas y sociales en la expresión de futuridad en el español de Puerto Rico [Pragmatic and social restrictions in the expression of the future in Puerto Rican Spanish].” Spanish in Context 8: 50–72.

    Rayson, Paul, Geoffrey N. Leech, and Mary Hodges. 1997. “Social Differentiation in the Use of English Vocabulary: Some Analyses of the Conversational Component of the British National Corpus.” International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 2 (1): 120–132.

    Article in online journal

    Taplin, Oliver. 2001. “The Experience of an Academic in the Rehearsal Room.” Didaskalia 5 (1). http://www.didaskalia.net/issues/vol5no1/taplin.html#FN1Rtn.

    Internet site

    European Observatory for Plurilingualism. Accessed April 22, 2013. http://www.observatoireplurilinguisme.eu/index.php?option=com_frontpage&Itemid=1

    Various unpublished sources

    Marinetti, Cristina. 2007. Beyond the Playtext: The Relationship between Text and Performance in the Translation of Il servitore di due padroni. PhD diss. University of Warwick.

    Quinn, Gavin. 2009. Personal interview. August 5, 2009.

    For other cases (and for further guidelines), please consult CMS.

    Special Issue Proposals

    Special issues

    Proposals for special issues will be considered once a year. All proposals should be submitted by the cut-off date of May 1st three years prior to the year in which guest editors wish to publish their issue. The first available slot for a special issue is in Volume 37 (2025) (deadline for proposals 1st May 2022). Submissions should comprise full contact details, a title, and a Call for Papers and/or a Table of Contents, as well as a production schedule. Please send proposals directly via email to Haidee Kotze at h.kotze at uu.nl, who will communicate the editorial decision by June 1st.

    Special issues currently under preparation

    Vol. 34 (2022): Hanna Pięta, Laura Ivaska & Yves Gambier (eds), What Can Indirect Translation Research Do for Translation Studies? 
    Vol. 35 (2023): Jinsil Choi, Jonathan Evans & Kyung Hye Kim (eds), Audiovisual Translation in the Age of Streaming
    Vol. 36 (2024): Spencer Hawkins and Lavinia Heller (eds), The (Self)translation of Knowledge: Scholarship in Migration

    For previously published special issues see Issues.

    Submission

    Authors wishing to submit articles for publication in Target are requested to do so through the journal’s online submission and manuscript tracking site . Please consult the guidelines and the Short Guide to EM for Authors before you submit your paper. If you are not able to submit online, or for any other editorial correspondence, please contact the editors by e-mail: h.kotze at uu.nl

    Correspondence concerning the book reviews section should be addressed directly to the Review Editor: Maureen Ehrensberger-Dow – ehre at zhaw.ch

    Proposals for translations for the journal’s multilingual website should be sent directly to the Multilingual Website Editor: Daria Dayter – daria.dayter at unibas.ch

    Ethics

    John Benjamins journals are committed to maintaining the highest standards of publication ethics and to supporting ethical research practices. Please read this Ethics Statement.

    Rights and Permissions

    Authors must ensure that they have permission to use any third-party material in their contribution; the permission should include perpetual (not time-limited) world-wide distribution in print and electronic format.

    For information on authors' rights, please consult the rights information page.

    Open Access

    For information about permission to post a version of your article online or in an institutional repository ('green' open access or self-archiving), please consult the rights information page.

    This journal offers the possibility for accepted papers to be published Open Access through payment of an Article Publication Charge (APC) of EUR 1800 (excl. tax); more information can be found on the publisher's Open Access Policy page.

    Corresponding authors from institutions with which John Benjamins has a Read & Publish arrangement can publish Open Access without paying a fee; information on the institutions and which articles qualify, can be found on this page.

    Archiving

    John Benjamins Publishing Company has an agreement in place with Portico for the archiving of all its online journals and e-books.

    Subjects

    Translation & Interpreting Studies

    Translation Studies

    Main BIC Subject

    CFP: Translation & interpretation

    Main BISAC Subject

    LAN009000: LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General